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Daniel 1:6-7

Context
1:6 As it turned out, 1  among these young men 2  were some from Judah: 3  Daniel, Hananiah, Mishael, and Azariah. 4  1:7 But the overseer of the court officials renamed them. He gave 5  Daniel the name Belteshazzar, Hananiah he named Shadrach, Mishael he named Meshach, and Azariah he named Abednego. 6 

Daniel 3:12-30

Context
3:12 But there are Jewish men whom you appointed over the administration of the province of Babylon – Shadrach, Meshach, and Abednego – and these men 7  have not shown proper respect to you, O king. They don’t serve your gods and they don’t pay homage to the golden statue that you have erected.”

3:13 Then Nebuchadnezzar in a fit of rage 8  demanded that they bring 9  Shadrach, Meshach, and Abednego before him. So they brought them 10  before the king. 3:14 Nebuchadnezzar said to them, “Is it true, Shadrach, Meshach, and Abednego, that you don’t serve my gods and that you don’t pay homage to the golden statue that I erected? 3:15 Now if you are ready, when you hear the sound of the horn, flute, zither, trigon, harp, pipes, and all kinds of music, you must bow down and pay homage to the statue that I had made. If you don’t pay homage to it, you will immediately be thrown into the midst of the furnace of blazing fire. Now, who is that god who can rescue you from my power?” 11  3:16 Shadrach, Meshach, and Abednego replied to King Nebuchadnezzar, 12  “We do not need to give you a reply 13  concerning this. 3:17 If 14  our God whom we are serving exists, 15  he is able to rescue us from the furnace of blazing fire, and he will rescue us, O king, from your power as well. 3:18 But if not, let it be known to you, O king, that we don’t serve your gods, and we will not pay homage to the golden statue that you have erected.”

3:19 Then Nebuchadnezzar was filled with rage, and his disposition changed 16  toward Shadrach, Meshach, and Abednego. He gave orders 17  to heat the furnace seven times hotter than it was normally heated. 3:20 He ordered strong 18  soldiers in his army to tie up Shadrach, Meshach, and Abednego and to throw them into the furnace of blazing fire. 3:21 So those men were tied up while still wearing their cloaks, trousers, turbans, and other clothes, 19  and were thrown into the furnace 20  of blazing fire. 3:22 But since the king’s command was so urgent, and the furnace was so excessively hot, the men who escorted 21  Shadrach, Meshach, and Abednego were killed 22  by the leaping flames. 23  3:23 But those three men, Shadrach, Meshach, and Abednego, fell into the furnace 24  of blazing fire while still securely bound. 25 

God Delivers His Servants

3:24 Then King Nebuchadnezzar was startled and quickly got up. He said to his ministers, “Wasn’t it three men that we tied up and threw 26  into 27  the fire?” They replied to the king, “For sure, O king.” 3:25 He answered, “But I see four men, untied and walking around in the midst of the fire! No harm has come to them! And the appearance of the fourth is like that of a god!” 28  3:26 Then Nebuchadnezzar approached the door of the furnace of blazing fire. He called out, 29  “Shadrach, Meshach, and Abednego, servants of the most high God, come out! Come here!”

Then Shadrach, Meshach, and Abednego emerged from the fire. 30  3:27 Once the satraps, prefects, governors, and ministers of the king had gathered around, they saw that those men were physically 31  unharmed by the fire. 32  The hair of their heads was not singed, nor were their trousers damaged. Not even the smell of fire was to be found on them!

3:28 Nebuchadnezzar exclaimed, 33  “Praised be the God of Shadrach, Meshach, and Abednego, who has sent forth his angel 34  and has rescued his servants who trusted in him, ignoring 35  the edict of the king and giving up their bodies rather than 36  serve or pay homage to any god other than their God! 3:29 I hereby decree 37  that any people, nation, or language group that blasphemes 38  the god of Shadrach, Meshach, or Abednego will be dismembered and his home reduced to rubble! For there exists no other god who can deliver in this way.” 3:30 Then Nebuchadnezzar 39  promoted Shadrach, Meshach, and Abednego in the province of Babylon.

1 tn Heb “and it happened that.”

2 tn Heb “among them”; the referent (the young men taken captive from Judah) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

3 tn Heb “the sons of Judah.”

4 sn The names reflect a Jewish heritage. In Hebrew Daniel means “God is my judge”; Hananiah means “the Lord is gracious”; Mishael means “who is what God is?”; Azariah means “the Lord has helped.”

5 tc The LXX and Vulgate lack the verb here.

6 sn The meanings of the Babylonian names are more conjectural than is the case with the Hebrew names. The probable etymologies are as follows: Belteshazzar means “protect his life,” although the MT vocalization may suggest “Belti, protect the king” (cf. Dan 4:8); Shadrach perhaps means “command of Aku”; Meshach is of uncertain meaning; Abednego means “servant of Nego.” Assigning Babylonian names to the Hebrew youths may have been an attempt to erase from their memory their Israelite heritage.

7 sn Daniel’s absence from this scene has sparked the imagination of commentators, some of whom have suggested that perhaps he was unable to attend the dedication due to sickness or due to being away on business. Hippolytus supposed that Daniel may have been watching from a distance.

8 tn Aram “in anger and wrath”; NASB “in rage and anger.” The expression is a hendiadys.

9 tn The Aramaic infinitive is active.

10 tn Aram “these men.” The pronoun is used in the translation to avoid undue repetition.

11 tn Aram “hand.” So also in v. 17.

12 tc In the MT this word is understood to begin the following address (“answered and said to the king, ‘O Nebuchadnezzar’”). However, it seems unlikely that Nebuchadnezzar’s subordinates would address the king in such a familiar way, particularly in light of the danger that they now found themselves in. The present translation implies moving the atnach from “king” to “Nebuchadnezzar.”

13 tn Aram “to return a word to you.”

14 tc The ancient versions typically avoid the conditional element of v. 17.

15 tn The Aramaic expression used here is very difficult to interpret. The question concerns the meaning and syntax of אִיתַי (’itay, “is” or “exist”). There are several possibilities. (1) Some interpreters take this word closely with the participle later in the verse יָכִל (yakhil, “able”), understanding the two words to form a periphrastic construction (“if our God is…able”; cf. H. Bauer and P. Leander, Grammatik des Biblisch-Aramäischen, 365, §111b). But the separation of the two elements from one another is not an argument in favor of this understanding. (2) Other interpreters take the first part of v. 17 to mean “If it is so, then our God will deliver us” (cf. KJV, ASV, RSV, NASB). However, the normal sense of itay is existence; on this point see F. Rosenthal, Grammar, 45, §95. The present translation maintains the sense of existence for the verb (“If our God…exists”), even though the statement is admittedly difficult to understand in this light. The statement may be an implicit reference back to Nebuchadnezzar’s comment in v. 15, which denies the existence of a god capable of delivering from the king’s power.

16 tn Aram “the appearance of his face was altered”; cf. NLT “his face became distorted with rage”; NAB “[his] face became livid with utter rage.”

17 tn Aram “he answered and said.”

18 tn This is sometimes taken as a comparative: “[some of the] strongest.”

19 sn There is a great deal of uncertainty with regard to the specific nature of these items of clothing.

20 tn Aram “into the midst of the furnace.” For stylistic reasons the words “the midst of” have been left untranslated.

21 tn Aram “caused to go up.”

22 tn The Aramaic verb is active.

23 tn Aram “the flame of the fire” (so KJV, ASV, NASB); NRSV “the raging flames.”

24 tn Aram “into the midst of the furnace.” For stylistic reasons the words “the midst of” have been left untranslated.

25 sn The deuterocanonical writings known as The Prayer of Azariah and The Song of the Three present at this point a confession and petition for God’s forgiveness and a celebration of God’s grace for the three Jewish youths in the fiery furnace. Though not found in the Hebrew/Aramaic text of Daniel, these compositions do appear in the ancient Greek versions.

26 tn Aram “we threw…bound.”

27 tn Aram “into the midst of.”

28 sn The phrase like that of a god is in Aramaic “like that of a son of the gods.” Many patristic writers understood this phrase in a christological sense (i.e., “the Son of God”). But it should be remembered that these are words spoken by a pagan who is seeking to explain things from his own polytheistic frame of reference; for him the phrase “like a son of the gods” is equivalent to “like a divine being.”

29 tn Aram “answered and said.”

30 tn Aram “from the midst of the fire.” For stylistic reasons the words “the midst of” have been left untranslated.

31 tn Aram “in their bodies.”

32 tn Aram “the fire did not have power.”

33 tn Aram “answered and said.”

34 sn The king identifies the “son of the gods” (v. 25) as an angel. Comparable Hebrew expressions are used elsewhere in the Hebrew Bible for the members of God’s angelic assembly (see Gen 6:2, 4; Job 1:6; 2:1; 38:7; Pss 29:1; 89:6). An angel later comes to rescue Daniel from the lions (Dan 6:22).

35 tn Aram “they changed” or “violated.”

36 tn Aram “so that they might not.”

37 tn Aram “from me is placed an edict.”

38 tn Aram “speaks negligence.”

39 tn Aram “and the king.” The proper name has been supplied in the translation for stylistic reasons.



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