22:24 the commanding officer 1 ordered Paul 2 to be brought back into the barracks. 3 He told them 4 to interrogate Paul 5 by beating him with a lash 6 so that he could find out the reason the crowd 7 was shouting at Paul 8 in this way. 22:25 When they had stretched him out for the lash, 9 Paul said to the centurion 10 standing nearby, “Is it legal for you to lash a man who is a Roman citizen 11 without a proper trial?” 12 22:26 When the centurion 13 heard this, 14 he went to the commanding officer 15 and reported it, 16 saying, “What are you about to do? 17 For this man is a Roman citizen.” 18 22:27 So the commanding officer 19 came and asked 20 Paul, 21 “Tell me, are you a Roman citizen?” 22 He replied, 23 “Yes.” 22:28 The commanding officer 24 answered, “I acquired this citizenship with a large sum of money.” 25 “But I was even 26 born a citizen,” 27 Paul replied. 28 22:29 Then those who were about to interrogate him stayed away 29 from him, and the commanding officer 30 was frightened when he realized that Paul 31 was 32 a Roman citizen 33 and that he had had him tied up. 34
22:30 The next day, because the commanding officer 35 wanted to know the true reason 36 Paul 37 was being accused by the Jews, he released him and ordered the chief priests and the whole council 38 to assemble. He then brought 39 Paul down and had him stand before them.
1 tn Grk “the chiliarch” (an officer in command of a thousand soldiers). In Greek the term χιλίαρχος (ciliarco") literally described the “commander of a thousand,” but it was used as the standard translation for the Latin tribunus militum or tribunus militare, the military tribune who commanded a cohort of 600 men.
2 tn Grk “him”; the referent (Paul) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
4 tn Grk “into the barracks, saying.” This is a continuation of the same sentence in Greek using the participle εἴπας (eipas), but due to the length and complexity of the Greek sentence a new sentence was begun in the translation here. The direct object “them” has been supplied; it is understood in Greek.
5 tn Grk “him”; the referent (Paul) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
6 sn To interrogate Paul by beating him with a lash. Under the Roman legal system it was customary to use physical torture to extract confessions or other information from prisoners who were not Roman citizens and who were charged with various crimes, especially treason or sedition. The lashing would be done with a whip of leather thongs with pieces of metal or bone attached to the ends.
7 tn Grk “they”; the referent (the crowd) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
8 tn Grk “him”; the referent (Paul) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
9 tn Grk “for the thongs” (of which the lash was made). Although often translated as a dative of means (“with thongs”), referring to thongs used to tie the victim to the whipping post, BDAG 474-75 s.v. ἱμάς states that it “is better taken as a dat. of purpose for the thongs, in which case οἱ ἱμάντες = whips (Posidonius: 87 fgm. 5 Jac.; POxy. 1186, 2 τὴν διὰ τῶν ἱμάντων αἰκείαν. – Antiphanes 74, 8, Demosth. 19, 197 and Artem. 1, 70 use the sing. in this way).”
11 tn The word “citizen” is supplied here for emphasis and clarity.
12 tn Or “a Roman citizen and uncondemned.” BDAG 35 s.v. ἀκατάκριτος has “uncondemned, without due process” for this usage.
sn The fact that Paul was a Roman citizen protected him from being tortured to extract information; such protections were guaranteed by the Porcian and Julian law codes. In addition, the fact Paul had not been tried exempted him from punishment.
14 tn The word “this” is not in the Greek text but is implied. Direct objects were often omitted in Greek when clear from the context, but must be supplied for the modern English reader.
16 tn The word “it” is not in the Greek text but is implied. Direct objects were often omitted in Greek when clear from the context, but must be supplied for the modern English reader.
17 tn Or perhaps, “What do you intend to do?” Although BDAG 627 s.v. μέλλω 1.c.α lists this phrase under the category “be about to, be on the point of,” it is possible it belongs under 1.c.γ, “denoting an intended action: intend, propose, have in mind…τί μέλλεις ποιεῖν; what do you intend to do?”
18 tn The word “citizen” is supplied here for emphasis and clarity.
20 tn Grk “and said to.”
21 tn Grk “him”; the referent (Paul) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
22 tn The word “citizen” is supplied here for emphasis and clarity.
23 tn Grk “He said.”
25 sn Sometimes Roman citizenship was purchased through a bribe (Dio Cassius, Roman History 60.17.4-9). That may well have been the case here.
27 tn The word “citizen” is supplied here for emphasis and clarity.
sn Paul’s reference to being born a citizen suggests he inherited his Roman citizenship from his family.
28 tn Grk “Paul said.” This phrase has been placed at the end of the sentence in the translation for stylistic reasons.
29 tn BDAG 158 s.v. ἀφίστημι 2.b has “keep away…ἀπό τινος… Lk 4:13; Ac 5:38; 2 Cor 12:8…cp. Ac 22:29.” In context, the point would seem to be not that the interrogators departed or withdrew, but that they held back from continuing the flogging.
31 tn Grk “he”; the referent (Paul) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
32 tn This is a present tense (ἐστιν, estin) retained in indirect discourse. It must be translated as a past tense in contemporary English.
33 tn The word “citizen” is supplied here for emphasis and clarity.
34 sn Had him tied up. Perhaps a reference to the chains in Acts 21:33, or the preparations for the lashing in Acts 22:25. A trial would now be needed to resolve the matter. The Roman authorities’ hesitation to render a judgment in the case occurs repeatedly: Acts 22:30; 23:28-29; 24:22; 25:20, 26-27. The legal process begun here would take the rest of Acts and will be unresolved at the end. The process itself took four years of Paul’s life.
35 tn Grk “he”; the referent (the commanding officer) has been supplied here in the translation for clarity.
37 tn Grk “he”; the referent (Paul) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
38 tn Grk “the whole Sanhedrin” (the Sanhedrin was the highest legal, legislative, and judicial body among the Jews).
39 tn Grk “and bringing.” The participle καταγαγών (katagagwn) has been translated as a finite verb due to requirements of contemporary English style. Because of the length and complexity of the Greek sentence, a new sentence was begun in the translation, and καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to clarify the logical sequence.