22:1 “Brothers and fathers, listen to my defense 1 that I now 2 make to you.” 22:2 (When they heard 3 that he was addressing 4 them in Aramaic, 5 they became even 6 quieter.) 7 Then 8 Paul said, 22:3 “I am a Jew, 9 born in Tarsus in Cilicia, but brought up 10 in this city, educated with strictness 11 under 12 Gamaliel 13 according to the law of our ancestors, 14 and was 15 zealous 16 for God just as all of you are today. 22:4 I 17 persecuted this Way 18 even to the point of death, 19 tying up 20 both men and women and putting 21 them in prison, 22:5 as both the high priest and the whole council of elders 22 can testify about me. From them 23 I also received 24 letters to the brothers in Damascus, and I was on my way 25 to make arrests there and bring 26 the prisoners 27 to Jerusalem 28 to be punished. 22:6 As 29 I was en route and near Damascus, 30 about noon a very bright 31 light from heaven 32 suddenly flashed 33 around me. 22:7 Then I 34 fell to the ground and heard a voice saying to me, ‘Saul, Saul, why are you persecuting me?’ 22:8 I answered, ‘Who are you, Lord?’ He said to me, ‘I am Jesus the Nazarene, whom you are persecuting.’ 22:9 Those who were with me saw the light, but did not understand 35 the voice of the one who was speaking to me. 22:10 So I asked, 36 ‘What should I do, Lord?’ The Lord said to me, ‘Get up 37 and go to Damascus; there you will be told about everything 38 that you have been designated 39 to do.’ 22:11 Since I could not see because of 40 the brilliance 41 of that light, I came to Damascus led by the hand of 42 those who were with me. 22:12 A man named Ananias, 43 a devout man according to the law, 44 well spoken of by all the Jews who live there, 45 22:13 came 46 to me and stood beside me 47 and said to me, ‘Brother Saul, regain your sight!’ 48 And at that very moment 49 I looked up and saw him. 50 22:14 Then he said, ‘The God of our ancestors 51 has already chosen 52 you to know his will, to see 53 the Righteous One, 54 and to hear a command 55 from his mouth, 22:15 because you will be his witness 56 to all people 57 of what you have seen and heard. 22:16 And now what are you waiting for? 58 Get up, 59 be baptized, and have your sins washed away, 60 calling on his name.’ 61 22:17 When 62 I returned to Jerusalem and was praying in the temple, I fell into a trance 63 22:18 and saw the Lord 64 saying to me, ‘Hurry and get out of Jerusalem quickly, because they will not accept your testimony about me.’ 22:19 I replied, 65 ‘Lord, they themselves know that I imprisoned and beat those in the various synagogues 66 who believed in you. 22:20 And when the blood of your witness 67 Stephen was shed, 68 I myself was standing nearby, approving, 69 and guarding the cloaks 70 of those who were killing him.’ 71 22:21 Then 72 he said to me, ‘Go, because I will send you far away to the Gentiles.’”
1 sn Listen to my defense. This is the first of several speeches Paul would make in his own defense: Acts 24:10ff.; 25:8, 16; and 26:1ff. For the use of such a speech (“apologia”) in Greek, see Josephus, Ag. Ap. 2.15 [2.147]; Wis 6:10.
2 tn The adverb νυνί (nuni, “now”) is connected with the phrase τῆς πρὸς ὑμᾶς νυνὶ ἀπολογίας (th" pro" Juma" nuni apologia") rather than the verb ἀκούσατε (akousate), and the entire construction (prepositional phrase plus adverb) is in first attributive position and thus translated into English by a relative clause.
3 tn ἀκούσαντες (akousante") has been taken temporally.
4 tn Or “spoke out to.” L&N 33.27 has “to address an audience, with possible emphasis upon loudness – ‘to address, to speak out to.’ πολλῆς δέ σιγῆς γενομένης προσεφώνησεν τῇ ᾿Εβραίδι διαλέκτῳ ‘when they were quiet, he addressed them in Hebrew’ Ac 21:40.”
sn This is best taken as a parenthetical note by the author.
9 tn Grk “a Jewish man.”
11 tn Or “with precision.” Although often translated “strictly” this can be misunderstood for “solely” in English. BDAG 39 s.v. ἀκρίβεια gives the meaning as “exactness, precision.” To avoid the potential misunderstanding the translation “with strictness” is used, although it is slightly more awkward than “strictly.”
12 tn Grk “strictly at the feet of” (an idiom).
13 tn Or “brought up in this city under Gamaliel, educated with strictness…” The phrase παρὰ τοὺς πόδας Γαμαλιὴλ (para tou" poda" Gamalihl) could be understood with what precedes or with what follows. The punctuation of NA27 and UBS4, which place a comma after ταύτῃ (tauth), has been followed in the translation.
sn Gamaliel was a famous Jewish scholar and teacher mentioned here and in Acts 5:34. He had a grandson of the same name and is referred to as “Gamaliel the Elder” to avoid confusion. He is quoted a number of times in the Mishnah, was given the highest possible title for Jewish teachers, Rabba (cf. John 20:16), and was highly regarded in later rabbinic tradition.
14 tn Or “our forefathers.”
15 tn Grk “ancestors, being.” The participle ὑπάρχων (Juparcwn) has been translated as a finite verb due to requirements of contemporary English style.
17 tn Grk “who.” Because of the length and complexity of the Greek sentence, the relative pronoun (“who”) was translated by the first person pronoun (“I”) and a new sentence begun in the translation.
22 tn That is, the whole Sanhedrin. BDAG 861 s.v. πρεσβυτέριον has “an administrative group concerned with the interests of a specific community, council of elders – a. of the highest Judean council in Jerusalem, in our lit. usu. called συνέδριον…ὁ ἀρχιερεύς καὶ πᾶν τὸ πρ. Ac 22:5.”
23 tn Grk “from whom.” Because of the length and complexity of the Greek sentence, the relative pronoun (“whom”) was translated by the third person plural pronoun (“them”) and a new sentence begun in the translation.
24 tn Grk “receiving.” The participle δεξάμενος (dexameno") has been translated as a finite verb due to requirements of contemporary English style.
25 tn Grk “letters to the brothers, [and] I was going to Damascus.” Such a translation, however, might be confusing since the term “brother” is frequently used of a fellow Christian. In this context, Paul is speaking about fellow Jews.
26 tn Grk “even there and bring…” or “there and even bring…” The ascensive καί (kai) shows that Paul was fervent in his zeal against Christians, but it is difficult to translate for it really belongs with the entire idea of arresting and bringing back the prisoners.
28 tn Grk “I was going…to bring even those who were there to Jerusalem as prisoners that they might be punished.”
29 tn Grk “It happened that as.” The introductory phrase ἐγένετο (egeneto, “it happened that”), common in Luke (69 times) and Acts (54 times), is redundant in contemporary English and has not been translated.
30 tn Grk “going and nearing Damascus.”
32 tn Or “from the sky” (the same Greek word means both “heaven” and “sky”).
33 tn Or “shone.”
34 tn This is a continuation of the same sentence in Greek using the connective τέ (te), but due to the length and complexity of the Greek sentence a new sentence was begun in the translation here. To indicate the logical sequence for the modern English reader, τέ was translated as “then.”
35 tn Grk “did not hear” (but see Acts 9:7). BDAG 38 s.v. ἀκούω 7 has “W. acc. τὸν νόμον understand the law Gal 4:21; perh. Ac 22:9; 26:14…belong here.” If the word has this sense here, then a metonymy is present, since the lack of effect is put for a failure to appreciate what was heard.
36 tn Grk “So I said.”
37 tn Grk “Getting up.” The participle ἀναστάς (anasta") is an adverbial participle of attendant circumstance and has been translated as a finite verb.
38 tn Grk “about all things.”
39 tn Or “assigned,” “ordered.” BDAG 991 s.v. τάσσω 2.a has “act. and pass., foll. by acc. w. inf.…περὶ πάντων ὧν τέτακταί σοι ποιῆσαι concerning everything that you have been ordered to do 22:10.” There is an allusion to a divine call and commission here.
41 tn Or “brightness”; Grk “glory.”
42 tn Grk “by” (ὑπό, Jupo), but this would be too awkward in English following the previous “by.”
43 tn Grk “a certain Ananias.”
44 sn The law refers to the law of Moses.
46 tn Grk “coming.” The participle ἐλθών (elqwn) has been translated as a finite verb due to requirements of contemporary English style.
47 tn Grk “coming to me and standing beside [me] said to me.” The participle ἐπιστάς (epistas) has been translated as a finite verb due to requirements of contemporary English style.
48 tn Grk “Brother Saul, look up” (here an idiom for regaining one’s sight). BDAG 59 s.v. ἀναβλέπω places this usage under 1, “look up Ac 22:13a. W. εἰς αὐτόν to show the direction of the glance…22:13b; but perh. this vs. belongs under 2a.” BDAG 59 s.v. 2.a.α states, “of blind persons, who were formerly able to see, regain sight.” The problem for the translator is deciding between the literal and the idiomatic usage and at the same time attempting to retain the wordplay in Acts 22:13: “[Ananias] said to me, ‘Look up!’ and at that very moment I looked up to him.” The assumption of the command is that the effort to look up will be worth it (through the regaining of sight).
49 tn Grk “hour,” but ὥρα (Jwra) is often used for indefinite short periods of time (so BDAG 1102-3 s.v. ὥρα 2.c: “αὐτῇ τῇ ὥρᾳ at that very time, at once, instantly…Lk 2:38, 24:33; Ac 16:18; 22:13”). A comparison with the account in Acts 9:18 indicates that this is clearly the meaning here.
50 tn Grk “I looked up to him.”
51 tn Or “forefathers”; Grk “fathers.”
sn The expression God of our ancestors is a description of the God of Israel. The God of promise was at work again.
53 tn Grk “and to see.” This καί (kai) has not been translated since English normally uses a coordinating conjunction only between the last two elements in a series of three or more.
55 tn Or “a solemn declaration”; Grk “a voice.” BDAG 1071-72 s.v. φωνή 2.c states, “that which the voice gives expression to: call, cry, outcry, loud or solemn declaration (… = order, command)…Cp. 22:14; 24:21.”
56 tn Or “a witness to him.”
57 tn Grk “all men,” but this is a generic use of ἄνθρωπος (anqrwpo").
58 tn L&N 67.121 has “to extend time unduly, with the implication of lack of decision – ‘to wait, to delay.’ νῦν τί μέλλεις… ἀναστὰς βάπτισαι ‘what are you waiting for? Get up and be baptized’ Ac 22:16.”
59 tn Grk “getting up.” The participle ἀναστάς (anasta") is an adverbial participle of attendant circumstance and has been translated as a finite verb.
60 sn The expression have your sins washed away means “have your sins purified” (the washing is figurative).
62 tn Grk “It happened to me that.” The introductory phrase ἐγένετο (egeneto, “it happened that”), common in Luke (69 times) and Acts (54 times), is redundant in contemporary English and has not been translated.
65 tn Grk “And I said.” Because of the difference between Greek style, which often begins sentences or clauses with “and,” and English style, which generally does not, καί (kai, in καγώ [kagw]) has not been translated here.
66 tn For the distributive sense of the expression κατὰ τὰς συναγωγάς (kata ta" sunagwga") BDAG 512 s.v. κατά B.1.d has “of places viewed serially, distributive use w. acc.…κατ᾿ οἶκαν from house to house…Ac 2:46b; 5:42…Likew. the pl.…κ. τὰς συναγωγάς 22:19.” See also L&N 37.114.
sn See the note on synagogue in 6:9.
67 sn Now Paul referred to Stephen as your witness, and he himself had also become a witness. The reversal was now complete; the opponent had now become a proponent.
68 sn When the blood of your witness Stephen was shed means “when your witness Stephen was murdered.”
69 tn Grk “and approving.” This καί (kai) has not been translated since English normally uses a coordinating conjunction only between the last two elements in a series of three or more.
70 tn Or “outer garments.”
sn The cloaks. The outer garment, or cloak, was taken off and laid aside to leave the arms free (in this case for throwing stones).
71 tn Or “who were putting him to death.” For the translation of ἀναιρούντων (anairountwn) as “putting to death” see BDAG 64 s.v. ἀναιρέω 2.