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Amos 1:13-15


1:13 This is what the Lord says:

“Because the Ammonites have committed three crimes 1 

make that four! 2  – I will not revoke my decree of judgment. 3 

They ripped open Gilead’s pregnant women 4 

so they could expand their territory.

1:14 So I will set fire to Rabbah’s 5  city wall; 6 

fire 7  will consume her fortresses.

War cries will be heard on the day of battle; 8 

a strong gale will blow on the day of the windstorm. 9 

1:15 Ammon’s 10  king will be deported; 11 

he and his officials 12  will be carried off 13  together.”

The Lord has spoken!

1 tn Traditionally, “transgressions” (KJV, ASV, NASB, NRSV) or “sins” (NIV). For an explanation of the atrocities outlined in this oracle as treaty violations of God’s mandate to Noah in Gen 9:5-7, see the note on the word “violations” in 1:3.

2 tn Heb “Because of three violations of the Ammonites, even because of four.”
On the three…four style that introduces each of the judgment oracles of chaps. 1-2 see the note on the word “four” in 1:3.

3 tn Heb “I will not bring it [or “him”] back.” The translation understands the pronominal object to refer to the decree of judgment that follows; the referent (the decree) has been specified in the translation for clarity. For another option see the note on the word “judgment” in 1:3.

4 sn The Ammonites ripped open Gilead’s pregnant women in conjunction with a military invasion designed to expand their territory. Such atrocities, although repugnant, were not uncommon in ancient Near Eastern warfare.

5 sn Rabbah was the Ammonite capital.

6 sn The city wall symbolizes the city’s defenses and security.

7 tn Heb “it”; the referent (the fire mentioned in the previous line) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

8 tn Heb “with a war cry in the day of battle.”

9 tn Heb “with wind in the day of the windstorm.”

sn A windstorm is a metaphor for judgment and destruction in the OT (see Isa 29:6; Jer 23:19) and ancient Near Eastern literature.

10 tn Heb “their”; the referent (Ammon) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

11 tn Heb “will go into exile.”

12 tn Or “princes” (KJV, NAB, NASB, NLT); TEV “officers”; CEV “leaders.”

13 tn The words “will be carried off” are supplied in the translation for clarification.

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