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Deuteronomy 1:1--2:37

Context
The Covenant Setting

1:1 This is what 1  Moses said to the assembly of Israel 2  in the Transjordanian 3  wastelands, the arid country opposite 4  Suph, 5  between 6  Paran 7  and Tophel, 8  Laban, 9  Hazeroth, 10  and Di Zahab 11  1:2 Now it is ordinarily an eleven-day journey 12  from Horeb 13  to Kadesh Barnea 14  by way of Mount Seir. 15  1:3 However, it was not until 16  the first day of the eleventh month 17  of the fortieth year 18  that Moses addressed the Israelites just as 19  the Lord had instructed him to do. 1:4 This took place after the defeat 20  of King Sihon 21  of the Amorites, whose capital was 22  in Heshbon, 23  and King Og of Bashan, whose capital was 24  in Ashtaroth, 25  specifically in Edrei. 26  1:5 So it was in the Transjordan, in Moab, that Moses began to deliver these words: 27 

Events at Horeb

1:6 The Lord our God spoke to us at Horeb and said, “You have stayed 28  in the area of this mountain long enough. 1:7 Get up now, 29  resume your journey, heading for 30  the Amorite hill country, to all its areas 31  including the arid country, 32  the highlands, the Shephelah, 33  the Negev, 34  and the coastal plain – all of Canaan and Lebanon as far as the Great River, that is, the Euphrates. 1:8 Look! I have already given the land to you. 35  Go, occupy the territory that I, 36  the Lord, promised 37  to give to your ancestors 38  Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, and to their descendants.” 39  1:9 I also said to you at that time, “I am no longer able to sustain you by myself. 1:10 The Lord your God has increased your population 40  to the point that you are now as numerous as the very stars of the sky. 41  1:11 Indeed, may the Lord, the God of your ancestors, make you a thousand times more numerous than you are now, blessing you 42  just as he said he would! 1:12 But how can I alone bear up under the burden of your hardship and strife? 1:13 Select wise and practical 43  men, those known among your tribes, whom I may appoint as your leaders.” 1:14 You replied to me that what I had said to you was good. 1:15 So I chose 44  as your tribal leaders wise and well-known men, placing them over you as administrators of groups of thousands, hundreds, fifties, and tens, and also as other tribal officials. 1:16 I furthermore admonished your judges at that time that they 45  should pay attention to issues among your fellow citizens 46  and judge fairly, 47  whether between one citizen and another 48  or a citizen and a resident foreigner. 49  1:17 They 50  must not discriminate in judgment, but hear the lowly 51  and the great alike. Nor should they be intimidated by human beings, for judgment belongs to God. If the matter being adjudicated is too difficult for them, they should bring it before me for a hearing.

Instructions at Kadesh Barnea

1:18 So I instructed you at that time regarding everything you should do. 1:19 Then we left Horeb and passed through all that immense, forbidding wilderness that you saw on the way to the Amorite hill country as the Lord our God had commanded us to do, finally arriving at Kadesh Barnea. 1:20 Then I said to you, “You have come to the Amorite hill country which the Lord our God is about to give 52  us. 1:21 Look, he 53  has placed the land in front of you! 54  Go up, take possession of it, just as the Lord, the God of your ancestors, said to do. Do not be afraid or discouraged!” 1:22 So all of you approached me and said, “Let’s send some men ahead of us to scout out the land and bring us back word as to how we should attack it and what the cities are like there.” 1:23 I thought this was a good idea, 55  so I sent 56  twelve men from among you, one from each tribe. 1:24 They left and went up to the hill country, coming to the Eshcol Valley, 57  which they scouted out. 1:25 Then they took 58  some of the produce of the land and carried it back down to us. They also brought a report to us, saying, “The land that the Lord our God is about to give us is good.”

Disobedience at Kadesh Barnea

1:26 You were not willing to go up, however, but instead rebelled against the Lord your God. 59  1:27 You complained among yourselves privately 60  and said, “Because the Lord hates us he brought us from Egypt to deliver us over to the Amorites so they could destroy us! 1:28 What is going to happen to us? Our brothers have drained away our courage 61  by describing people who are more numerous 62  and taller than we are, and great cities whose defenses appear to be as high as heaven 63  itself! Moreover, they said they saw 64  Anakites 65  there.” 1:29 So I responded to you, “Do not be terrified 66  of them! 1:30 The Lord your God is about to go 67  ahead of you; he will fight for you, just as you saw him do in Egypt 68  1:31 and in the desert, where you saw him 69  carrying you along like a man carries his son. This he did everywhere you went until you came to this very place.” 1:32 However, through all this you did not have confidence in the Lord your God, 1:33 the one who was constantly going before you to find places for you to set up camp. He appeared by fire at night and cloud by day, to show you the way you ought to go.

Judgment at Kadesh Barnea

1:34 When the Lord heard you, he became angry and made this vow: 70  1:35 “Not a single person 71  of this evil generation will see the good land that I promised to give to your ancestors! 1:36 The exception is Caleb son of Jephunneh; 72  he will see it and I will give him and his descendants the territory on which he has walked, because he has wholeheartedly followed me.” 73  1:37 As for me, the Lord was also angry with me on your account. He said, “You also will not be able to go there. 1:38 However, Joshua son of Nun, your assistant, 74  will go. Encourage him, because he will enable Israel to inherit the land. 75  1:39 Also, your infants, who you thought would die on the way, 76  and your children, who as yet do not know good from bad, 77  will go there; I will give them the land and they will possess it. 1:40 But as for you, 78  turn back and head for the desert by the way to the Red Sea.” 79 

Unsuccessful Conquest of Canaan

1:41 Then you responded to me and admitted, “We have sinned against the Lord. We will now go up and fight as the Lord our God has told us to do.” So you each put on your battle gear and prepared to go up to the hill country. 1:42 But the Lord told me: “Tell them this: ‘Do not go up and fight, because I will not be with you and you will be defeated by your enemies.’” 1:43 I spoke to you, but you did not listen. Instead you rebelled against the Lord 80  and recklessly went up to the hill country. 1:44 The Amorite inhabitants of that area 81  confronted 82  you and chased you like a swarm of bees, striking you down from Seir as far as Hormah. 83  1:45 Then you came back and wept before the Lord, but he 84  paid no attention to you whatsoever. 85  1:46 Therefore, you remained at Kadesh for a long time – indeed, for the full time. 86 

The Journey from Kadesh Barnea to Moab

2:1 Then we turned and set out toward the desert land on the way to the Red Sea 87  just as the Lord told me to do, detouring around Mount Seir for a long time. 2:2 At this point the Lord said to me, 2:3 “You have circled around this mountain long enough; now turn north. 2:4 Instruct 88  these people as follows: ‘You are about to cross the border of your relatives 89  the descendants of Esau, 90  who inhabit Seir. They will be afraid of you, so watch yourselves carefully. 2:5 Do not be hostile toward them, because I am not giving you any of their land, not even a footprint, for I have given Mount Seir 91  as an inheritance for Esau. 2:6 You may purchase 92  food to eat and water to drink from them. 2:7 All along the way I, the Lord your God, 93  have blessed your every effort. 94  I have 95  been attentive to 96  your travels through this great wasteland. These forty years I have 97  been with you; you have lacked for nothing.’”

2:8 So we turned away from our relatives 98  the descendants of Esau, the inhabitants of Seir, turning from the desert route, 99  from Elat 100  and Ezion Geber, 101  and traveling the way of the Moab wastelands. 2:9 Then the Lord said to me, “Do not harass Moab and provoke them to war, for I will not give you any of their land as your territory. This is because I have given Ar 102  to the descendants of Lot 103  as their possession. 2:10 (The Emites 104  used to live there, a people as powerful, numerous, and tall as the Anakites. 2:11 These people, as well as the Anakites, are also considered Rephaites; 105  the Moabites call them Emites. 2:12 Previously the Horites 106  lived in Seir but the descendants of Esau dispossessed and destroyed them and settled in their place, just as Israel did to the land it came to possess, the land the Lord gave them.) 107  2:13 Now, get up and cross the Wadi Zered.” 108  So we did so. 109  2:14 Now the length of time it took for us to go from Kadesh Barnea to the crossing of Wadi Zered was thirty-eight years, time for all the military men of that generation to die, just as the Lord had vowed to them. 2:15 Indeed, it was the very hand of the Lord that eliminated them from within 110  the camp until they were all gone.

Instructions Concerning Ammon

2:16 So it was that after all the military men had been eliminated from the community, 111  2:17 the Lord said to me, 2:18 “Today you are going to cross the border of Moab, that is, of Ar. 112  2:19 But when you come close to the Ammonites, do not harass or provoke them because I am not giving you any of the Ammonites’ land as your possession; I have already given it to Lot’s descendants 113  as their possession.

2:20 (That also is considered to be a land of the Rephaites. 114  The Rephaites lived there originally; the Ammonites call them Zamzummites. 115  2:21 They are a people as powerful, numerous, and tall as the Anakites. But the Lord destroyed the Rephaites 116  in advance of the Ammonites, 117  so they dispossessed them and settled down in their place. 2:22 This is exactly what he did for the descendants of Esau who lived in Seir when he destroyed the Horites before them so that they could dispossess them and settle in their area to this very day. 2:23 As for the Avvites 118  who lived in settlements as far west as Gaza, Caphtorites 119  who came from Crete 120  destroyed them and settled down in their place.)

2:24 Get up, make your way across Wadi Arnon. Look! I have already delivered over to you Sihon the Amorite, king of Heshbon, 121  and his land. Go ahead! Take it! Engage him in war! 2:25 This very day I will begin to fill all the people of the earth 122  with dread and to terrify them when they hear about you. They will shiver and shake in anticipation of your approach.” 123 

Defeat of Sihon, King of Heshbon

2:26 Then I sent messengers from the Kedemoth 124  Desert to King Sihon of Heshbon with an offer of peace: 2:27 “Let me pass through your land; I will keep strictly to the roadway. 125  I will not turn aside to the right or the left. 2:28 Sell me food for cash 126  so that I can eat and sell me water to drink. 127  Just allow me to go through on foot, 2:29 just as the descendants of Esau who live at Seir and the Moabites who live in Ar did for me, until I cross the Jordan to the land the Lord our God is giving us.” 2:30 But King Sihon of Heshbon was unwilling to allow us to pass near him because the Lord our 128  God had made him obstinate 129  and stubborn 130  so that he might deliver him over to you 131  this very day. 2:31 The Lord said to me, “Look! I have already begun to give over Sihon and his land to you. Start right now to take his land as your possession.” 2:32 When Sihon and all his troops 132  emerged to encounter us in battle at Jahaz, 133  2:33 the Lord our God delivered him over to us and we struck him down, along with his sons 134  and everyone else. 135  2:34 At that time we seized all his cities and put every one of them 136  under divine judgment, 137  including even the women and children; we left no survivors. 2:35 We kept only the livestock and plunder from the cities for ourselves. 2:36 From Aroer, 138  which is at the edge of Wadi Arnon (it is the city in the wadi), 139  all the way to Gilead there was not a town able to resist us – the Lord our God gave them all to us. 2:37 However, you did not approach the land of the Ammonites, the Wadi Jabbok, 140  the cities of the hill country, or any place else forbidden by the Lord our God.

Deuteronomy 10:1-22

Context
The Opportunity to Begin Again

10:1 At that same time the Lord said to me, “Carve out for yourself two stone tablets like the first ones and come up the mountain to me; also make for yourself a wooden ark. 141  10:2 I will write on the tablets the same words 142  that were on the first tablets you broke, and you must put them into the ark.” 10:3 So I made an ark of acacia 143  wood and carved out two stone tablets just like the first ones. Then I went up the mountain with the two tablets in my hands. 10:4 The Lord 144  then wrote on the tablets the same words, 145  the ten commandments, 146  which he 147  had spoken to you at the mountain from the middle of the fire at the time of that assembly, and he 148  gave them to me. 10:5 Then I turned, went down the mountain, and placed the tablets into the ark I had made – they are still there, just as the Lord commanded me.

Conclusion of the Historical Resume

10:6 “During those days the Israelites traveled from Beeroth Bene-Yaaqan 149  to Moserah. 150  There Aaron died and was buried, and his son Eleazar became priest in his place. 10:7 From there they traveled to Gudgodah, 151  and from Gudgodah to Jotbathah, 152  a place of flowing streams. 10:8 At that time the Lord set apart the tribe of Levi 153  to carry the ark of the Lord’s covenant, to stand before the Lord to serve him, and to formulate blessings 154  in his name, as they do to this very day. 10:9 Therefore Levi has no allotment or inheritance 155  among his brothers; 156  the Lord is his inheritance just as the Lord your God told him. 10:10 As for me, I stayed at the mountain as I did the first time, forty days and nights. The Lord listened to me that time as well and decided not to destroy you. 10:11 Then he 157  said to me, “Get up, set out leading 158  the people so they may go and possess 159  the land I promised to give to their ancestors.” 160 

An Exhortation to Love Both God and People

10:12 Now, Israel, what does the Lord your God require of you except to revere him, 161  to obey all his commandments, 162  to love him, to serve him 163  with all your mind and being, 164  10:13 and to keep the Lord’s commandments and statutes that I am giving 165  you today for your own good? 10:14 The heavens – indeed the highest heavens – belong to the Lord your God, as does the earth and everything in it. 10:15 However, only to your ancestors did he 166  show his loving favor, 167  and he chose you, their descendants, 168  from all peoples – as is apparent today. 10:16 Therefore, cleanse 169  your heart and stop being so stubborn! 170  10:17 For the Lord your God is God of gods and Lord of lords, the great, mighty, and awesome God who is unbiased and takes no bribe, 10:18 who justly treats 171  the orphan and widow, and who loves resident foreigners, giving them food and clothing. 10:19 So you must love the resident foreigner because you were foreigners in the land of Egypt. 10:20 Revere the Lord your God, serve him, be loyal to him and take oaths only in his name. 10:21 He is the one you should praise; 172  he is your God, the one who has done these great and awesome things for you that you have seen. 10:22 When your ancestors went down to Egypt, they numbered only seventy, but now the Lord your God has made you as numerous as the stars of the sky. 173 

1 tn Heb “These are the words.”

2 tn Heb “to all Israel.”

3 tn Heb “on the other side of the Jordan.” This would appear to favor authorship by someone living on the west side of the Jordan, that is, in Canaan, whereas the biblical tradition locates Moses on the east side (cf. v. 5). However the Hebrew phrase בְּעֵבֶר הַיּרְדֵּן (bÿever hayyrÿden) is a frozen form meaning “Transjordan,” a name appropriate from any geographical vantage point. To this day, one standing east of the Jordan can describe himself as being in Transjordan.

4 tn The Hebrew term מוֹל (mol) may also mean “in front of” or “near” (cf. NCV, TEV, CEV, NLT).

5 sn This place is otherwise unattested and its location is unknown. Perhaps it is Khirbet Sufah, 4 mi (6 km) SSE of Madaba, Jordan.

6 tn The Hebrew term בֵּין (ben) may suggest “in the area of.”

7 sn Paran is the well-known desert area between Mount Sinai and Kadesh Barnea (cf. Num 10:12; 12:16).

8 sn Tophel refers possibly to et£-T£afîleh, 15 mi (25 km) SE of the Dead Sea, or to Da‚bîlu, another name for Paran. See H. Cazelles, “Tophel (Deut. 1:1),” VT 9 (1959): 412-15.

9 sn Laban. Perhaps this refers to Libnah (Num 33:20).

10 sn Hazeroth. This probably refers to àAin Khadra. See Y. Aharoni, The Land of the Bible, 199-200.

11 sn Di Zahab. Perhaps this refers to Mina al-Dhahab on the eastern Sinai coast.

12 sn An eleven-day journey was about 140 mi (233 km).

13 sn Horeb is another name for Sinai. “Horeb” occurs 9 times in the Book of Deuteronomy and “Sinai” only once (33:2). “Sinai” occurs 13 times in the Book of Exodus and “Horeb” only 3 times.

14 sn Kadesh Barnea. Possibly this refers to àAin Qudeis, about 50 mi (80 km) southwest of Beer Sheba, but more likely to àAin Qudeirat, 5 mi (8 km) NW of àAin Qudeis. See R. Cohen, “Did I Excavate Kadesh-Barnea?” BAR 7 (1981): 20-33.

15 sn Mount Seir is synonymous with Edom. “By way of Mount Seir” refers to the route from Horeb that ended up in Edom Cf. CEV “by way of the Mount Seir Road”; TEV “by way of the hill country of Edom.”

16 tn Heb “in” or “on.” Here there is a contrast between the ordinary time of eleven days (v. 2) and the actual time of forty years, so “not until” brings out that vast disparity.

17 sn The eleventh month is Shebat in the Hebrew calendar, January/February in the modern (Gregorian) calendar.

18 sn The fortieth year would be 1406 b.c. according to the “early” date of the exodus. See E. H. Merrill, Kingdom of Priests, 66-75.

19 tn Heb “according to all which.”

20 tn Heb “when he struck [or “smote”].”

21 sn See Deut 2:263:22.

22 tn Heb “who lived.”

23 sn Heshbon is probably modern Tell Hesban, about 7.5 mi (12 km) south southwest of Amman, Jordan.

24 tn Heb “who lived.”

25 sn Ashtaroth is probably Tell àAshtarah, about 22 mi (35 km) due east of the Sea of Galilee.

26 sn Edrei is probably modern Deràa, 60 mi (95 km) south of Damascus (see Num 21:33; Josh 12:4; 13:12, 31).

27 tn Heb “this instruction”; KJV, NIV, NRSV “this law”; TEV “God’s laws and teachings.” The Hebrew noun תוֹרָה (torah) is derived from the verb יָרָה (yarah, “to teach”) and here it refers to the Book of Deuteronomy, not the Pentateuch as a whole.

28 tn Heb “lived”; “dwelled.”

29 tn Heb “turn”; NAB “Leave here”; NIV, TEV “Break camp.”

30 tn Heb “go (to).”

31 tn Heb “its dwelling places.”

32 tn Heb “the Arabah” (so ASV, NAB, NIV, NRSV).

33 tn Heb “lowlands” (so TEV) or “steppes”; NIV, CEV, NLT “the western foothills.”

sn The Shephelah is the geographical region between the Mediterranean coastal plain and the Judean hill country.

34 sn The Hebrew term Negev means literally “desert” or “south” (so KJV, ASV). It refers to the area south of Beer Sheba and generally west of the Arabah Valley between the Dead Sea and the Gulf of Aqaba.

35 tn Heb “I have placed before you the land.”

36 tn Heb “the Lord.” Since the Lord is speaking, it is preferable for clarity to supply the first person pronoun in the translation.

37 tn Heb “swore” (so NAB, NIV, NRSV, NLT). This refers to God’s promise, made by solemn oath, to give the patriarchs the land.

38 tn Heb “fathers” (also in vv. 11, 21, 35).

39 tn Heb “their seed after them.”

40 tn Heb “multiplied you.”

41 tn Or “heavens.” The Hebrew term שָׁמַיִם (shamayim) may be translated “heaven(s)” or “sky” depending on the context.

42 tn Heb “may he bless you.”

43 tn The Hebrew verb נְבֹנִים (nÿvonim, from בִּין [bin]) is a Niphal referring to skill or intelligence (see T. Fretheim, NIDOTTE 1:652-53).

44 tn Or “selected”; Heb “took.”

45 tn Or “you.” A number of English versions treat the remainder of this verse and v. 17 as direct discourse rather than indirect discourse (cf. KJV, NAB, NIV, NRSV, NLT).

46 tn Heb “brothers.” The term “brothers” could, in English, be understood to refer to siblings, so “fellow citizens” has been used in the translation.

47 tn The Hebrew word צֶדֶק (tsedeq, “fairly”) carries the basic idea of conformity to a norm of expected behavior or character, one established by God himself. Fair judgment adheres strictly to that norm or standard (see D. Reimer, NIDOTTE 3:750).

48 tn Heb “between a man and his brother.”

49 tn Heb “his stranger” or “his sojourner”; NAB, NIV “an alien”; NRSV “resident alien.” The Hebrew word גֵּר (ger) commonly means “foreigner.”

50 tn Heb “you,” and throughout the verse (cf. NASB, NRSV).

51 tn Heb “the small,” but referring to social status, not physical stature.

52 tn The Hebrew participle has an imminent future sense here, although many English versions treat it as a present tense (“is giving us,” NAB, NIV, NRSV) or a predictive future (“will give us,” NCV).

53 tn Heb “the Lord your God.” The pronoun (“he”) has been used in the translation for stylistic reasons, to avoid repetition.

54 tn Or “has given you the land” (cf. NAB, NIV, NRSV).

55 tn Heb “the thing was good in my eyes.”

56 tn Or “selected” (so NIV, NRSV, TEV); Heb “took.”

57 tn Or “the Wadi Eshcol” (so NAB).

sn The Eshcol Valley is a verdant valley near Hebron, still famous for its viticulture (cf. Num 13:22-23). The Hebrew name “Eshcol” means “trestle,” that is, the frame on which grape vines grow.

58 tn The Hebrew text includes “in their hand,” which is unnecessary and somewhat redundant in English style.

59 tn Heb “the mouth of the Lord your God.” To include “the mouth” would make for odd English style. The mouth stands by metonymy for the Lord’s command, which in turn represents the Lord himself.

60 tn Heb “in your tents,” that is, privately.

61 tn Heb “have caused our hearts to melt.”

62 tn Heb “greater.” Many English versions understand this to refer to physical size or strength rather than numbers (cf. “stronger,” NAB, NIV, NRSV; “bigger,” NASB).

63 tn Or “as the sky.” The Hebrew term שָׁמַיִם (shamayim) may be translated “heaven(s)” or “sky” depending on the context.

64 tn Heb “we have seen.”

65 tn Heb “the sons of the Anakim.”

sn Anakites were giant people (Num 13:33; Deut 2:10, 21; 9:2) descended from a certain Anak whose own forefather Arba founded the city of Kiriath Arba, i.e., Hebron (Josh 21:11).

66 tn Heb “do not tremble and do not be afraid.” Two synonymous commands are combined for emphasis.

67 tn The Hebrew participle indicates imminent future action here, though some English versions treat it as a predictive future (“will go ahead of you,” NCV; cf. also TEV, CEV).

68 tn Heb “according to all which he did for you in Egypt before your eyes.”

69 tn Heb “the Lord your God.” The pronoun (“him”) has been employed in the translation for stylistic reasons.

70 tn Heb “and swore,” i.e., made an oath or vow.

71 tn Heb “Not a man among these men.”

72 sn Caleb had, with Joshua, brought back to Israel a minority report from Canaan urging a conquest of the land, for he was confident of the Lord’s power (Num 13:6, 8, 16, 30; 14:30, 38).

73 tn Heb “the Lord.” The pronoun (“me”) has been employed in the translation, since it sounds strange to an English reader for the Lord to speak about himself in third person.

74 tn Heb “the one who stands before you”; NAB “your aide”; TEV “your helper.”

75 tn Heb “it”; the referent (the land) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

76 tn Heb “would be a prey.”

77 sn Do not know good from bad. This is a figure of speech called a merism (suggesting a whole by referring to its extreme opposites). Other examples are the tree of “the knowledge of good and evil” (Gen 2:9), the boy who knows enough “to reject the wrong and choose the right” (Isa 7:16; 8:4), and those who “cannot tell their right hand from their left” (Jonah 4:11). A young child is characterized by lack of knowledge.

78 tn The Hebrew pronoun is plural, as are the following verbs, indicating that Moses and the people are addressed (note v. 41).

79 tn Heb “the Reed Sea.” “Reed” is a better translation of the Hebrew סוּף (suf), traditionally rendered “red.” The name “Red Sea” is based on the LXX which referred to it as ἐρυθρᾶς θαλάσσης (eruqra" qalassh", “red sea”). Nevertheless, because the body of water in question is known in modern times as the Red Sea, this term was used in the translation. The part of the Red Sea in view here is not the one crossed in the exodus but its eastern arm, now known as the Gulf of Eilat or Gulf of Aqaba.

80 tn Heb “the mouth of the Lord.” See note at 1:26.

81 tn Heb “in that hill country,” repeating the end of v. 43.

82 tn Heb “came out to meet.”

83 sn Hormah is probably Khirbet el-Meshash, 5.5 mi (9 km) west of Arad and 7.5 mi (12 km) SE of Beer Sheba. Its name is a derivative of the verb חָרָם (kharam, “to ban; to exterminate”). See Num 21:3.

84 tn Heb “the Lord.” The pronoun (“he”) has been employed in the translation here for stylistic reasons, to avoid redundancy.

85 tn Heb “did not hear your voice and did not turn an ear to you.”

86 tn Heb “like the days which you lived.” This refers to the rest of the forty-year period in the desert before Israel arrived in Moab.

87 tn Heb “Reed Sea.” See note on the term “Red Sea” in Deut 1:40.

88 tn Heb “command” (so KJV, NASB); NRSV “charge the people as follows.”

89 tn Heb “brothers”; NAB “your kinsmen.”

90 sn The descendants of Esau (Heb “sons of Esau”; the phrase also occurs in 2:8, 12, 22, 29). These are the inhabitants of the land otherwise known as Edom, south and east of the Dead Sea. Jacob’s brother Esau had settled there after his bitter strife with Jacob (Gen 36:1-8). “Edom” means “reddish,” probably because of the red sandstone of the region, but also by popular etymology because Esau, at birth, was reddish (Gen 25:25).

91 sn Mount Seir is synonymous with Edom.

92 tn Heb includes “with silver.”

93 tn The Hebrew text does not have the first person pronoun; it has been supplied for purposes of English style (the Lord is speaking here).

94 tn Heb “all the work of your hands.”

95 tn Heb “he has.” This has been converted to first person in the translation in keeping with English style.

96 tn Heb “known” (so ASV, NASB); NAB “been concerned about.”

97 tn Heb “the Lord your God has.” This has been replaced in the translation by the first person pronoun (“I”) in keeping with English style.

98 tn Or “brothers”; NRSV “our kin.”

99 tn Heb “the way of the Arabah” (so ASV); NASB, NIV “the Arabah road.”

100 sn Elat was a port city at the head of the eastern arm of the Red Sea, that is, the Gulf of Aqaba (or Gulf of Eilat). Solomon (1 Kgs 9:28), Uzziah (2 Kgs 14:22), and Ahaz (2 Kgs 16:5-6) used it as a port but eventually it became permanently part of Edom. It may be what is known today as Tell el-Kheleifeh. Modern Eilat is located further west along the northern coast. See G. Pratico, “Nelson Glueck’s 1938-1940 Excavations at Tell el-Kheleifeh: A Reappraisal,” BASOR 259 (1985): 1-32.

101 sn Ezion Geber. A place near the Gulf of Aqaba, Ezion-geber must be distinguished from Elat (cf. 1 Kgs 9:26-28; 2 Chr 8:17-18). It was, however, also a port city (1 Kgs 22:48-49). It may be the same as the modern site Gezirat al-Fauran, 15 mi (24 km) south-southwest from Tell el-Kheleifah.

102 sn Ar was a Moabite city on the Arnon River east of the Dead Sea. It is mentioned elsewhere in the “Book of the Wars of Yahweh” (Num 21:15; cf. 21:28; Isa 15:1). Here it is synonymous with the whole land of Moab.

103 sn The descendants of Lot. Following the destruction of the cities of the plain, Sodom and Gomorrah, as God’s judgment, Lot fathered two sons by his two daughters, namely, Moab and Ammon (Gen 19:30-38). Thus, these descendants of Lot in and around Ar were the Moabites.

104 sn Emites. These giant people, like the Anakites (Deut 1:28), were also known as Rephaites (v. 11). They appear elsewhere in the narrative of the invasion of the kings of the east where they are said to have lived around Shaveh Kiriathaim, perhaps 9 to 11 mi (15 to 18 km) east of the north end of the Dead Sea (Gen 14:5).

105 sn Rephaites. The earliest reference to this infamous giant race is, again, in the story of the invasion of the eastern kings (Gen 14:5). They lived around Ashteroth Karnaim, probably modern Tell Ashtarah (cf. Deut 1:4), in the Bashan plateau east of the Sea of Galilee. Og, king of Bashan, was a Rephaite (Deut 3:11; Josh 12:4; 13:12). Other texts speak of them or their kinfolk in both Transjordan (Deut 2:20; 3:13) and Canaan (Josh 11:21-22; 14:12, 15; 15:13-14; Judg 1:20; 1 Sam 17:4; 1 Chr 20:4-8). They also appear in extra-biblical literature, especially in connection with the city state of Ugarit. See C. L’Heureux, “Ugaritic and Biblical Rephaim,” HTR 67 (1974): 265-74.

106 sn Horites. Most likely these are the same as the well-known people of ancient Near Eastern texts described as Hurrians. They were geographically widespread and probably non-Semitic. Genesis speaks of them as the indigenous peoples of Edom that Esau expelled (Gen 36:8-19, 31-43) and also as among those who confronted the kings of the east (Gen 14:6).

107 tn Most modern English versions, beginning with the ASV (1901), regard vv. 10-12 as parenthetical to the narrative.

108 sn Wadi Zered. Now known as Wadi el-H£esa, this valley marked the boundary between Moab to the north and Edom to the south.

109 tn Heb “we crossed the Wadi Zered.” This has been translated as “we did so” for stylistic reasons, to avoid redundancy.

110 tn Heb “from the middle of.” Although many recent English versions leave this expression untranslated, the point seems to be that these soldiers did not die in battle but “within the camp.”

111 tn Heb “and it was when they were eliminated, all the men of war, to die from the midst of the people.”

112 sn Ar. See note on this word in Deut 2:9.

113 sn Lot’s descendants. See note on this phrase in Deut 2:9.

114 sn Rephaites. See note on this word in Deut 2:11.

115 sn Zamzummites. Just as the Moabites called Rephaites by the name Emites, the Ammonites called them Zamzummites (or Zazites; Gen 14:5).

116 tn Heb “them”; the referent (the Rephaites) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

117 tn Heb “them”; the referent (the Ammonites) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

118 sn Avvites. Otherwise unknown, these people were probably also Anakite (or Rephaite) giants who lived in the lower Mediterranean coastal plain until they were expelled by the Caphtorites.

119 sn Caphtorites. These peoples are familiar from both the OT (Gen 10:14; 1 Chr 1:12; Jer 47:4; Amos 9:7) and ancient Near Eastern texts (Miriam Lichtheim, Ancient Egyptian Literature, 2:37-38; ANET 138). They originated in Crete (OT “Caphtor”) and are identified as the ancestors of the Philistines (Gen 10:14; Jer 47:4).

120 tn Heb “Caphtor”; the modern name of the island of Crete is used in the translation for clarity (cf. NCV, TEV, NLT).

121 sn Heshbon is the name of a prominent site (now Tell Hesba„n, about 7.5 mi [12 km] south southwest of Amman, Jordan). Sihon made it his capital after having driven Moab from the area and forced them south to the Arnon (Num 21:26-30). Heshbon is also mentioned in Deut 1:4.

122 tn Heb “under heaven” (so NIV, NRSV).

123 tn Heb “from before you.”

124 sn Kedemoth. This is probably Aleiyan, about 8 mi (13 km) north of the Arnon and between Dibon and Mattanah.

125 tn Heb “in the way in the way” (בַּדֶּרֶךְ בַּדֶּרֶךְ, baderekh baderekh). The repetition lays great stress on the idea of resolute determination to stick to the path. IBHS 116 §7.2.3c.

126 tn Heb “silver.”

127 tn Heb “and water for silver give to me so that I may drink.”

128 tc The translation follows the LXX in reading the first person pronoun. The MT, followed by many English versions, has a second person masculine singular pronoun, “your.”

129 tn Heb “hardened his spirit” (so KJV, NASB, NRSV); NIV “made his spirit stubborn.”

130 tn Heb “made his heart obstinate” (so KJV, NASB); NRSV “made his heart defiant.”

131 tn Heb “into your hand.”

132 tn Heb “people.”

133 sn Jahaz. This is probably Khirbet el-Medeiyineh. See J. Dearman, “The Levitical Cities of Reuben and Moabite Toponymy,” BASOR 276 (1984): 55-57.

134 tc The translation follows the Qere or marginal reading; the Kethib (consonantal text) has the singular, “his son.”

135 tn Heb “all his people.”

136 tn Heb “every city of men.” This apparently identifies the cities as inhabited.

137 tn Heb “under the ban” (נַחֲרֵם, nakharem). The verb employed is חָרַם (kharam, usually in the Hiphil) and the associated noun is חֵרֶם (kherem). See J. Naudé, NIDOTTE, 2:276-77, and, for a more thorough discussion, Susan Niditch, War in the Hebrew Bible, 28-77.

sn Divine judgment refers to God’s designation of certain persons, places, and things as objects of his special wrath and judgment because, in his omniscience, he knows them to be impure and hopelessly unrepentant.

138 sn Aroer. Now known as àAraáir on the northern edge of the Arnon river, Aroer marked the southern limit of Moab and, later, of the allotment of the tribe of Reuben (Josh 13:9, 16).

139 tn Heb “the city in the wadi.” This enigmatic reference may refer to Ar or, more likely, to Aroer itself. Epexegetically the text might read, “From Aroer…, that is, the city in the wadi.” See D. L. Christensen, Deuteronomy 1–11 (WBC), 49.

140 sn Wadi Jabbok. Now known as the Zerqa River, this is a major tributary of the Jordan that normally served as a boundary between Ammon and Gad (Deut 3:16).

141 tn Or “chest” (so NIV, CEV); NLT “sacred chest”; TEV “wooden box.” This chest was made of acacia wood; it is later known as the ark of the covenant.

142 sn The same words. The care with which the replacement copy must be made underscores the importance of verbal precision in relaying the Lord’s commandments.

143 sn Acacia wood (Heb “shittim wood”). This is wood from the acacia, the most common timber tree of the Sinai region. Most likely it is the species Acacia raddiana because this has the largest trunk. See F. N. Hepper, Illustrated Encyclopedia of Bible Plants, 63.

144 tn Heb “he”; the referent (the Lord) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

145 tn Heb “according to the former writing.” See note on the phrase “the same words” in v. 2.

146 tn Heb “ten words.” The “Ten Commandments” are known in Hebrew as the “Ten Words,” which in Greek became the “Decalogue.”

147 tn Heb “the Lord.” The pronoun has been used in the translation for stylistic reasons to avoid redundancy.

148 tn Heb “the Lord.” See note on “he” earlier in this verse.

149 sn Beeroth Bene-Yaaqan. This Hebrew name could be translated “the wells of Bene-Yaaqan” or “the wells of the sons of Yaaqan,” a site whose location cannot be determined (cf. Num 33:31-32; 1 Chr 1:42).

150 sn Moserah. Since Aaron in other texts (Num 20:28; 33:38) is said to have died on Mount Hor, this must be the Arabah region in which Hor was located.

151 sn Gudgodah. This is probably the same as Haggidgad, which is also associated with Jotbathah (Num 33:33).

152 sn Jotbathah. This place, whose Hebrew name can be translated “place of wadis,” is possibly modern Ain Tabah, just north of Eilat, or Tabah, 6.5 mi (11 km) south of Eilat on the west shore of the Gulf of Aqaba.

153 sn The Lord set apart the tribe of Levi. This was not the initial commissioning of the tribe of Levi to this ministry (cf. Num 3:11-13; 8:12-26), but with Aaron’s death it seemed appropriate to Moses to reiterate Levi’s responsibilities. There is no reference in the Book of Numbers to this having been done, but the account of Eleazar’s succession to the priesthood there (Num 20:25-28) would provide a setting for this to have occurred.

154 sn To formulate blessings. The most famous example of this is the priestly “blessing formula” of Num 6:24-26.

155 sn Levi has no allotment or inheritance. As the priestly tribe, Levi would have no land allotment except for forty-eight towns set apart for their use (Num 35:1-8; Josh 21:1-42). But theirs was a far greater inheritance, for the Lord himself was their apportionment, that is, service to him would be their full-time and lifelong privilege (Num 18:20-24; Deut 18:2; Josh 13:33).

156 tn That is, among the other Israelite tribes.

157 tn Heb “the Lord.” See note on “he” in 10:4.

158 tn Heb “before” (so KJV, ASV); NAB, NRSV “at the head of.”

159 tn After the imperative these subordinated jussive forms (with prefixed vav) indicate purpose or result.

160 tn Heb “fathers” (also in vv. 15, 22).

161 tn Heb “the Lord your God.” See note on “he” in 10:4.

162 tn Heb “to walk in all his ways” (so KJV, NIV, NRSV); NAB “follow his ways exactly”; NLT “to live according to his will.”

163 tn Heb “the Lord your God.” See note on “he” in 10:4.

164 tn Heb “heart and soul” or “heart and being”; NCV “with your whole being.” See note on the word “being” in Deut 6:5.

165 tn Heb “commanding” (so NASB, NRSV). For stylistic reasons, to avoid redundancy, “giving” has been used in the translation.

166 tn Heb “the Lord.” See note on “he” in 10:4.

167 tn Heb “take delight to love.” Here again the verb אָהַב (’ahav, “love”), juxtaposed with בָחַר (bakhar, “choose”), is a term in covenant contexts that describes the Lord’s initiative in calling the patriarchal ancestors to be the founders of a people special to him (cf. the note on the word “loved” in Deut 4:37).

168 tn The Hebrew text includes “after them,” but it is redundant in English style and has not been included in the translation.

169 tn Heb “circumcise the foreskin of” (cf. KJV, ASV, NRSV). Reference to the Abrahamic covenant prompts Moses to recall the sign of that covenant, namely, physical circumcision (Gen 17:9-14). Just as that act signified total covenant obedience, so spiritual circumcision (cleansing of the heart) signifies more internally a commitment to be pliable and obedient to the will of God (cf. Deut 30:6; Jer 4:4; 9:26).

170 tn Heb “your neck do not harden again.” See note on the word “stubborn” in Deut 9:6.

171 tn Or “who executes justice for” (so NAB, NRSV); NLT “gives justice to.”

172 tn Heb “your praise.” The pronoun is subjective and the noun “praise” is used here metonymically for the object of their praise (the Lord).

173 tn Or “heavens.” The Hebrew term שָׁמַיִם (shamayim) may be translated “heaven(s)” or “sky” depending on the context.



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