21:37 As Paul was about to be brought into the barracks, 1 he said 2 to the commanding officer, 3 “May I say 4 something to you?” The officer 5 replied, 6 “Do you know Greek? 7 21:38 Then you’re not that Egyptian who started a rebellion 8 and led the four thousand men of the ‘Assassins’ 9 into the wilderness 10 some time ago?” 11 21:39 Paul answered, 12 “I am a Jew 13 from Tarsus in Cilicia, a citizen of an important city. 14 Please 15 allow me to speak to the people.” 21:40 When the commanding officer 16 had given him permission, 17 Paul stood 18 on the steps and gestured 19 to the people with his hand. When they had become silent, 20 he addressed 21 them in Aramaic, 22
22:1 “Brothers and fathers, listen to my defense 23 that I now 24 make to you.” 22:2 (When they heard 25 that he was addressing 26 them in Aramaic, 27 they became even 28 quieter.) 29 Then 30 Paul said, 22:3 “I am a Jew, 31 born in Tarsus in Cilicia, but brought up 32 in this city, educated with strictness 33 under 34 Gamaliel 35 according to the law of our ancestors, 36 and was 37 zealous 38 for God just as all of you are today. 22:4 I 39 persecuted this Way 40 even to the point of death, 41 tying up 42 both men and women and putting 43 them in prison, 22:5 as both the high priest and the whole council of elders 44 can testify about me. From them 45 I also received 46 letters to the brothers in Damascus, and I was on my way 47 to make arrests there and bring 48 the prisoners 49 to Jerusalem 50 to be punished. 22:6 As 51 I was en route and near Damascus, 52 about noon a very bright 53 light from heaven 54 suddenly flashed 55 around me. 22:7 Then I 56 fell to the ground and heard a voice saying to me, ‘Saul, Saul, why are you persecuting me?’ 22:8 I answered, ‘Who are you, Lord?’ He said to me, ‘I am Jesus the Nazarene, whom you are persecuting.’ 22:9 Those who were with me saw the light, but did not understand 57 the voice of the one who was speaking to me. 22:10 So I asked, 58 ‘What should I do, Lord?’ The Lord said to me, ‘Get up 59 and go to Damascus; there you will be told about everything 60 that you have been designated 61 to do.’ 22:11 Since I could not see because of 62 the brilliance 63 of that light, I came to Damascus led by the hand of 64 those who were with me. 22:12 A man named Ananias, 65 a devout man according to the law, 66 well spoken of by all the Jews who live there, 67 22:13 came 68 to me and stood beside me 69 and said to me, ‘Brother Saul, regain your sight!’ 70 And at that very moment 71 I looked up and saw him. 72 22:14 Then he said, ‘The God of our ancestors 73 has already chosen 74 you to know his will, to see 75 the Righteous One, 76 and to hear a command 77 from his mouth, 22:15 because you will be his witness 78 to all people 79 of what you have seen and heard. 22:16 And now what are you waiting for? 80 Get up, 81 be baptized, and have your sins washed away, 82 calling on his name.’ 83 22:17 When 84 I returned to Jerusalem and was praying in the temple, I fell into a trance 85 22:18 and saw the Lord 86 saying to me, ‘Hurry and get out of Jerusalem quickly, because they will not accept your testimony about me.’ 22:19 I replied, 87 ‘Lord, they themselves know that I imprisoned and beat those in the various synagogues 88 who believed in you. 22:20 And when the blood of your witness 89 Stephen was shed, 90 I myself was standing nearby, approving, 91 and guarding the cloaks 92 of those who were killing him.’ 93 22:21 Then 94 he said to me, ‘Go, because I will send you far away to the Gentiles.’”
22:22 The crowd 95 was listening to him until he said this. 96 Then 97 they raised their voices and shouted, 98 “Away with this man 99 from the earth! For he should not be allowed to live!” 100 22:23 While they were screaming 101 and throwing off their cloaks 102 and tossing dust 103 in the air, 22:24 the commanding officer 104 ordered Paul 105 to be brought back into the barracks. 106 He told them 107 to interrogate Paul 108 by beating him with a lash 109 so that he could find out the reason the crowd 110 was shouting at Paul 111 in this way. 22:25 When they had stretched him out for the lash, 112 Paul said to the centurion 113 standing nearby, “Is it legal for you to lash a man who is a Roman citizen 114 without a proper trial?” 115 22:26 When the centurion 116 heard this, 117 he went to the commanding officer 118 and reported it, 119 saying, “What are you about to do? 120 For this man is a Roman citizen.” 121 22:27 So the commanding officer 122 came and asked 123 Paul, 124 “Tell me, are you a Roman citizen?” 125 He replied, 126 “Yes.” 22:28 The commanding officer 127 answered, “I acquired this citizenship with a large sum of money.” 128 “But I was even 129 born a citizen,” 130 Paul replied. 131 22:29 Then those who were about to interrogate him stayed away 132 from him, and the commanding officer 133 was frightened when he realized that Paul 134 was 135 a Roman citizen 136 and that he had had him tied up. 137
2 tn Grk “says” (a historical present).
4 tn Grk “Is it permitted for me to say” (an idiom).
5 tn Grk “He”; the referent (the officer) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
6 tn Grk “said.”
7 sn “Do you know Greek?” Paul as an educated rabbi was bilingual. Paul’s request in Greek allowed the officer to recognize that Paul was not the violent insurrectionist he thought he had arrested (see following verse). The confusion of identities reveals the degree of confusion dominating these events.
9 tn Grk “of the Sicarii.”
sn The term ‘Assassins’ is found several times in the writings of Josephus (J. W. 2.13.3 [2.254-257]; Ant. 20.8.10 [20.186]). It was the name of the most fanatical group among the Jewish nationalists, very hostile to Rome, who did not hesitate to assassinate their political opponents. They were named Sicarii in Latin after their weapon of choice, the short dagger or sicarius which could be easily hidden under one’s clothing. In effect, the officer who arrested Paul had thought he was dealing with a terrorist.
10 tn Or “desert.”
11 tn Grk “before these days.”
12 tn Grk “said.”
13 tn Grk “a Jewish man.”
14 tn Grk “of a not insignificant city.” The double negative, common in Greek, is awkward in English and has been replaced by a corresponding positive expression (BDAG 142 s.v. ἄσημος 1).
15 tn Grk “I beg you.”
16 tn The referent (the commanding officer) has been supplied here in the translation for clarity.
17 tn Grk “Giving him permission.” The participle ἐπιτρέψαντος (epitreyanto") has been translated as a finite verb due to requirements of contemporary English style.
18 tn Grk “standing.” The participle ἑστώς (Jestws) has been translated as a finite verb due to requirements of contemporary English style.
19 tn Or “motioned.”
21 tn Or “spoke out to.” L&N 33.27 has “to address an audience, with possible emphasis upon loudness – ‘to address, to speak out to.’ πολλῆς δέ σιγῆς γενομένης προσεφώνησεν τῇ ᾿Εβραίδι διαλέκτῳ ‘when they were quiet, he addressed them in Hebrew’ Ac 21:40.”
22 tn Grk “in the Hebrew dialect, saying.” This refers to the Aramaic spoken in Palestine in the 1st century (BDAG 270 s.v. ῾Εβραΐς). The participle λέγων (legwn) is redundant in English and has not been translated.
23 sn Listen to my defense. This is the first of several speeches Paul would make in his own defense: Acts 24:10ff.; 25:8, 16; and 26:1ff. For the use of such a speech (“apologia”) in Greek, see Josephus, Ag. Ap. 2.15 [2.147]; Wis 6:10.
24 tn The adverb νυνί (nuni, “now”) is connected with the phrase τῆς πρὸς ὑμᾶς νυνὶ ἀπολογίας (th" pro" Juma" nuni apologia") rather than the verb ἀκούσατε (akousate), and the entire construction (prepositional phrase plus adverb) is in first attributive position and thus translated into English by a relative clause.
25 tn ἀκούσαντες (akousante") has been taken temporally.
26 tn Or “spoke out to.” L&N 33.27 has “to address an audience, with possible emphasis upon loudness – ‘to address, to speak out to.’ πολλῆς δέ σιγῆς γενομένης προσεφώνησεν τῇ ᾿Εβραίδι διαλέκτῳ ‘when they were quiet, he addressed them in Hebrew’ Ac 21:40.”
sn This is best taken as a parenthetical note by the author.
31 tn Grk “a Jewish man.”
33 tn Or “with precision.” Although often translated “strictly” this can be misunderstood for “solely” in English. BDAG 39 s.v. ἀκρίβεια gives the meaning as “exactness, precision.” To avoid the potential misunderstanding the translation “with strictness” is used, although it is slightly more awkward than “strictly.”
34 tn Grk “strictly at the feet of” (an idiom).
35 tn Or “brought up in this city under Gamaliel, educated with strictness…” The phrase παρὰ τοὺς πόδας Γαμαλιὴλ (para tou" poda" Gamalihl) could be understood with what precedes or with what follows. The punctuation of NA27 and UBS4, which place a comma after ταύτῃ (tauth), has been followed in the translation.
sn Gamaliel was a famous Jewish scholar and teacher mentioned here and in Acts 5:34. He had a grandson of the same name and is referred to as “Gamaliel the Elder” to avoid confusion. He is quoted a number of times in the Mishnah, was given the highest possible title for Jewish teachers, Rabba (cf. John 20:16), and was highly regarded in later rabbinic tradition.
36 tn Or “our forefathers.”
37 tn Grk “ancestors, being.” The participle ὑπάρχων (Juparcwn) has been translated as a finite verb due to requirements of contemporary English style.
39 tn Grk “who.” Because of the length and complexity of the Greek sentence, the relative pronoun (“who”) was translated by the first person pronoun (“I”) and a new sentence begun in the translation.
44 tn That is, the whole Sanhedrin. BDAG 861 s.v. πρεσβυτέριον has “an administrative group concerned with the interests of a specific community, council of elders – a. of the highest Judean council in Jerusalem, in our lit. usu. called συνέδριον…ὁ ἀρχιερεύς καὶ πᾶν τὸ πρ. Ac 22:5.”
45 tn Grk “from whom.” Because of the length and complexity of the Greek sentence, the relative pronoun (“whom”) was translated by the third person plural pronoun (“them”) and a new sentence begun in the translation.
46 tn Grk “receiving.” The participle δεξάμενος (dexameno") has been translated as a finite verb due to requirements of contemporary English style.
47 tn Grk “letters to the brothers, [and] I was going to Damascus.” Such a translation, however, might be confusing since the term “brother” is frequently used of a fellow Christian. In this context, Paul is speaking about fellow Jews.
48 tn Grk “even there and bring…” or “there and even bring…” The ascensive καί (kai) shows that Paul was fervent in his zeal against Christians, but it is difficult to translate for it really belongs with the entire idea of arresting and bringing back the prisoners.
50 tn Grk “I was going…to bring even those who were there to Jerusalem as prisoners that they might be punished.”
51 tn Grk “It happened that as.” The introductory phrase ἐγένετο (egeneto, “it happened that”), common in Luke (69 times) and Acts (54 times), is redundant in contemporary English and has not been translated.
52 tn Grk “going and nearing Damascus.”
54 tn Or “from the sky” (the same Greek word means both “heaven” and “sky”).
55 tn Or “shone.”
56 tn This is a continuation of the same sentence in Greek using the connective τέ (te), but due to the length and complexity of the Greek sentence a new sentence was begun in the translation here. To indicate the logical sequence for the modern English reader, τέ was translated as “then.”
57 tn Grk “did not hear” (but see Acts 9:7). BDAG 38 s.v. ἀκούω 7 has “W. acc. τὸν νόμον understand the law Gal 4:21; perh. Ac 22:9; 26:14…belong here.” If the word has this sense here, then a metonymy is present, since the lack of effect is put for a failure to appreciate what was heard.
58 tn Grk “So I said.”
59 tn Grk “Getting up.” The participle ἀναστάς (anasta") is an adverbial participle of attendant circumstance and has been translated as a finite verb.
60 tn Grk “about all things.”
61 tn Or “assigned,” “ordered.” BDAG 991 s.v. τάσσω 2.a has “act. and pass., foll. by acc. w. inf.…περὶ πάντων ὧν τέτακταί σοι ποιῆσαι concerning everything that you have been ordered to do 22:10.” There is an allusion to a divine call and commission here.
63 tn Or “brightness”; Grk “glory.”
64 tn Grk “by” (ὑπό, Jupo), but this would be too awkward in English following the previous “by.”
65 tn Grk “a certain Ananias.”
66 sn The law refers to the law of Moses.
68 tn Grk “coming.” The participle ἐλθών (elqwn) has been translated as a finite verb due to requirements of contemporary English style.
69 tn Grk “coming to me and standing beside [me] said to me.” The participle ἐπιστάς (epistas) has been translated as a finite verb due to requirements of contemporary English style.
70 tn Grk “Brother Saul, look up” (here an idiom for regaining one’s sight). BDAG 59 s.v. ἀναβλέπω places this usage under 1, “look up Ac 22:13a. W. εἰς αὐτόν to show the direction of the glance…22:13b; but perh. this vs. belongs under 2a.” BDAG 59 s.v. 2.a.α states, “of blind persons, who were formerly able to see, regain sight.” The problem for the translator is deciding between the literal and the idiomatic usage and at the same time attempting to retain the wordplay in Acts 22:13: “[Ananias] said to me, ‘Look up!’ and at that very moment I looked up to him.” The assumption of the command is that the effort to look up will be worth it (through the regaining of sight).
71 tn Grk “hour,” but ὥρα (Jwra) is often used for indefinite short periods of time (so BDAG 1102-3 s.v. ὥρα 2.c: “αὐτῇ τῇ ὥρᾳ at that very time, at once, instantly…Lk 2:38, 24:33; Ac 16:18; 22:13”). A comparison with the account in Acts 9:18 indicates that this is clearly the meaning here.
72 tn Grk “I looked up to him.”
73 tn Or “forefathers”; Grk “fathers.”
sn The expression God of our ancestors is a description of the God of Israel. The God of promise was at work again.
75 tn Grk “and to see.” This καί (kai) has not been translated since English normally uses a coordinating conjunction only between the last two elements in a series of three or more.
77 tn Or “a solemn declaration”; Grk “a voice.” BDAG 1071-72 s.v. φωνή 2.c states, “that which the voice gives expression to: call, cry, outcry, loud or solemn declaration (… = order, command)…Cp. 22:14; 24:21.”
78 tn Or “a witness to him.”
79 tn Grk “all men,” but this is a generic use of ἄνθρωπος (anqrwpo").
80 tn L&N 67.121 has “to extend time unduly, with the implication of lack of decision – ‘to wait, to delay.’ νῦν τί μέλλεις… ἀναστὰς βάπτισαι ‘what are you waiting for? Get up and be baptized’ Ac 22:16.”
81 tn Grk “getting up.” The participle ἀναστάς (anasta") is an adverbial participle of attendant circumstance and has been translated as a finite verb.
82 sn The expression have your sins washed away means “have your sins purified” (the washing is figurative).
84 tn Grk “It happened to me that.” The introductory phrase ἐγένετο (egeneto, “it happened that”), common in Luke (69 times) and Acts (54 times), is redundant in contemporary English and has not been translated.
87 tn Grk “And I said.” Because of the difference between Greek style, which often begins sentences or clauses with “and,” and English style, which generally does not, καί (kai, in καγώ [kagw]) has not been translated here.
88 tn For the distributive sense of the expression κατὰ τὰς συναγωγάς (kata ta" sunagwga") BDAG 512 s.v. κατά B.1.d has “of places viewed serially, distributive use w. acc.…κατ᾿ οἶκαν from house to house…Ac 2:46b; 5:42…Likew. the pl.…κ. τὰς συναγωγάς 22:19.” See also L&N 37.114.
sn See the note on synagogue in 6:9.
89 sn Now Paul referred to Stephen as your witness, and he himself had also become a witness. The reversal was now complete; the opponent had now become a proponent.
90 sn When the blood of your witness Stephen was shed means “when your witness Stephen was murdered.”
91 tn Grk “and approving.” This καί (kai) has not been translated since English normally uses a coordinating conjunction only between the last two elements in a series of three or more.
92 tn Or “outer garments.”
sn The cloaks. The outer garment, or cloak, was taken off and laid aside to leave the arms free (in this case for throwing stones).
93 tn Or “who were putting him to death.” For the translation of ἀναιρούντων (anairountwn) as “putting to death” see BDAG 64 s.v. ἀναιρέω 2.
95 tn Grk “They were listening”; the referent (the crowd) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
96 tn Grk “until this word.”
sn Until he said this. Note it is the mention of Paul’s mission to the Gentiles with its implication of ethnic openness that is so disturbing to the audience.
97 tn Grk “And.” To indicate the logical sequence, καί (kai) has been translated as “then” here.
98 tn Grk “and said.”
99 tn Grk “this one.”
100 tn BDAG 491 s.v. καθήκω has “to be appropriate, come/reach to, be proper/fitting…Usu. impers. καθήκει it comes (to someone)…foll. by acc. and inf….οὐ καθῆκεν αὐτὸν ζῆν he should not be allowed to live Ac 22:22.”
101 tn The participle κραυγαζόντων (kraugazontwn) has been translated temporally.
102 tn Or “outer garments.”
sn Their cloaks. The outer garment, or cloak, was taken off and laid aside to leave the arms free (perhaps in this case as preparation for throwing stones).
103 sn The crowd’s act of tossing dust in the air indicated they had heard something disturbing and offensive. This may have been a symbolic gesture, indicating Paul’s words deserved to be thrown to the wind, or it may have simply resulted from the fact they had nothing else to throw at him at the moment.
104 tn Grk “the chiliarch” (an officer in command of a thousand soldiers). In Greek the term χιλίαρχος (ciliarco") literally described the “commander of a thousand,” but it was used as the standard translation for the Latin tribunus militum or tribunus militare, the military tribune who commanded a cohort of 600 men.
105 tn Grk “him”; the referent (Paul) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
107 tn Grk “into the barracks, saying.” This is a continuation of the same sentence in Greek using the participle εἴπας (eipas), but due to the length and complexity of the Greek sentence a new sentence was begun in the translation here. The direct object “them” has been supplied; it is understood in Greek.
108 tn Grk “him”; the referent (Paul) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
109 sn To interrogate Paul by beating him with a lash. Under the Roman legal system it was customary to use physical torture to extract confessions or other information from prisoners who were not Roman citizens and who were charged with various crimes, especially treason or sedition. The lashing would be done with a whip of leather thongs with pieces of metal or bone attached to the ends.
110 tn Grk “they”; the referent (the crowd) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
111 tn Grk “him”; the referent (Paul) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
112 tn Grk “for the thongs” (of which the lash was made). Although often translated as a dative of means (“with thongs”), referring to thongs used to tie the victim to the whipping post, BDAG 474-75 s.v. ἱμάς states that it “is better taken as a dat. of purpose for the thongs, in which case οἱ ἱμάντες = whips (Posidonius: 87 fgm. 5 Jac.; POxy. 1186, 2 τὴν διὰ τῶν ἱμάντων αἰκείαν. – Antiphanes 74, 8, Demosth. 19, 197 and Artem. 1, 70 use the sing. in this way).”
114 tn The word “citizen” is supplied here for emphasis and clarity.
115 tn Or “a Roman citizen and uncondemned.” BDAG 35 s.v. ἀκατάκριτος has “uncondemned, without due process” for this usage.
sn The fact that Paul was a Roman citizen protected him from being tortured to extract information; such protections were guaranteed by the Porcian and Julian law codes. In addition, the fact Paul had not been tried exempted him from punishment.
117 tn The word “this” is not in the Greek text but is implied. Direct objects were often omitted in Greek when clear from the context, but must be supplied for the modern English reader.
119 tn The word “it” is not in the Greek text but is implied. Direct objects were often omitted in Greek when clear from the context, but must be supplied for the modern English reader.
120 tn Or perhaps, “What do you intend to do?” Although BDAG 627 s.v. μέλλω 1.c.α lists this phrase under the category “be about to, be on the point of,” it is possible it belongs under 1.c.γ, “denoting an intended action: intend, propose, have in mind…τί μέλλεις ποιεῖν; what do you intend to do?”
121 tn The word “citizen” is supplied here for emphasis and clarity.
123 tn Grk “and said to.”
124 tn Grk “him”; the referent (Paul) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
125 tn The word “citizen” is supplied here for emphasis and clarity.
126 tn Grk “He said.”
128 sn Sometimes Roman citizenship was purchased through a bribe (Dio Cassius, Roman History 60.17.4-9). That may well have been the case here.
130 tn The word “citizen” is supplied here for emphasis and clarity.
sn Paul’s reference to being born a citizen suggests he inherited his Roman citizenship from his family.
131 tn Grk “Paul said.” This phrase has been placed at the end of the sentence in the translation for stylistic reasons.
132 tn BDAG 158 s.v. ἀφίστημι 2.b has “keep away…ἀπό τινος… Lk 4:13; Ac 5:38; 2 Cor 12:8…cp. Ac 22:29.” In context, the point would seem to be not that the interrogators departed or withdrew, but that they held back from continuing the flogging.
134 tn Grk “he”; the referent (Paul) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
135 tn This is a present tense (ἐστιν, estin) retained in indirect discourse. It must be translated as a past tense in contemporary English.
136 tn The word “citizen” is supplied here for emphasis and clarity.
137 sn Had him tied up. Perhaps a reference to the chains in Acts 21:33, or the preparations for the lashing in Acts 22:25. A trial would now be needed to resolve the matter. The Roman authorities’ hesitation to render a judgment in the case occurs repeatedly: Acts 22:30; 23:28-29; 24:22; 25:20, 26-27. The legal process begun here would take the rest of Acts and will be unresolved at the end. The process itself took four years of Paul’s life.