28:16 When we entered Rome, Paul was allowed to live 1 by himself, with the soldier who was guarding him.
28:17 After three days 2 Paul 3 called the local Jewish leaders 4 together. When they had assembled, he said to them, “Brothers, 5 although I had done 6 nothing against our people or the customs of our ancestors, 7 from Jerusalem 8 I was handed over as a prisoner to the Romans. 9 28:18 When 10 they had heard my case, 11 they wanted to release me, 12 because there was no basis for a death sentence 13 against me. 28:19 But when the Jews objected, 14 I was forced to appeal to Caesar 15 – not that I had some charge to bring 16 against my own people. 17 28:20 So for this reason I have asked to see you and speak with you, for I am bound with this chain because of the hope of Israel.” 18 28:21 They replied, 19 “We have received no letters from Judea about you, nor have any of the brothers come from there 20 and reported or said anything bad about you. 28:22 But we would like to hear from you what you think, for regarding this sect we know 21 that people 22 everywhere speak against 23 it.”
28:23 They set 24 a day to meet with him, 25 and they came to him where he was staying 26 in even greater numbers. 27 From morning until evening he explained things 28 to them, 29 testifying 30 about the kingdom of God 31 and trying to convince 32 them about Jesus from both the law of Moses and the prophets. 28:24 Some were convinced 33 by what he said, 34 but others refused 35 to believe. 28:25 So they began to leave, 36 unable to agree among themselves, after Paul made one last statement: “The Holy Spirit spoke rightly to your ancestors 37 through the prophet Isaiah 28:26 when he said,
‘Go to this people and say,
“You will keep on hearing, 38 but will never understand,
and you will keep on looking, 39 but will never perceive.
and their ears are hard of hearing, 41
and they have closed their eyes,
so that they would not see with their eyes
and hear with their ears
and understand with their heart28:29 [[EMPTY]] 48
28:30 Paul 49 lived 50 there two whole years in his own rented quarters 51 and welcomed 52 all who came to him, 28:31 proclaiming the kingdom of God and teaching about the Lord Jesus Christ 53 with complete boldness 54 and without restriction. 55
1 tn Or “to stay.”
sn Allowed to live by himself. Paul continued to have a generous prison arrangement (cf. Acts 27:3).
2 tn Grk “It happened that after three days.” The introductory phrase ἐγένετο (egeneto, “it happened that”), common in Luke (69 times) and Acts (54 times), is redundant in contemporary English and has not been translated.
3 tn Grk “he”; the referent (Paul) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
5 tn Grk “Men brothers,” but this is both awkward and unnecessary in English.
6 tn The participle ποιήσας (poihsas) has been translated as a concessive adverbial participle.
7 tn Or “forefathers”; Grk “fathers.”
sn I had done nothing against our people or the customs of our ancestors. Once again Paul claimed to be faithful to the Jewish people and to the God of Israel.
9 tn Grk “into the hands of the Romans,” but this is redundant when παρεδόθην (paredoqhn) has been translated “handed over.”
10 tn Grk “who when.” Because of the length and complexity of the Greek sentence, the relative pronoun (“who”) has been replaced by the personal pronoun (“they”) and a new sentence begun at this point in the translation.
11 tn Or “had questioned me”; or “had examined me.” BDAG 66 s.v. ἀνακρίνω 2 states, “to conduct a judicial hearing, hear a case, question.”
13 tn Grk “no basis for death,” but in this context a sentence of death is clearly indicated.
14 tn That is, objected to my release.
15 tn Or “to the emperor” (“Caesar” is a title for the Roman emperor).
16 tn BDAG 533 s.v. κατηγορέω 1 states, “nearly always as legal t.t.: bring charges in court.” L&N 33.427 states for κατηγορέω, “to bring serious charges or accusations against someone, with the possible connotation of a legal or court context – ‘to accuse, to bring charges.’”
17 tn Or “my own nation.”
19 tn Grk “they said to him.”
20 tn Or “arrived”; Grk “come” (“from there” is implied). Grk “coming.” The participle παραγενόμενος (paragenomeno") has been translated as a finite verb due to requirements of contemporary English style.
21 tn Grk “regarding this sect it is known to us.” The passive construction “it is known to us” has been converted to an active one to simplify the translation.
22 tn Grk “that everywhere it is spoken against.” To simplify the translation the passive construction “it is spoken against” has been converted to an active one with the subject “people” supplied.
23 tn On the term translated “speak against,” see BDAG 89 s.v. ἀντιλέγω 1.
24 tn Grk “Having set.” The participle ταξάμενοι (taxamenoi) has been translated as a finite verb due to requirements of contemporary English style.
25 tn Grk “Having set a day with him”; the words “to meet” are not in the Greek text, but are implied.
26 tn Or “came to him in his rented quarters.”
28 tn The word “things” is not in the Greek text, but has been supplied. Direct objects were often omitted in Greek when clear from the context, but must be supplied for the modern English reader.
29 tn Grk “to whom he explained.” Because of the length and complexity of the Greek sentence, the relative pronoun (“whom”) has been replaced by the pronoun (“them”) and a new sentence begun at this point in the translation.
30 tn BDAG 233 s.v. διαμαρτύρομαι 1 has “to make a solemn declaration about the truth of someth. testify of, bear witness to (orig. under oath)…God’s kingdom 28:23.”
31 sn Testifying about the kingdom of God. The topic is important. Paul’s preaching was about the rule of God and his promise in Jesus. Paul’s text was the Jewish scriptures.
32 tn Or “persuade.”
33 tn Or “persuaded.”
34 tn Grk “by the things spoken.”
36 tn The imperfect verb ἀπελύοντο (apeluonto) has been translated as an ingressive imperfect.
37 tn Or “forefathers”; Grk “fathers.”
38 tn Grk “you will hear with hearing” (an idiom).
39 tn Or “seeing”; Grk “you will look by looking” (an idiom).
40 tn Or “insensitive.”
sn The heart of this people has become dull. The charge from Isaiah is like Stephen’s against the Jews of Jerusalem (Acts 7:51-53). They were a hard-hearted and disobedient people.
41 tn Grk “they hear heavily with their ears” (an idiom for slow comprehension).
42 sn Note how the failure to respond to the message of the gospel is seen as a failure to turn.
44 tn Grk “Therefore let it be known to you.”
45 tn Or “of God.”
46 sn The term Gentiles is in emphatic position in the Greek text of this clause. Once again there is the pattern: Jewish rejection of the gospel leads to an emphasis on Gentile inclusion (Acts 13:44-47).
47 tn Grk “they also.”
48 tc Some later
49 tn Grk “He”; the referent (Paul) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
50 tn Or “stayed.”
51 tn Or perhaps, “two whole years at his own expense.” BDAG 654 s.v. μίσθωμα states, “the customary act. mng. ‘contract price, rent’…is not found in our lit. (Ac) and the pass. what is rented, a rented house is a mng. not found outside it (even Ammonius Gramm. [100 ad] p. 93 Valck. knows nothing of it. Hence the transl. at his own expense [NRSV] merits attention) ἐν ἰδίῳ μισθώματι in his own rented lodgings Ac 28:30 (for the idea cp. Jos., Ant. 18, 235).”
52 tn Or “and received.”
53 tn Or “Messiah”; both “Christ” (Greek) and “Messiah” (Hebrew and Aramaic) mean “one who has been anointed.”
54 tn Or “openness.”
55 sn Proclaiming…with complete boldness and without restriction. Once again Paul’s imprisonment is on benevolent terms. The word of God is proclaimed triumphantly and boldly in Rome. Acts ends with this note: Despite all the attempts to stop it, the message goes forth.