7:24 The ten horns
mean that ten kings will arise from that kingdom.
Another king will arise after them,
but he will be different from the earlier ones.
He will humiliate 1 three kings.
7:25 He will speak words against the Most High.
He will harass 2 the holy ones of the Most High continually.
They will be delivered into his hand
For a time, times, 5 and half a time.
8:23 Toward the end of their rule, when rebellious acts 6 are complete, a rash 7 and deceitful 8 king will arise. 9 8:24 His power will be great, but it will not be by his strength alone. He will cause terrible destruction. 10 He will be successful in what he undertakes. 11 He will destroy powerful people and the people of the holy ones. 12 8:25 By his treachery 13 he will succeed through deceit. 14 He will have an arrogant attitude, 15 and he will destroy many who are unaware of his schemes. 16 He will rise up against the Prince of princes, yet he will be broken apart – but not by human agency. 17
1 tn Or “subjugate”; KJV, NASB, NIV “subdue”; ASV, NRSV “put down.”
2 tn Aram “wear out” (so KJV, ASV, NRSV); NASB, NLT “wear down.” The word is a hapax legomenon in biblical Aramaic, but in biblical Hebrew it especially refers to wearing out such things as garments. Here it is translated “harass…continually.”
3 tn Aram “he will think.”
4 tn Aram “times and law.” The present translation is based on the understanding that the expression is a hendiadys.
5 sn Although the word times is vocalized in the MT as a plural, it probably should be regarded as a dual. The Masoretes may have been influenced here by the fact that in late Aramaic (and Syriac) the dual forms fall out of use. The meaning would thus be three and a half “times.”
6 tc The present translation reads הַפְּשָׁעִים (happÿsha’im, “rebellious acts”) for the MT הַפֹּשְׁעִים (happoshÿ’im, “rebels”). While the MT is understandable (cf. NIV, “when rebels have become completely wicked”), the filling up of transgressions is a familiar OT expression (cf. Gen 15:16) and fits this context well. Cf. the LXX, Theodotion, the Vulgate, and the Syriac.
7 tn Heb “strong of face.”
8 tn Heb “understanding riddles.” Possible meanings include “double-dealing” (BDB 295 s.v. חִידָה; cf. TEV, CEV) and “with a good knowledge of intrigue” (HALOT 309 s.v. חִידָה; cf. NAB, NASB, NIV, NRSV, NLT).
9 tn Heb “stand” or “stand up.”
10 tn Heb “extraordinarily he will destroy.”
11 tn Heb “he will succeed and act.”
12 tn See the corresponding Aramaic expression in 7:27. If the “holy ones” are angels, then this probably refers to the angels as protectors of God’s people. One could translate, “people belonging to (i.e., protected by) the holy ones.” If the “holy ones” are God’s people, then this is an appositional construction, “the people who are the holy ones.” One could translate simply “holy people.” For examples of a plural appositional genitive after “people,” see 11:15, 32. Because either interpretation is possible, the translation has deliberately preserved the ambiguity of the Hebrew grammar here.
13 tn The Hebrew term has a primary meaning of “skill, insight,” but here it has the connotation “cunning, treachery.” See BDB 968 s.v. שֵׂכֶל, שֶׂכֶל.
14 tn Heb “he will cause deceit to succeed by his hand.”
15 tn Heb “in his heart he will act arrogantly.”
16 tn Heb “in peace.” The Hebrew word used here is difficult. It may refer to the security felt by those who did not realize the danger of imminent attack, or it may refer to the condition of being unaware of the impending danger. The latter idea is reflected in the present translation. See further, BDB 1017 s.v. שַׁלְוָה.
17 tn Heb “with nothingness of hand.”