1:13 This is what the Lord says:
“Because the Ammonites have committed three crimes 1 –
They ripped open Gilead’s pregnant women 4
so they could expand their territory.
fire 7 will consume her fortresses.
War cries will be heard on the day of battle; 8
a strong gale will blow on the day of the windstorm. 9
The Lord has spoken!
1 tn Traditionally, “transgressions” (KJV, ASV, NASB, NRSV) or “sins” (NIV). For an explanation of the atrocities outlined in this oracle as treaty violations of God’s mandate to Noah in Gen 9:5-7, see the note on the word “violations” in 1:3.
2 tn Heb “Because of three violations of the Ammonites, even because of four.”
On the three…four style that introduces each of the judgment oracles of chaps. 1-2 see the note on the word “four” in 1:3.
3 tn Heb “I will not bring it [or “him”] back.” The translation understands the pronominal object to refer to the decree of judgment that follows; the referent (the decree) has been specified in the translation for clarity. For another option see the note on the word “judgment” in 1:3.
4 sn The Ammonites ripped open Gilead’s pregnant women in conjunction with a military invasion designed to expand their territory. Such atrocities, although repugnant, were not uncommon in ancient Near Eastern warfare.
5 sn Rabbah was the Ammonite capital.
6 sn The city wall symbolizes the city’s defenses and security.
7 tn Heb “it”; the referent (the fire mentioned in the previous line) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
8 tn Heb “with a war cry in the day of battle.”
9 tn Heb “with wind in the day of the windstorm.”
10 tn Heb “their”; the referent (Ammon) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
11 tn Heb “will go into exile.”
12 tn Or “princes” (KJV, NAB, NASB, NLT); TEV “officers”; CEV “leaders.”
13 tn The words “will be carried off” are supplied in the translation for clarification.