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Acts 20:3-28

Context
20:3 where he stayed 1  for three months. Because the Jews had made 2  a plot 3  against him as he was intending 4  to sail 5  for Syria, he decided 6  to return through Macedonia. 7  20:4 Paul 8  was accompanied by Sopater son of Pyrrhus from Berea, 9  Aristarchus and Secundus from Thessalonica, 10  Gaius 11  from Derbe, 12  and Timothy, as well as Tychicus and Trophimus from the province of Asia. 13  20:5 These had gone on ahead 14  and were waiting for us in Troas. 15  20:6 We 16  sailed away from Philippi 17  after the days of Unleavened Bread, 18  and within five days 19  we came to the others 20  in Troas, 21  where we stayed for seven days. 20:7 On the first day 22  of the week, when we met 23  to break bread, Paul began to speak 24  to the people, and because he intended 25  to leave the next day, he extended 26  his message until midnight. 20:8 (Now there were many lamps 27  in the upstairs room where we were meeting.) 28  20:9 A young man named Eutychus, who was sitting in the window, 29  was sinking 30  into a deep sleep while Paul continued to speak 31  for a long time. Fast asleep, 32  he fell down from the third story and was picked up dead. 20:10 But Paul went down, 33  threw himself 34  on the young man, 35  put his arms around him, 36  and said, “Do not be distressed, for he is still alive!” 37  20:11 Then Paul 38  went back upstairs, 39  and after he had broken bread and eaten, he talked with them 40  a long time, until dawn. Then he left. 20:12 They took the boy home alive and were greatly 41  comforted.

The Voyage to Miletus

20:13 We went on ahead 42  to the ship and put out to sea 43  for Assos, 44  intending 45  to take Paul aboard there, for he had arranged it this way. 46  He 47  himself was intending 48  to go there by land. 49  20:14 When he met us in Assos, 50  we took him aboard 51  and went to Mitylene. 52  20:15 We set sail 53  from there, and on the following day we arrived off Chios. 54  The next day we approached 55  Samos, 56  and the day after that we arrived at Miletus. 57  20:16 For Paul had decided to sail past Ephesus 58  so as not to spend time 59  in the province of Asia, 60  for he was hurrying 61  to arrive in Jerusalem, 62  if possible, 63  by the day of Pentecost. 20:17 From Miletus 64  he sent a message 65  to Ephesus, telling the elders of the church to come to him. 66 

20:18 When they arrived, he said to them, “You yourselves know how I lived 67  the whole time I was with you, from the first day I set foot 68  in the province of Asia, 69  20:19 serving the Lord with all humility 70  and with tears, and with the trials that happened to me because of the plots 71  of the Jews. 20:20 You know that I did not hold back from proclaiming 72  to you anything that would be helpful, 73  and from teaching you publicly 74  and from house to house, 20:21 testifying 75  to both Jews and Greeks about repentance toward God and faith in our Lord Jesus. 76  20:22 And now, 77  compelled 78  by the Spirit, I am going to Jerusalem 79  without knowing what will happen to me there, 80  20:23 except 81  that the Holy Spirit warns 82  me in town after town 83  that 84  imprisonment 85  and persecutions 86  are waiting for me. 20:24 But I do not consider my life 87  worth anything 88  to myself, so that 89  I may finish my task 90  and the ministry that I received from the Lord Jesus, to testify to the good news 91  of God’s grace.

20:25 “And now 92  I know that none 93  of you among whom I went around proclaiming the kingdom 94  will see me 95  again. 20:26 Therefore I declare 96  to you today that I am innocent 97  of the blood of you all. 98  20:27 For I did not hold back from 99  announcing 100  to you the whole purpose 101  of God. 20:28 Watch out for 102  yourselves and for all the flock of which 103  the Holy Spirit has made you overseers, 104  to shepherd the church of God 105  that he obtained 106  with the blood of his own Son. 107 

Acts 20:31

Context
20:31 Therefore be alert, 108  remembering that night and day for three years I did not stop warning 109  each one of you with tears.

1 tn BDAG 841 s.v. ποιέω 5.c, “w. an acc. of time spend, stay.”

2 tn The participle βενομένης (benomenh") has been translated as a causal adverbial participle. L&N 30.71 has “ἐπιβουλῆς αὐτῷ ὑπὸ τῶν ᾿Ιουδαίων ‘because the Jews had made a plot against him’ Ac 20:3.”

3 sn This plot is one of several noted by Luke (Acts 9:20; 20:19; 23:30).

4 tn BDAG 628 s.v. μέλλω 1.c.γ has “denoting an intended action: intend, propose, have in mindAc 17:31; 20:3, 7, 13ab; 23:15; 26:2; 27:30.”

5 tn BDAG 62 s.v. ἀνάγω 4 gives “put out to sea” here (as a nautical technical term). However, since the English expression “put out to sea” could be understood to mean Paul was already aboard the ship (which is not clear from the context), the simpler expression “sail” is used at this point in the translation.

6 tn BDAG 199 s.v. γίνομαι 7 has “ἐγένετο γνώμης he decided Ac 20:3.”

7 sn Macedonia was the Roman province of Macedonia in Greece.

8 tn Grk “He”; the referent (Paul) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

9 sn Berea (alternate spelling in NRSV Beroea; Greek Beroia) was a very old city in Macedonia on the river Astraeus about 45 mi (75 km) from Thessalonica.

map For location see JP1 C1; JP2 C1; JP3 C1; JP4 C1.

10 tn Grk “of the Thessalonians.”

map For location see JP1 C1; JP2 C1; JP3 C1; JP4 C1.

11 tn Grk “and Gaius,” but this καί (kai) has not been translated since English normally uses a coordinating conjunction only between the last two elements in a series of three or more.

12 sn Derbe was a city in Lycaonia about 30 mi (50 km) southeast of Lystra.

map For location see JP1 E2; JP2 E2; JP3 E2.

13 tn Grk “the Asians Tychicus and Trophimus.” In the NT “Asia” always refers to the Roman province of Asia, made up of about one-third of the west and southwest end of modern Asia Minor. Asia lay to the west of the region of Phrygia and Galatia. The words “the province of” are supplied to indicate to the modern reader that this does not refer to the continent of Asia.

14 tn Grk “These, having gone on ahead, were waiting.” The participle προελθόντες (proelqonte") has been translated as a finite verb due to requirements of contemporary English style.

15 sn Troas was a port city (and surrounding region) on the northwest coast of Asia Minor.

16 sn This marks the beginning of another “we” section in Acts. These have been traditionally understood to mean that Luke was in the company of Paul for this part of the journey.

17 map For location see JP1 C1; JP2 C1; JP3 C1; JP4 C1.

18 sn The days of Unleavened Bread refer to the week following Passover. Originally an agricultural festival commemorating the beginning of harvest, it was celebrated for seven days beginning on the fifteenth day of the month Nisan (March-April). It was later combined with Passover (Exod 12:1-20; Ezek 45:21-24; Matt 26:17; Luke 22:1).

19 tn BDAG 160 s.v. ἄχρι 1.a.α has “. ἡμερῶν πέντε within five days Ac 20:6.”

20 tn Grk “to them”; the referent (the others mentioned in v. 4) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

21 sn Troas was a port city (and surrounding region) on the northwest coast of Asia Minor. From Philippi to Troas was about 125 mi (200 km).

22 sn On the first day. This is the first mention of a Sunday gathering (1 Cor 16:2).

23 tn Or “assembled.”

24 tn The verb διαλέγομαι (dialegomai) is frequently used of Paul addressing Jews in the synagogue. As G. Schrenk (TDNT 2:94-95) points out, “What is at issue is the address which any qualified member of a synagogue might give.” Other examples of this may be found in the NT in Matt 4:23 and Mark 1:21. In the context of a Christian gathering, it is preferable to translate διελέγετο (dielegeto) simply as “speak” here. The imperfect verb διελέγετο has been translated as an ingressive imperfect.

25 tn BDAG 628 s.v. μέλλω 1.c.γ has “denoting an intended action: intend, propose, have in mindAc 17:31; 20:3, 7, 13ab; 23:15; 26:2; 27:30.”

26 tn Or “prolonged.”

27 tn More commonly λαμπάς (lampa") means “torch,” but here according to BDAG 585 s.v. λαμπάς 2, “lamp…w. a wick and space for oil.”

28 sn This is best taken as a parenthetical note by the author.

29 tn This window was probably a simple opening in the wall (see also BDAG 462 s.v. θυρίς).

30 tn Grk “sinking into a deep sleep.” BDAG 529 s.v. καταφέρω 3 has “ὕπνῳ βαθεῖ sink into a deep sleepAc 20:9a.” The participle καταφερόμενος (kataferomeno") has been translated as a finite verb due to requirements of contemporary English style.

31 tn The participle διαλεγομένου (dialegomenou) has been taken temporally.

32 tn BDAG 529 s.v. καταφέρω 3 has “κατενεχθεὶς ἀπὸ τοῦ ὔπνου overwhelmed by sleep vs. 9b,” but this expression is less common in contemporary English than phrases like “fast asleep” or “sound asleep.”

33 tn Grk “going down.” The participle καταβάς (katabas) has been translated as a finite verb due to requirements of contemporary English style.

34 tn BDAG 377 s.v. ἐπιπίπτω 1.b has “ἐπέπεσεν αὐτῷ he threw himself upon him Ac 20:10.”

35 tn Grk “on him”; the referent (the young man) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

36 tn BDAG 959 s.v. συμπεριλαμβάνω has “to throw one’s arms around, embrace w. acc. to be supplied Ac 20:10.” However, “embraced the young man” might be taken (out of context) to have erotic implications, while “threw his arms around him” would be somewhat redundant since “threw” has been used in the previous phrase.

37 tn Grk “for his life is in him” (an idiom).

38 tn Grk “he”; the referent (Paul) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

39 tn Grk “going back upstairs.” The participle ἀναβάς (anabas) has been translated as a finite verb due to requirements of contemporary English style.

40 tn Grk “talking with them.” The participle ὁμιλήσας (Jomilhsas) has been translated as a finite verb due to requirements of contemporary English style.

41 tn Grk “were not to a moderate degree” (an idiom). L&N 78.11 states: “μετρίως: a moderate degree of some activity or state – ‘moderately, to a moderate extent.’ ἤγαγον δὲ τὸν παῖδα ζῶντα, καὶ παρεκλήθησαν οὐ μετρίωθς ‘they took the young man home alive and were greatly comforted’ Ac 20:12. In Ac 20:12 the phrase οὐ μετρίως, literally ‘not to a moderate degree,’ is equivalent to a strong positive statement, namely, ‘greatly’ or ‘to a great extent.’”

42 tn Grk “going on ahead.” The participle προελθόντες (proelqonte") has been translated as a finite verb due to requirements of contemporary English style.

43 tn BDAG 62 s.v. ἀνάγω 4, “as a nautical t.t. (. τὴν ναῦν put a ship to sea), mid. or pass. ἀνάγεσθαι to begin to go by boat, put out to sea.”

44 sn Assos was a city of Mysia about 24 mi (40 km) southeast of Troas.

45 tn BDAG 628 s.v. μέλλω 1.c.γ has “denoting an intended action: intend, propose, have in mindAc 17:31; 20:3, 7, 13ab; 23:15; 26:2; 27:30.”

46 tn Or “for he told us to do this.” Grk “for having arranged it this way, he.” The participle διατεταγμένος (diatetagmeno") has been translated as a finite verb due to requirements of contemporary English style. BDAG 237 s.v. διατάσσω 1 has “οὕτως διατεταγμένος ἦν he had arranged it so Ac 20:13.” L&N 15.224 has “‘he told us to do this.”

47 tn A new sentence was begun here in the translation because of the length and complexity of the Greek sentence; in Greek this is part of the preceding sentence beginning “We went on ahead.”

48 tn BDAG 628 s.v. μέλλω 1.c.γ has “denoting an intended action: intend, propose, have in mindAc 17:31; 20:3, 7, 13ab; 23:15; 26:2; 27:30.”

49 tn Or “there on foot.”

50 sn Assos was a city of Mysia about 24 mi (40 km) southeast of Troas.

51 tn Grk “taking him aboard, we.” The participle ἀναλαβόντες (analabonte") has been translated as a finite verb due to requirements of contemporary English style.

52 sn Mitylene was the most important city on the island of Lesbos in the Aegean Sea. It was about 44 mi (70 km) from Assos.

53 tn Grk “setting sail from there.” The participle ἀποπλεύσαντες (apopleusante") has been translated as a finite verb due to requirements of contemporary English style.

54 tn Or “offshore from Chios.”

sn Chios was an island in the Aegean Sea off the western coast of Asia Minor with a city of the same name.

55 tn Or “crossed over to,” “arrived at.” L&N 54.12 has “παραβάλλω: (a technical, nautical term) to sail up to or near – ‘to approach, to arrive at, to sail to.’ παρεβάλομεν εἰς Σάμον ‘we approached Samos’ or ‘we arrived at Samos’ Ac 20:15.”

56 sn Samos is an island in the Aegean Sea off the western coast of Asia Minor.

57 sn Miletus was a seaport on the western coast of Asia Minor about 40 mi (70 km) south of Ephesus. From Mitylene to Miletus was about 125 mi (200 km).

58 map For location see JP1 D2; JP2 D2; JP3 D2; JP4 D2.

59 tn Grk “so that he might not have to spend time.” L&N 67.79 has “ὅπως μὴ γένηται αὐτῷ χρονοτριβῆσαι ἐν τῇ ᾿Ασίᾳ ‘so as not to spend any time in the province of Asia’ Ac 20:16.”

60 tn Grk “Asia”; in the NT this always refers to the Roman province of Asia, made up of about one-third of the west and southwest end of modern Asia Minor. Asia lay to the west of the region of Phrygia and Galatia. The words “the province of” are supplied to indicate to the modern reader that this does not refer to the continent of Asia.

61 tn Or “was eager.”

62 map For location see Map5 B1; Map6 F3; Map7 E2; Map8 F2; Map10 B3; JP1 F4; JP2 F4; JP3 F4; JP4 F4.

63 tn Grk “if it could be to him” (an idiom).

64 sn Miletus was a seaport on the western coast of Asia Minor about 45 mi (72 km) south of Ephesus.

65 tn The words “a message” are not in the Greek text, but are implied. Direct objects were often omitted in Greek when clear from the context, but must be supplied for the modern English reader.

66 tn The words “to him” are not in the Greek text but are implied. L&N 33.311 has for the verb μετακαλέομαι (metakaleomai) “to summon someone, with considerable insistence and authority – ‘to summon, to tell to come.’”

67 tn Grk “You yourselves know, from the first day I set foot in Asia, how I was with you the whole time.” This could be understood to mean “how I stayed with you the whole time,” but the following verses make it clear that Paul’s lifestyle while with the Ephesians is in view here. Thus the translation “how I lived the whole time I was with you” makes this clear.

68 tn Or “I arrived.” BDAG 367 s.v. ἐπιβαίνω 2, “set foot in…εἰς τ. ᾿Ασίαν set foot in Asia Ac 20:18.” However, L&N 15.83 removes the idiom: “you know that since the first day that I came to Asia.”

69 tn Grk “Asia”; see the note on this word in v. 16.

70 sn On humility see 2 Cor 10:1; 11:7; 1 Thess 2:6; Col 3:12; Eph 4:2; Phil 2:3-11.

71 sn These plots are mentioned in Acts 9:24; 20:13.

72 tn Or “declaring.”

73 tn Or “profitable.” BDAG 960 s.v. συμφέρω 2.b.α has “τὰ συμφέροντα what advances your best interests or what is good for you Ac 20:20,” but the broader meaning (s.v. 2, “to be advantageous, help, confer a benefit, be profitable/useful”) is equally possible in this context.

74 tn Or “openly.”

75 tn BDAG 233 s.v. διαμαρτύρομαι 1 has “testify of, bear witness to (orig. under oath)…of repentance to Judeans and Hellenes Ac 20:21.”

76 tc Several mss, including some of the more important ones (Ì74 א Α C [D] E 33 36 323 945 1175 1241 1505 1739 pm and a number of versions), read Χριστόν (Criston, “Christ”) at the end of this verse. This word is lacking in B H L P Ψ 614 pm. Although the inclusion is supported by many earlier and better mss, internal evidence is on the side of the omission: In Acts, both “Lord Jesus” and “Lord Jesus Christ” occur, though between 16:31 and the end of the book “Lord Jesus Christ” appears only in 28:31, perhaps as a kind of climactic assertion. Thus, the shorter reading is to be preferred.

sn Repentance toward God and faith in our Lord Jesus. Note the twofold description of the message. It is a turning to God involving faith in Jesus Christ.

77 tn Grk “And now, behold.” Here ἰδού (idou) has not been translated.

78 tn Grk “bound.”

79 sn This journey to Jerusalem suggests a parallel between Paul and Jesus, since the “Jerusalem journey” motif figures so prominently in Luke’s Gospel (9:51-19:44).

80 tn BDAG 965 s.v. συναντάω 2 has τὰ ἐν αὐτῇ συναντήσοντα ἐμοὶ μὴ εἰδώς without knowing what will happen to me there Ac 20:22.”

81 tn BDAG 826 s.v. πλήν 1.d has “πλὴν ὅτι except thatAc 20:23.”

82 tn The verb διαμαρτύρομαι (diamarturomai) can mean “warn” (BDAG 233 s.v. διαμαρτύρομαι 2 has “solemnly urge, exhort, warn…w. dat. of pers. addressed”), and this meaning better fits the context here, although BDAG categorizes Acts 20:23 under the meaning “testify of, bear witness to” (s.v. 1).

83 tn The Greek text here reads κατὰ πόλιν (kata polin).

84 tn Grk “saying that,” but the participle λέγον (legon) is redundant in English and has not been translated.

85 tn Grk “bonds.”

86 tn Or “troubles,” “suffering.” See Acts 19:21; 21:4, 11.

87 tn Grk “soul.”

88 tn Or “I do not consider my life worth a single word.” According to BDAG 599 s.v. λόγος 1.a.α, “In the textually uncertain pass. Ac 20:24 the text as it stands in N., οὐδενὸς λόγου (v.l. λόγον) ποιοῦμαι τὴν ψυχὴν τιμίαν, may well mean: I do not consider my life worth a single word (cp. λόγου ἄξιον [ἄξιος 1a] and our ‘worth mention’).”

89 tn BDAG 1106 s.v. ὡς 9 describes this use as “a final particle, expressing intention/purpose, with a view to, in order to.”

90 tn Grk “course.” See L&N 42.26, “(a figurative extension of meaning of δρόμος ‘race’) a task or function involving continuity, serious, effort, and possibly obligation – ‘task, mission’…Ac 20:24.” On this Pauline theme see also Phil 1:19-26; Col 1:24; 2 Tim 4:6-7.

91 tn Or “to the gospel.”

92 tn Grk “And now, behold.” Here ἰδού (idou) has not been translated.

93 tn Grk “all of you…will not see.” Greek handles its negation somewhat differently from English, and the translation follows English grammatical conventions.

94 sn Note how Paul’s usage of the expression proclaiming the kingdom is associated with (and intertwined with) his testifying to the good news of God’s grace in v. 24. For Paul the two concepts were interrelated.

95 tn Grk “will see my face” (an idiom for seeing someone in person).

96 tn Or “testify.”

97 tn Grk “clean, pure,” thus “guiltless” (BDAG 489 s.v. καθαρός 3.a).

sn I am innocent. Paul had a clear conscience, since he had faithfully carried out his responsibility of announcing to (the Ephesians) the whole purpose of God.

98 tn That is, “that if any of you should be lost, I am not responsible” (an idiom). According to L&N 33.223, the meaning of the phrase “that I am innocent of the blood of all of you” is “that if any of you should be lost, I am not responsible.” However, due to the length of this phrase and its familiarity to many modern English readers, the translation was kept closer to formal equivalence in this case. The word “you” is not in the Greek text, but is implied; Paul is addressing the Ephesian congregation (in the person of its elders) in both v. 25 and 27.

99 tn Or “did not avoid.” BDAG 1041 s.v. ὑποστέλλω 2.b has “shrink from, avoid implying fear…οὐ γὰρ ὑπεστειλάμην τοῦ μὴ ἀναγγεῖλαι I did not shrink from proclaiming Ac 20:27”; L&N 13.160 has “to hold oneself back from doing something, with the implication of some fearful concern – ‘to hold back from, to shrink from, to avoid’…‘for I have not held back from announcing to you the whole purpose of God’ Ac 20:27.”

100 tn Or “proclaiming,” “declaring.”

101 tn Or “plan.”

102 tn Or “Be on your guard for” (cf. v. 29). Paul completed his responsibility to the Ephesians with this warning.

103 tn Grk “in which.”

104 tn Or “guardians.” BDAG 379-80 s.v. ἐπίσκοπος 2 states, “The term was taken over in Christian communities in ref. to one who served as overseer or supervisor, with special interest in guarding the apostolic tradition…Ac 20:28.” This functional term describes the role of the elders (see v. 17). They were to guard and shepherd the congregation.

105 tc The reading “of God” (τοῦ θεοῦ, tou qeou) is found in א B 614 1175 1505 al vg sy; other witnesses have “of the Lord” (τοῦ κυρίου, tou kuriou) here (so Ì74 A C* D E Ψ 33 1739 al co), while the majority of the later minuscule mss conflate these two into “of the Lord and God” (τοῦ κυρίου καὶ [τοῦ] θεοῦ, tou kuriou kai [tou] qeou). Although the evidence is evenly balanced between the first two readings, τοῦ θεοῦ is decidedly superior on internal grounds. The final prepositional phrase of this verse, διὰ τοῦ αἵματος τοῦ ἰδίου (dia tou {aimato" tou idiou), could be rendered “through his own blood” or “through the blood of his own.” In the latter translation, the object that “own” modifies must be supplied (see tn below for discussion). But this would not be entirely clear to scribes; those who supposed that ἰδίου modified αἵματος would be prone to alter “God” to “Lord” to avoid the inference that God had blood. In a similar way, later scribes would be prone to conflate the two titles, thereby affirming the deity (with the construction τοῦ κυρίου καὶ θεοῦ following the Granville Sharp rule and referring to a single person [see ExSyn 272, 276-77, 290]) and substitutionary atonement of Christ. For these reasons, τοῦ θεοῦ best explains the rise of the other readings and should be considered authentic.

106 tn Or “acquired.”

107 tn Or “with his own blood”; Grk “with the blood of his own.” The genitive construction could be taken in two ways: (1) as an attributive genitive (second attributive position) meaning “his own blood”; or (2) as a possessive genitive, “with the blood of his own.” In this case the referent is the Son, and the referent has been specified in the translation for clarity. See further C. F. DeVine, “The Blood of God,” CBQ 9 (1947): 381-408.

sn That he obtained with the blood of his own Son. This is one of only two explicit statements in Luke-Acts highlighting the substitutionary nature of Christ’s death (the other is in Luke 22:19).

108 tn Or “be watchful.”

109 tn Or “admonishing.”



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