28:11 After three months we put out to sea 1 in an Alexandrian ship that had wintered at the island and had the “Heavenly Twins” 2 as its figurehead. 3 28:12 We put in 4 at Syracuse 5 and stayed there three days. 28:13 From there we cast off 6 and arrived at Rhegium, 7 and after one day a south wind sprang up 8 and on the second day we came to Puteoli. 9 28:14 There 10 we found 11 some brothers 12 and were invited to stay with them seven days. And in this way we came to Rome. 13 28:15 The brothers from there, 14 when they heard about us, came as far as the Forum of Appius 15 and Three Taverns 16 to meet us. When he saw them, 17 Paul thanked God and took courage. 28:16 When we entered Rome, Paul was allowed to live 18 by himself, with the soldier who was guarding him.
1 tn BDAG 62 s.v. ἀνάγω 4, “as a nautical t.t. (ἀ. τὴν ναῦν put a ship to sea), mid. or pass. ἀνάγεσθαι to begin to go by boat, put out to sea.”
2 tn Or “the ‘Twin Gods’”; Grk “the Dioscuri” (a joint name for the pagan deities Castor and Pollux).
sn That had the ‘Heavenly Twins’ as its figurehead. The twin brothers Castor and Pollux, known collectively as the Dioscuri or ‘Heavenly Twins,’ were the twin sons of Zeus and Leda according to Greek mythology. The Alexandrian ship on which Paul and his companions sailed from Malta had a carved emblem or figurehead of these figures, and they would have been the patron deities of the vessel. Castor and Pollux were the “gods of navigation.” To see their stars was considered a good omen (Epictetus, Discourses 2.18.29; Lucian of Samosata, The Ship 9).
3 tn Or “as its emblem.”
4 tn Grk “And putting in.” The participle καταχθέντες (katacqente") has been translated as a finite verb due to requirements of contemporary English style. On the meaning of the participle, BDAG 516 s.v. κατάγω states, “Hence the pass., in act. sense, of ships and seafarers put in εἴς τι at a harbor…εἰς Συρακούσας Ac 28:12.” Because of the difference between Greek style, which often begins sentences or clauses with “and,” and English style, which generally does not, καί (kai) has not been translated here.
5 sn Syracuse was a city on the eastern coast of the island of Sicily. It was 75 mi (120 km) from Malta.
6 tc A few early
7 sn Rhegium was a city on the southern tip of Italy. It was 80 mi (130 km) from Syracuse.
8 tn Grk “after one day, a south wind springing up, on the second day.” The genitive absolute construction with the participle ἐπιγενομένου (epigenomenou) has been translated as a clause with a finite verb due to requirements of contemporary English style.
9 sn Puteoli was a city on the western coast of Italy south of Rome. It was in the Bay of Naples some 220 mi (350 km) to the north of Rhegium. Here the voyage ended; the rest of the journey was by land.
10 tn Grk “where.” Because of the length and complexity of the Greek sentence, the relative pronoun (“where”) has been replaced with the demonstrative pronoun (“there”) and a new sentence begun here in the translation.
11 tn Grk “finding.” The participle εὑρόντες (Jeurontes) has been translated as a finite verb due to requirements of contemporary English style.
12 sn That is, some fellow Christians.
14 sn Mention of Christian brothers from there (Rome) shows that God’s message had already spread as far as Italy and the capital of the empire.
15 sn The Forum of Appius was a small traveler’s stop on the Appian Way about 43 mi (71 km) south of Rome (BDAG 125 s.v. ᾿Αππίου φόρον). It was described by Horace as “crammed with boatmen and stingy tavernkeepers” (Satires 1.5.3).
16 sn Three Taverns was a stop on the Appian Way 33 mi (55 km) south of Rome.
17 tn Grk “whom, when he saw [them], Paul.” Because of the length and complexity of the Greek sentence, the relative pronoun (“whom”) was replaced by the personal pronoun (“them”) and a new sentence begun here in the translation.
18 tn Or “to stay.”
sn Allowed to live by himself. Paul continued to have a generous prison arrangement (cf. Acts 27:3).