8:4 I saw that the ram was butting westward, northward, and southward. No animal 1 was able to stand before it, and there was none who could deliver from its power. 2 It did as it pleased and acted arrogantly. 3
8:7 I saw it approaching the ram. It went into a fit of rage against the ram 4 and struck it 5 and broke off its two horns. The ram had no ability to resist it. 6 The goat hurled the ram 7 to the ground and trampled it. No one could deliver the ram from its power. 8
1 tn Or “beast” (NAB).
3 tn In the Hiphil the Hebrew verb גָּדַל (gadal, “to make great; to magnify”) can have either a positive or a negative sense. For the former, used especially of God, see Ps 126:2, 3; Joel 2:21. In this chapter (8:4, 8, 11, 25) the word has a pejorative sense, describing the self-glorification of this king. The sense seems to be that of vainly assuming one’s own superiority through deliberate hubris.
4 tn Heb “him.”
5 tn Heb “the ram.”
6 tn Heb “stand before him.”
7 tn Heb “he hurled him.” The referents of both pronouns (the male goat and the ram) have been specified in the translation for clarity.
8 sn The goat of Daniel’s vision represents Greece; the large horn represents Alexander the Great. The ram stands for Media-Persia. Alexander’s rapid conquest of the Persians involved three battles of major significance which he won against overwhelming odds: Granicus (334