7:2 So he replied, 1 “Brothers and fathers, listen to me. The God of glory appeared to our forefather 2 Abraham when he was in Mesopotamia, before he settled in Haran, 7:3 and said to him, ‘Go out from your country and from your relatives, and come to the land I will show you.’ 3 7:4 Then he went out from the country of the Chaldeans and settled in Haran. After his father died, God 4 made him move 5 to this country where you now live. 7:5 He 6 did not give any of it to him for an inheritance, 7 not even a foot of ground, 8 yet God 9 promised to give it to him as his possession, and to his descendants after him, 10 even though Abraham 11 as yet had no child. 7:6 But God spoke as follows: ‘Your 12 descendants will be foreigners 13 in a foreign country, whose citizens will enslave them and mistreat them for four hundred years. 14 7:7 But I will punish 15 the nation they serve as slaves,’ said God, ‘and after these things they will come out of there 16 and worship 17 me in this place.’ 18 7:8 Then God 19 gave Abraham 20 the covenant 21 of circumcision, and so he became the father of Isaac and circumcised him when he was eight days old, 22 and Isaac became the father of 23 Jacob, and Jacob of the twelve patriarchs. 24 7:9 The 25 patriarchs, because they were jealous of Joseph, sold 26 him into Egypt. But 27 God was with him, 7:10 and rescued him from all his troubles, and granted him favor and wisdom in the presence of Pharaoh, king of Egypt, who made 28 him ruler over Egypt and over all his household. 7:11 Then a famine occurred throughout 29 Egypt and Canaan, causing 30 great suffering, and our 31 ancestors 32 could not find food. 7:12 So when Jacob heard that there was grain 33 in Egypt, he sent our ancestors 34 there 35 the first time. 7:13 On their second visit Joseph made himself known to his brothers again, and Joseph’s family 36 became known to Pharaoh. 7:14 So Joseph sent a message 37 and invited 38 his father Jacob and all his relatives to come, seventy-five people 39 in all. 7:15 So Jacob went down to Egypt and died there, 40 along with our ancestors, 41 7:16 and their bones 42 were later moved to Shechem and placed in the tomb that Abraham had bought for a certain sum of money 43 from the sons of Hamor in Shechem.
7:17 “But as the time drew near for God to fulfill the promise he had declared to Abraham, 44 the people increased greatly in number 45 in Egypt, 7:18 until another king who did not know about 46 Joseph ruled 47 over Egypt. 48 7:19 This was the one who exploited 49 our people 50 and was cruel to our ancestors, 51 forcing them to abandon 52 their infants so they would die. 53 7:20 At that time Moses was born, and he was beautiful 54 to God. For 55 three months he was brought up in his father’s house, 7:21 and when he had been abandoned, 56 Pharaoh’s daughter adopted 57 him and brought him up 58 as her own son. 7:22 So Moses was trained 59 in all the wisdom of the Egyptians and was powerful 60 in his words and deeds. 7:23 But when he was about forty years old, it entered his mind 61 to visit his fellow countrymen 62 the Israelites. 63 7:24 When 64 he saw one of them being hurt unfairly, 65 Moses 66 came to his defense 67 and avenged the person who was mistreated by striking down the Egyptian. 7:25 He thought his own people 68 would understand that God was delivering them 69 through him, 70 but they did not understand. 71 7:26 The next day Moses 72 saw two men 73 fighting, and tried to make peace between 74 them, saying, ‘Men, you are brothers; why are you hurting one another?’ 7:27 But the man who was unfairly hurting his neighbor pushed 75 Moses 76 aside, saying, ‘Who made 77 you a ruler and judge over us? 7:28 You don’t want to kill me the way you killed the Egyptian yesterday, do you?’ 78 7:29 When the man said this, 79 Moses fled and became a foreigner 80 in the land of Midian, where he became the father of two sons.
7:30 “After 81 forty years had passed, an angel appeared to him in the desert 82 of Mount Sinai, in the flame of a burning bush. 83 7:31 When Moses saw it, he was amazed at the sight, and when he approached to investigate, there came the voice of the Lord, 7:32 ‘I am the God of your forefathers, 84 the God of Abraham, Isaac, 85 and Jacob.’ 86 Moses began to tremble and did not dare to look more closely. 87 7:33 But the Lord said to him, ‘Take the sandals off your feet, for the place where you are standing is holy ground. 88 7:34 I have certainly seen the suffering 89 of my people who are in Egypt and have heard their groaning, and I have come down to rescue them. 90 Now 91 come, I will send you to Egypt.’ 92 7:35 This same 93 Moses they had rejected, saying, ‘Who made you a ruler and judge?’ 94 God sent as both ruler and deliverer 95 through the hand of the angel 96 who appeared to him in the bush. 7:36 This man led them out, performing wonders and miraculous signs 97 in the land of Egypt, 98 at 99 the Red Sea, and in the wilderness 100 for forty years. 7:37 This is the Moses who said to the Israelites, 101 ‘God will raise up for you a prophet like me from among your brothers.’ 102
1 tn Grk “said.”
2 tn Or “ancestor”; Grk “father.”
4 tn Grk “he”; the referent (God) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
6 tn Grk “And he.” Because of the difference between Greek style, which often begins sentences or clauses with “and,” and English style, which generally does not, καί (kai) has not been translated here.
7 tn Grk “He did not give him an inheritance in it.” This could be understood to mean that God did not give something else to Abraham as an inheritance while he was living there. The point of the text is that God did not give any of the land to him as an inheritance, and the translation makes this clear.
9 tn Grk “he”; the referent (God) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
11 tn Grk “he”; the referent (Abraham) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
12 tn Grk “that his”; the discourse switches from indirect to direct with the following verbs. For consistency the entire quotation is treated as second person direct discourse in the translation.
13 tn Or “will be strangers,” that is, one who lives as a noncitizen of a foreign country.
15 tn BDAG 568 s.v. κρίνω 5.b.α states, “Oft. the emphasis is unmistakably laid upon that which follows the Divine Judge’s verdict, upon the condemnation or punishment: condemn, punish …Ac 7:7 (Gen 15:14).”
16 tn The words “of there” are not in the Greek text, but are implied.
sn A quotation from Gen 15:14.
17 tn Or “and serve,” but with religious/cultic overtones (BDAG 587 s.v. λατρεύω).
19 tn Grk “he”; the referent (God) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
20 tn Grk “him”; the referent (Abraham) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
21 sn God gave…the covenant. Note how the covenant of promise came before Abraham’s entry into the land and before the building of the temple.
22 tn Grk “circumcised him on the eighth day,” but many modern readers will not understand that this procedure was done on the eighth day after birth. The temporal clause “when he was eight days old” conveys this idea more clearly. See Gen 17:11-12.
23 tn The words “became the father of” are not in the Greek text due to an ellipsis, but must be supplied for the English translation. The ellipsis picks up the verb from the previous clause describing how Abraham fathered Isaac.
25 tn Grk “And the.” Because of the difference between Greek style, which often begins sentences or clauses with “and,” and English style, which generally does not, καί (kai) has not been translated here.
27 tn Though the Greek term here is καί (kai), in context this remark is clearly contrastive: Despite the malicious act, God was present and protected Joseph.
29 tn Grk “came upon all Egypt.”
30 tn Grk “and,” but logically causal.
31 sn Our. Stephen spoke of “our” ancestors (Grk “fathers”) in an inclusive sense throughout the speech until his rebuke in v. 51, where the nation does what “your” ancestors did, at which point an exclusive pronoun is used. This serves to emphasize the rebuke.
32 tn Or “forefathers”; Grk “fathers.”
33 tn Or possibly “food,” since in a number of extrabiblical contexts the phrase σιτία καὶ ποτά (sitia kai pota) means “food and drink,” where solid food is contrasted with liquid nourishment (L&N 3.42).
34 tn Or “forefathers”; Grk “fathers.”
35 tn The word “there” is not in the Greek text. Direct objects were often omitted in Greek when clear from the context, but must be supplied for the modern English reader.
37 tn The words “a message” are not in the Greek text, but are implied.
38 tn Or “Joseph had his father summoned” (BDAG 121 s.v. ἀποστέλλω 2.b).
39 tn Grk “souls” (here an idiom for the whole person).
40 tn The word “there” is not in the Greek text. Direct objects were often omitted in Greek when clear from the context, but must be supplied for the modern English reader.
41 tn Or “forefathers”; Grk “fathers.”
42 tn “and they.”
45 tn Grk “the people increased and multiplied.”
46 tn Or simply “did not know.” However, in this context the point is that the new king knew nothing about Joseph, not whether he had known him personally (which is the way “did not know Joseph” could be understood).
47 tn Grk “arose,” but in this context it clearly refers to a king assuming power.
49 tn According to L&N 88.147 it is also possible to translate κατασοφισάμενος (katasofisameno") as “took advantage by clever words” or “persuaded by sweet talk.”
50 tn Or “race.”
51 tn Or “forefathers”; Grk “fathers.”
52 tn Or “expose” (BDAG 303 s.v. ἔκθετος).
53 tn Grk “so that they could not be kept alive,” but in this context the phrase may be translated either “so that they would not continue to live,” or “so that they would die” (L&N 23.89).
55 tn Grk “who was brought up for three months.” The continuation of the sentence as a relative clause is awkward in English, so a new sentence was started in the translation by changing the relative pronoun to a regular pronoun (“he”).
57 tn Grk “Pharaoh’s daughter took him up for herself.” According to BDAG 64 s.v. ἀναιρέω, “The pap. exx. involve exposed children taken up and reared as slaves…The rendering ‘adopt’ lacks philological precision and can be used only in a loose sense (as NRSV), esp. when Gr-Rom. terminology relating to adoption procedures is taken into account.” In this instance both the immediate context and the OT account (Exod 2:3-10) do support the normal sense of the English word “adopt,” although it should not be understood to refer to a technical, legal event.
58 tn Or “and reared him” (BDAG 74 s.v. ἀνατρέφω b).
59 tn Or “instructed.”
60 tn Or “was able” (BDAG 264 s.v. δυνατός 1.b.α).
61 tn Grk “heart.”
62 tn Grk “brothers.” The translation “compatriot” is given by BDAG 18-19 s.v. ἀδελφός 2.b.
63 tn Grk “the sons of Israel.”
64 tn Grk “And when.” Because of the difference between Greek style, which often begins sentences or clauses with “and,” and English style, which generally does not, καί (kai) has not been translated here.
65 tn “Hurt unfairly” conveys a better sense of the seriousness of the offense against the Israelite than “treated unfairly,” which can sometimes refer to slight offenses, or “wronged,” which can refer to offenses that do not involve personal violence, as this one probably did.
66 tn Grk “he”; the referent (Moses) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
67 tn Or “he defended,” “he retaliated” (BDAG 55 s.v. ἀμύνομαι).
68 tn Grk “his brothers.”
69 tn Grk “was granting them deliverance.” The narrator explains that this act pictured what Moses could do for his people.
70 tn Grk “by his hand,” where the hand is a metaphor for the entire person.
71 sn They did not understand. Here is the theme of the speech. The people did not understand what God was doing through those he chose. They made the same mistake with Joseph at first. See Acts 3:17; 13:27. There is good precedent for this kind of challenging review of history in the ancient scriptures: Ps 106:6-46; Ezek 20; and Neh 9:6-38.
72 tn Grk “he”; the referent (Moses) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
74 tn Or “tried to reconcile” (BDAG 964-65 s.v. συναλλάσσω).
75 tn Or “repudiated Moses,” “rejected Moses” (BDAG 126-27 s.v. ἀπωθέω 2).
76 tn Grk “him”; the referent (Moses) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
77 tn Or “appointed.”
78 tn The Greek construction anticipates a negative reply which is indicated in the translation by the ‘tag’ at the end, “do you?”
sn A quotation from Exod 2:14. Even though a negative reply was expected, the question still frightened Moses enough to flee, because he knew his deed had become known. This understanding is based on the Greek text, not the Hebrew of the original setting. Yet the negative here expresses the fact that Moses did not want to kill the other man. Once again the people have badly misunderstood the situation.
79 tn Grk “At this word,” which could be translated either “when the man said this” or “when Moses heard this.” Since λόγος (logos) refers to the remark made by the Israelite, this translation has followed the first option.
80 tn Or “resident alien.” Traditionally πάροικος (paroiko") has been translated “stranger” or “alien,” but the level of specificity employed with “foreigner” or “resident alien” is now necessary in contemporary English because a “stranger” is a person not acquainted with someone, while an “alien” can suggest science fiction imagery.
81 tn Grk “And after.” Because of the difference between Greek style, which often begins sentences or clauses with “and,” and contemporary English style, which generally does not, καί (kai) has not been translated here.
82 tn Or “wilderness.”
84 tn Or “ancestors”; Grk “fathers.”
85 tn Grk “and Isaac,” but καί (kai) has not been translated since English normally uses a coordinating conjunction only between the last two elements in a series of three or more.
87 tn Or “to investigate,” “to contemplate” (BDAG 522 s.v. κατανοέω 2).
89 tn Or “mistreatment.”
90 tn Or “to set them free.”
91 tn Grk “And now.” Because of the difference between Greek style, which often begins sentences or clauses with “and,” and English style, which generally does not, καί (kai) has not been translated here.
94 sn A quotation from Exod 2:14 (see Acts 7:27). God saw Moses very differently than the people of the nation did. The reference to a ruler and a judge suggests that Stephen set up a comparison between Moses and Jesus, but he never finished his speech to make the point. The reader of Acts, however, knowing the other sermons in the book, recognizes that the rejection of Jesus is the counterpoint.
95 tn Or “liberator.” The meaning “liberator” for λυτρωτήν (lutrwthn) is given in L&N 37.129: “a person who liberates or releases others.”
96 tn Or simply “through the angel.” Here the “hand” could be understood as a figure for the person or the power of the angel himself. The remark about the angel appearing fits the first century Jewish view that God appears to no one (John 1:14-18; Gal 3:19; Deut 33:2 LXX).
97 tn Here the context indicates the miraculous nature of the signs mentioned.
sn Performing wonders and miraculous signs. Again Moses acted like Jesus. The phrase appears 9 times in Acts (2:19, 22, 43; 4:30; 5:12; 6:8; 7:36; 14:3; 15:12).
98 tn Or simply “in Egypt.” The phrase “the land of” could be omitted as unnecessary or redundant.
99 tn Grk “and at,” but καί (kai) has not been translated since English normally uses a coordinating conjunction only between the last two elements in a series of three or more.
100 tn Or “desert.”
101 tn Grk “to the sons of Israel.”