23:3 An Ammonite or Moabite 1 may not enter the assembly of the Lord; to the tenth generation none of their descendants shall ever 2 do so, 3
24:14 You must not oppress a lowly and poor servant, whether one from among your fellow Israelites 4 or from the resident foreigners who are living in your land and villages. 5 24:15 You must pay his wage that very day before the sun sets, for he is poor and his life depends on it. Otherwise he will cry out to the Lord against you, and you will be guilty of sin.
24:16 Fathers must not be put to death for what their children 6 do, nor children for what their fathers do; each must be put to death for his own sin.
24:17 You must not pervert justice due a resident foreigner or an orphan, or take a widow’s garment as security for a loan. 24:18 Remember that you were slaves in Egypt and that the Lord your God redeemed you from there; therefore I am commanding you to do all this. 24:19 Whenever you reap your harvest in your field and leave some unraked grain there, 7 you must not return to get it; it should go to the resident foreigner, orphan, and widow so that the Lord your God may bless all the work you do. 8 24:20 When you beat your olive tree you must not repeat the procedure; 9 the remaining olives belong to the resident foreigner, orphan, and widow. 24:21 When you gather the grapes of your vineyard you must not do so a second time; 10 they should go to the resident foreigner, orphan, and widow.
25:5 If brothers live together and one of them dies without having a son, the dead man’s wife must not remarry someone outside the family. Instead, her late husband’s brother must go to her, marry her, 11 and perform the duty of a brother-in-law. 12
26:12 When you finish tithing all 15 your income in the third year (the year of tithing), you must give it to the Levites, the resident foreigners, the orphans, and the widows 16 so that they may eat to their satisfaction in your villages. 17 26:13 Then you shall say before the Lord your God, “I have removed the sacred offering 18 from my house and given it to the Levites, the resident foreigners, the orphans, and the widows just as you have commanded me. 19 I have not violated or forgotten your commandments.
1 sn An Ammonite or Moabite. These descendants of Lot by his two daughters (cf. Gen 19:30-38) were thereby the products of incest and therefore excluded from the worshiping community. However, these two nations also failed to show proper hospitality to Israel on their way to Canaan (v. 4).
2 tn The Hebrew term translated “ever” (עַד־עוֹלָם, ’ad-’olam) suggests that “tenth generation” (vv. 2, 3) also means “forever.” However, in the OT sense “forever” means not “for eternity” but for an indeterminate future time. See A. Tomasino, NIDOTTE 3:346.
3 tn Heb “enter the assembly of the
4 tn Heb “your brothers,” but not limited only to actual siblings; cf. NASB “your (+ own NAB) countrymen.”
5 tn Heb “who are in your land in your gates.” The word “living” is supplied in the translation for stylistic reasons.
6 tn Heb “sons” (so NASB; twice in this verse). Many English versions, including the KJV, read “children” here.
7 tn Heb “in the field.”
8 tn Heb “of your hands.” This law was later applied in the story of Ruth who, as a poor widow, was allowed by generous Boaz to glean in his fields (Ruth 2:1-13).
9 tn Heb “knock down after you.”
10 tn Heb “glean after you.”
11 tn Heb “take her as wife”; NRSV “taking her in marriage.”
12 sn This is the so-called “levirate” custom (from the Latin term levir, “brother-in-law”), an ancient provision whereby a man who died without male descendants to carry on his name could have a son by proxy, that is, through a surviving brother who would marry his widow and whose first son would then be attributed to the brother who had died. This is the only reference to this practice in an OT legal text but it is illustrated in the story of Judah and his sons (Gen 38) and possibly in the account of Ruth and Boaz (Ruth 2:8; 3:12; 4:6).
13 tn Heb “the
14 tn Or “household” (so NASB, NIV, NLT); Heb “house” (so KJV, NRSV).
15 tn Heb includes “the tithes of.” This has not been included in the translation to avoid redundancy.
16 tn The terms “Levite, resident foreigner, orphan, and widow” are collective singulars in the Hebrew text (also in v. 13).
17 tn Heb “gates.”
18 tn Heb “the sacred thing.” The term הַקֹּדֶשׁ (haqqodesh) likely refers to an offering normally set apart for the
19 tn Heb “according to all your commandment that you commanded me.” This has been simplified in the translation for stylistic reasons.