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Acts 13:5-44

Context
13:5 When 1  they arrived 2  in Salamis, 3  they began to proclaim 4  the word of God in the Jewish synagogues. 5  (Now they also had John 6  as their assistant.) 7  13:6 When they had crossed over 8  the whole island as far as Paphos, 9  they found a magician, a Jewish false prophet named Bar-Jesus, 10  13:7 who was with the proconsul 11  Sergius Paulus, an intelligent man. The proconsul 12  summoned 13  Barnabas and Saul and wanted to hear 14  the word of God. 13:8 But the magician Elymas 15  (for that is the way his name is translated) 16  opposed them, trying to turn the proconsul 17  away from the faith. 13:9 But Saul (also known as Paul), 18  filled with the Holy Spirit, 19  stared straight 20  at him 13:10 and said, “You who are full of all deceit and all wrongdoing, 21  you son of the devil, you enemy of all righteousness – will you not stop making crooked the straight paths of the Lord? 22  13:11 Now 23  look, the hand of the Lord is against 24  you, and you will be blind, unable to see the sun for a time!” Immediately mistiness 25  and darkness came over 26  him, and he went around seeking people 27  to lead him by the hand. 13:12 Then when the proconsul 28  saw what had happened, he believed, 29  because he was greatly astounded 30  at the teaching about 31  the Lord.

Paul and Barnabas at Pisidian Antioch

13:13 Then Paul and his companions put out to sea 32  from Paphos 33  and came to Perga 34  in Pamphylia, 35  but John 36  left them and returned to Jerusalem. 37  13:14 Moving on from 38  Perga, 39  they arrived at Pisidian Antioch, 40  and on the Sabbath day they went into 41  the synagogue 42  and sat down. 13:15 After the reading from the law and the prophets, 43  the leaders of the synagogue 44  sent them a message, 45  saying, “Brothers, 46  if you have any message 47  of exhortation 48  for the people, speak it.” 49  13:16 So Paul stood up, 50  gestured 51  with his hand and said,

“Men of Israel, 52  and you Gentiles who fear God, 53  listen: 13:17 The God of this people Israel 54  chose our ancestors 55  and made the people great 56  during their stay as foreigners 57  in the country 58  of Egypt, and with uplifted arm 59  he led them out of it. 13:18 For 60  a period of about forty years he put up with 61  them in the wilderness. 62  13:19 After 63  he had destroyed 64  seven nations 65  in the land of Canaan, he gave his people their land as an inheritance. 66  13:20 All this took 67  about four hundred fifty years. After this 68  he gave them judges until the time of 69  Samuel the prophet. 13:21 Then they asked for a king, and God gave them Saul son of Kish, a man from the tribe of Benjamin, who ruled 70  forty years. 13:22 After removing him, God 71  raised up 72  David their king. He testified about him: 73 I have found David 74  the son of Jesse to be a man after my heart, 75  who will accomplish everything I want him to do.’ 76  13:23 From the descendants 77  of this man 78  God brought to Israel a Savior, Jesus, just as he promised. 79  13:24 Before 80  Jesus 81  arrived, John 82  had proclaimed a baptism for repentance 83  to all the people of Israel. 13:25 But while John was completing his mission, 84  he said repeatedly, 85  ‘What do you think I am? I am not he. But look, one is coming after me. I am not worthy to untie the sandals on his feet!’ 86  13:26 Brothers, 87  descendants 88  of Abraham’s family, 89  and those Gentiles among you who fear God, 90  the message 91  of this salvation has been sent to us. 13:27 For the people who live in Jerusalem and their rulers did not recognize 92  him, 93  and they fulfilled the sayings 94  of the prophets that are read every Sabbath by condemning 95  him. 96  13:28 Though 97  they found 98  no basis 99  for a death sentence, 100  they asked Pilate to have him executed. 13:29 When they had accomplished 101  everything that was written 102  about him, they took him down 103  from the cross 104  and placed him 105  in a tomb. 13:30 But God raised 106  him from the dead, 13:31 and 107  for many days he appeared to those who had accompanied 108  him from Galilee to Jerusalem. These 109  are now his witnesses to the people. 13:32 And we proclaim to you the good news about the promise to our ancestors, 110  13:33 that this promise 111  God has fulfilled to us, their children, by raising 112  Jesus, as also it is written in the second psalm, ‘You are my Son; 113  today I have fathered you.’ 114  13:34 But regarding the fact that he has raised Jesus 115  from the dead, never 116  again to be 117  in a state of decay, God 118  has spoken in this way: ‘I will give you 119  the holy and trustworthy promises 120  made to David.’ 121  13:35 Therefore he also says in another psalm, 122 You will not permit your Holy One 123  to experience 124  decay.’ 125  13:36 For David, after he had served 126  God’s purpose in his own generation, died, 127  was buried with his ancestors, 128  and experienced 129  decay, 13:37 but the one 130  whom God raised up did not experience 131  decay. 13:38 Therefore let it be known to you, brothers, that through this one 132  forgiveness of sins is proclaimed to you, 13:39 and by this one 133  everyone who believes is justified 134  from everything from which the law of Moses could not justify 135  you. 136  13:40 Watch out, 137  then, that what is spoken about by 138  the prophets does not happen to you:

13:41Look, you scoffers; be amazed and perish! 139 

For I am doing a work in your days,

a work you would never believe, even if someone tells you.’” 140 

13:42 As Paul and Barnabas 141  were going out, 142  the people 143  were urging 144  them to speak about these things 145  on the next Sabbath. 13:43 When the meeting of the synagogue 146  had broken up, 147  many of the Jews and God-fearing proselytes 148  followed Paul and Barnabas, who were speaking with them and were persuading 149  them 150  to continue 151  in the grace of God.

13:44 On the next Sabbath almost the whole city assembled together to hear the word of the Lord. 152 

1 tn Grk “And when.” Because of the difference between Greek style, which often begins sentences or clauses with “and,” and English style, which generally does not, καί (kai) has not been translated here.

2 tn The participle γενόμενοι (genomenoi) is taken temporally.

3 sn Salamis was a city on the southeastern coast of the island of Cyprus. This was a commercial center and a center of Judaism.

4 tn The imperfect verb κατήγγελλον (kathngellon) has been translated as an ingressive imperfect.

5 sn See the note on synagogue in 6:9.

6 sn John refers here to John Mark (see Acts 12:25).

7 tn The word ὑπηρέτης (Juphreth") usually has the meaning “servant,” but it is doubtful John Mark fulfilled that capacity for Barnabas and Saul. He was more likely an apprentice or assistant to them.

sn This is a parenthetical note by the author.

8 tn Or “had passed through,” “had traveled through.”

9 sn Paphos. A city on the southwestern coast of the island of Cyprus. It was the seat of the Roman proconsul.

10 sn Named Bar-Jesus. “Jesus” is the Latin form of the name “Joshua.” The Aramaic “bar” means “son of,” so this man was surnamed “son of Joshua.” The scene depicts the conflict between Judaism and the emerging new faith at a cosmic level, much like the Simon Magus incident in Acts 8:9-24. Paul’s ministry looks like Philip’s and Peter’s here.

11 sn The proconsul was the Roman official who ruled over a province traditionally under the control of the Roman senate.

12 tn Grk “This one”; the referent (the proconsul) is specified in the translation for clarity.

13 tn Grk “summoning Barnabas and Saul, wanted to hear.” The participle προσκαλεσάμενος (proskalesameno") has been translated as a finite verb due to requirements of contemporary English style.

14 sn The proconsul…wanted to hear the word of God. This description of Sergius Paulus portrays him as a sensitive, secular Gentile leader.

15 tn On the debate over what the name “Elymas” means, see BDAG 320 s.v. ᾿Ελύμας. The magician’s behavior is more directly opposed to the faith than Simon Magus’ was.

16 sn A parenthetical note by the author.

17 sn The proconsul was the Roman official who ruled over a province traditionally under the control of the Roman senate.

18 sn A parenthetical note by the author.

19 sn This qualifying clause in the narrative indicates who represented God in the dispute.

20 tn Or “gazed intently.”

21 tn Or “unscrupulousness.”

22 sn “You who…paths of the Lord?” This rebuke is like ones from the OT prophets: Jer 5:27; Gen 32:11; Prov 10:7; Hos 14:9. Five separate remarks indicate the magician’s failings. The closing rhetorical question of v. 10 (“will you not stop…?”) shows how opposed he is to the way of God.

23 tn Grk “And now.” Because of the difference between Greek style, which often begins sentences or clauses with “and,” and English style, which generally does not, καί (kai) has not been translated here.

24 tn Grk “upon,” but in a negative sense.

25 sn The term translated mistiness here appears in the writings of the physician Galen as a medical technical description of a person who is blind. The picture of judgment to darkness is symbolic as well. Whatever power Elymas had, it represented darkness. Magic will again be an issue in Acts 19:18-19. This judgment is like that of Ananias and his wife in Acts 5:1-11.

26 tn Grk “fell on.”

27 tn The noun χειραγωγός (ceiragwgo") is plural, so “people” is used rather than singular “someone.”

28 sn See the note on proconsul in v. 8.

29 sn He believed. The faith of the proconsul in the face of Jewish opposition is a theme of the rest of Acts. Paul has indeed become “a light to the Gentiles” (Acts 13:47).

30 tn The translation “greatly astounded” for ἐκπλησσόμενος (ekplhssomeno") is given by L&N 25.219.

31 tn Grk “of,” but this could give the impression the Lord himself had done the teaching (a subjective genitive) when actually the Lord was the object of the teaching (an objective genitive).

32 tn BDAG 62 s.v. ἀνάγω 4, “as a nautical t.t. (. τὴν ναῦν put a ship to sea), mid. or pass. ἀνάγεσθαι to begin to go by boat, put out to sea.”

33 sn Paphos was a city on the southwestern coast of the island of Cyprus. See Acts 13:6.

34 sn Perga was a city in Pamphylia near the southern coast of Asia Minor. The journey from Paphos to Perga is about 105 mi (175 km).

35 sn Pamphylia was a province in the southern part of Asia Minor.

36 sn That is, John Mark.

37 sn Returned to Jerusalem. John Mark had originally accompanied them from Jerusalem (see Acts 12:25). John Mark’s decision to leave became an issue later for Barnabas and Paul (Acts 15:36-39).

map For location see Map5 B1; Map6 F3; Map7 E2; Map8 F2; Map10 B3; JP1 F4; JP2 F4; JP3 F4; JP4 F4.

38 tn Or “Passing by.”

39 sn Perga was a city in Pamphylia near the southern coast of Asia Minor.

40 tn Or “at Antioch in Pisidia.”

sn Pisidian Antioch was a city in Pisidia about 100 mi (160 km) north of Perga. It was both a Roman colony and the seat of military and civil authority in S. Galatia. One had to trek over the Taurus Mountains to get there, since the city was 3,600 ft (1,100 m) above sea level.

map For location see JP1 E2; JP2 E2; JP3 E2; JP4 E2.

41 tn Grk “going into the synagogue they sat down.” The participle εἰσελθόντες (eiselqonte") has been translated as a finite verb due to requirements of contemporary English style.

42 sn See the note on synagogue in 6:9.

43 sn After the reading from the law and the prophets. In the 1st century Jewish synagogue, it was customary after the reading of the Torah (law) and prophets for men to give exhortation from the scriptures.

44 tn Normally ἀρχισυνάγωγος (arcisunagwgo") refers to the “president of a synagogue” (so BDAG 139 s.v. and L&N 53.93). Since the term is plural here, however, and it would sound strange to the English reader to speak of “the presidents of the synagogue,” the alternative translation “leaders” is used. “Rulers” would also be acceptable, but does not convey quite the same idea.

45 tn Grk “sent to them”; the word “message” is an understood direct object. Direct objects in Greek were often omitted when clear from the context, but must be supplied for the modern English reader.

46 tn Grk “Men brothers,” but this is both awkward and unnecessary in English.

47 tn Or “word.”

48 tn Or “encouragement.”

49 tn Or “give it.”

50 tn This participle, ἀναστάς (anasta"), and the following one, κατασείσας (kataseisa"), are both translated as adverbial participles of attendant circumstance.

51 tn Or “motioned.”

52 tn Or “Israelite men,” although this is less natural English. The Greek term here is ἀνήρ (anhr), which only exceptionally is used in a generic sense of both males and females. In this context involving an address to a synagogue gathering, it is conceivable that this is a generic usage, although it can also be argued that Paul’s remarks were addressed primarily to the men present, even if women were there.

53 tn Grk “and those who fear God,” but this is practically a technical term for the category called God-fearers, Gentiles who worshiped the God of Israel and in many cases kept the Mosaic law, but did not take the final step of circumcision necessary to become a proselyte to Judaism. See further K. G. Kuhn, TDNT 6:732-34, 743-44.

54 tn Or “people of Israel.”

55 tn Or “forefathers”; Grk “fathers.”

sn Note how Paul identifies with his audience by referring to our ancestors. He speaks as a Jew. God’s design in history is the theme of the speech. The speech is like Stephen’s, only here the focus is on a promised Son of David.

56 tn That is, in both numbers and in power. The implication of greatness in both numbers and in power is found in BDAG 1046 s.v. ὑψόω 2.

57 tn Or “as resident aliens.”

58 tn Or “land.”

59 sn Here uplifted arm is a metaphor for God’s power by which he delivered the Israelites from Egypt. See Exod 6:1, 6; 32:11; Deut 3:24; 4:34; Ps 136:11-12.

60 tn Grk “And for.” Because of the difference between Greek style, which often begins sentences or clauses with “and,” and English style, which generally does not, καί (kai) has not been translated here.

61 tn For this verb, see BDAG 1017 s.v. τροποφορέω (cf. also Deut 1:31; Exod 16:35; Num 14:34).

62 tn Or “desert.”

63 tn Grk “And after.” Because of the difference between Greek style, which often begins sentences or clauses with “and,” and English style, which generally does not, καί (kai) has not been translated here.

64 tn The participle καθελών (kaqelwn) is taken temporally.

65 sn Seven nations. See Deut 7:1.

66 tn Grk “he gave their land as an inheritance.” The words “his people” are supplied to complete an ellipsis specifying the recipients of the land.

67 tn The words “all this took” are not in the Greek text, but are supplied to make a complete statement in English. There is debate over where this period of 450 years fits and what it includes: (1) It could include the years in Egypt, the conquest of Canaan, and the distribution of the land; (2) some connect it with the following period of the judges. This latter approach seems to conflict with 1 Kgs 6:1; see also Josephus, Ant. 8.3.1 (8.61).

68 tn Grk “And after these things.” Because of the difference between Greek style, which often begins sentences or clauses with “and,” and English style, which generally does not, καί (kai) has not been translated here.

69 tn The words “the time of” are not in the Greek text, but are implied.

70 tn The words “who ruled” are not in the Greek text, but are implied. They have been supplied as a clarification for the English reader. See Josephus, Ant. 6.14.9 (6.378).

71 tn Grk “he”; the referent (God) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

72 sn The expression raised up refers here to making someone king. There is a wordplay here: “raising up” refers to bringing someone onto the scene of history, but it echoes with the parallel to Jesus’ resurrection.

73 tn Grk “about whom.” The relative pronoun (“whom”) was replaced by the pronoun “him” and a new sentence was begun in the translation at this point to improve the English style, due to the length of the sentence in Greek. The verb εἶπεν (eipen) has not been translated (literally “he said testifying”) because it is redundant when combined with the participle μαρτυρήσας (marturhsa", “testifying”). Instead the construction of verb plus participle has been translated as a single English verb (“testified”).

74 sn A quotation from Ps 89:20.

75 sn A quotation from 1 Sam 13:14.

76 tn Or “who will perform all my will,” “who will carry out all my wishes.”

77 tn Or “From the offspring”; Grk “From the seed.”

sn From the descendants (Grk “seed”). On the importance of the seed promise involving Abraham, see Gal 3:6-29.

78 sn The phrase this man is in emphatic position in the Greek text.

79 tn Grk “according to [his] promise.” The comparative clause “just as he promised” is less awkward in English.

sn Just as he promised. Note how Paul describes Israel’s history carefully to David and then leaps forward immediately to Jesus. Paul is expounding the initial realization of Davidic promise as it was delivered in Jesus.

80 tn Grk “John having already proclaimed before his coming a baptism…,” a genitive absolute construction which is awkward in English. A new sentence was begun in the translation at this point.

81 tn Grk “he”; the referent (Jesus) has been specified in the context for clarity, since God is mentioned in the preceding context and John the Baptist in the following clause.

82 sn John refers here to John the Baptist.

83 tn Grk “a baptism of repentance”; the genitive has been translated as a genitive of purpose.

84 tn Or “task.”

85 tn The verb ἔλεγεν (elegen) has been translated as an iterative imperfect, since John undoubtedly said this or something similar on numerous occasions.

86 tn Literally a relative clause, “of whom I am not worthy to untie the sandals of his feet.” Because of the awkwardness of this construction in English, a new sentence was begun here.

87 tn Grk “Men brothers,” but this is both awkward and unnecessary in English.

88 tn Grk “sons”

89 tn Or “race.”

90 tn Grk “and those among you who fear God,” but this is practically a technical term for the category called God-fearers, Gentiles who worshiped the God of Israel and in many cases kept the Mosaic law, but did not take the final step of circumcision necessary to become a proselyte to Judaism. See further K. G. Kuhn, TDNT 6:732-34, 743-44. Note how Paul includes God-fearing Gentiles as recipients of this promise.

91 tn Grk “word.”

92 tn BDAG 12-13 s.v. ἀγνοέω 1.b gives “not to know w. acc. of pers.” as the meaning here, but “recognize” is a better translation in this context because recognition of the true identity of the one they condemned is the issue. See Acts 2:22-24; 4:26-28.

93 tn Grk “this one.”

94 tn Usually φωνή (fwnh) means “voice,” but BDAG 1071-72 s.v. φωνή 2.c has “Also of sayings in scripture…Ac 13:27.”

sn They fulfilled the sayings. The people in Jerusalem and the Jewish rulers should have known better, because they had the story read to them weekly in the synagogue.

95 tn The participle κρίναντες (krinante") is instrumental here.

96 tn The word “him” is not in the Greek text but is implied. Direct objects were often omitted in Greek when clear from the context, but must be supplied for the modern English reader.

97 tn Grk “And though.” Because of the difference between Greek style, which often begins sentences or clauses with “and,” and English style, which generally does not, καί (kai) has not been translated here.

98 tn The participle εὑρόντες (Jeuronte") has been translated as a concessive adverbial participle.

99 sn No basis. Luke insists on Jesus’ innocence again and again in Luke 23:1-25.

100 tn Grk “no basis for death,” but in this context a sentence of death is clearly indicated.

101 tn Or “carried out.”

102 sn That is, everything that was written in OT scripture.

103 tn Grk “taking him down from the cross, they placed him.” The participle καθελόντες (kaqelonte") has been translated as a finite verb due to requirements of contemporary English style.

104 tn Grk “tree,” but frequently figurative for a cross. The allusion is to Deut 21:23. See Acts 5:30; 10:39.

105 tn The word “him” is not in the Greek text but is implied. Direct objects were often omitted in Greek when clear from the context, but must be supplied for the modern English reader.

106 sn See the note on the phrase “raised up” in v. 22, which is the same Greek verb used here.

107 tn Grk “who.” The relative pronoun (“who”) was replaced by the conjunction “and” and the pronoun “he” at this point to improve the English style.

108 sn Those who had accompanied him refers to the disciples, who knew Jesus in ministry. Luke is aware of resurrection appearances in Galilee though he did not relate any of them in Luke 24.

109 tn Grk “who.” The relative pronoun (“who”) was replaced by the demonstrative pronoun “these” and a new sentence was begun in the translation at this point to improve the English style, due to the length of the sentence in Greek and the awkwardness of two relative clauses (“who for many days appeared” and “who are now his witnesses”) following one another.

110 tn Or “to our forefathers”; Grk “the fathers.”

111 tn Grk “that this”; the referent (the promise mentioned in the previous verse) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

sn This promise refers to the promise of a Savior through the seed (descendants) of David that is proclaimed as fulfilled (Rom 1:1-7).

112 tn Or “by resurrecting.” The participle ἀναστήσας (anasthsa") is taken as instrumental here.

sn By raising (i.e., by resurrection) tells how this promise came to be realized, though again the wordplay also points to his presence in history through this event (see the note on “raised up” in v. 22).

113 sn You are my Son. The key to how the quotation is used is the naming of Jesus as “Son” to the Father. The language is that of kingship, as Ps 2 indicates. Here is the promise about what the ultimate Davidic heir would be.

114 tn Grk “I have begotten you.” The traditional translation for γεγέννηκα (gegennhka, “begotten”) is misleading to the modern English reader because it is no longer in common use. Today one speaks of “fathering” a child in much the same way speakers of English formerly spoke of “begetting a child.”

sn A quotation from Ps 2:7.

115 tn Grk “him”; the referent (Jesus) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

116 tn Although μηκέτι (mhketi) can mean “no longer” or “no more,” the latter is more appropriate here, since to translate “no longer” in this context could give the reader the impression that Jesus did experience decay before his resurrection. Since the phrase “no more again to be” is somewhat awkward in English, the simpler phrase “never again to be” was used instead.

117 tn The translation “to be in again” for ὑποστρέφω (Jupostrefw) is given in L&N 13.24.

118 tn Grk “he”; the referent (God) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

119 tn The pronoun “you” is plural here. The promises of David are offered to the people.

120 tn Or “the trustworthy decrees made by God to David.” The phrase τὰ ὅσια Δαυὶδ τὰ πιστά (ta Josia Dauid ta pista) is “compressed,” that is, in a very compact or condensed form. It could be expanded in several different ways. BDAG 728 s.v. ὅσιος 3 understands it to refer to divine decrees: “I will grant you the sure decrees of God relating to David.” BDAG then states that this quotation from Isa 55:3 is intended to show that the following quotation from Ps 16:10 could not refer to David himself, but must refer to his messianic descendant (Jesus). L&N 33.290 render the phrase “I will give to you the divine promises made to David, promises that can be trusted,” although they also note that τὰ ὅσια in Acts 13:34 can mean “divine decrees” or “decrees made by God.” In contemporary English it is less awkward to translate πιστά as an adjective (“trustworthy”). The concept of “divine decrees,” not very understandable to the modern reader, has been replaced by “promises,” and since God is the implied speaker in the context, it is clear that these promises were made by God.

121 sn A quotation from Isa 55:3. The point of this citation is to make clear that the promise of a Davidic line and blessings are made to the people as well.

122 tn Grk “Therefore he also says in another”; the word “psalm” is not in the Greek text but is implied.

123 tn The Greek word translated “Holy One” here (ὅσιόν, {osion) is related to the use of ὅσια (Josia) in v. 34. The link is a wordplay. The Holy One, who does not die, brings the faithful holy blessings of promise to the people.

124 tn Grk “to see,” but the literal translation of the phrase “to see decay” could be misunderstood to mean simply “to look at decay,” while here “see decay” is really figurative for “experience decay.”

125 sn A quotation from Ps 16:10.

126 tn The participle ὑπηρετήσας (Juphrethsa") is taken temporally.

127 tn The verb κοιμάω (koimaw) literally means “sleep,” but it is often used in the Bible as a euphemism for the death of a believer.

128 tn Or “forefathers”; Grk “was gathered to his fathers” (a Semitic idiom).

129 tn Grk “saw,” but the literal translation of the phrase “saw decay” could be misunderstood to mean simply “looked at decay,” while here “saw decay” is really figurative for “experienced decay.” This remark explains why David cannot fulfill the promise.

130 sn The one whom God raised up refers to Jesus.

131 tn Grk “see,” but the literal translation of the phrase “did not see decay” could be misunderstood to mean simply “did not look at decay,” while here “did not see decay” is really figurative for “did not experience decay.”

132 tn That is, Jesus. This pronoun is in emphatic position in the Greek text. Following this phrase in the Greek text is the pronoun ὑμῖν (Jumin, “to you”), so that the emphasis for the audience is that “through Jesus to you” these promises have come.

133 sn This one refers here to Jesus.

134 tn Or “is freed.” The translation of δικαιωθῆναι (dikaiwqhnai) and δικαιοῦται (dikaioutai) in Acts 13:38-39 is difficult. BDAG 249 s.v. δικαιόω 3 categorizes δικαιωθῆναι in 13:38 (Greek text) under the meaning “make free/pure” but categorizes δικαιοῦται in Acts 13:39 as “be found in the right, be free of charges” (BDAG 249 s.v. δικαιόω 2.b.β). In the interest of consistency both verbs are rendered as “justified” in this translation.

135 tn Or “could not free.”

136 tn Grk “from everything from which you could not be justified by the law of Moses.” The passive construction has been converted to an active one in the translation, with “by the law of Moses” becoming the subject of the final clause. The words “from everything from which the law of Moses could not justify you” are part of v. 38 in the Greek text, but due to English style and word order must be placed in v. 39 in the translation.

137 sn The speech closes with a warning, “Watch out,” that also stresses culpability.

138 tn Or “in.”

139 tn Or “and die!”

140 sn A quotation from Hab 1:5. The irony in the phrase even if someone tells you, of course, is that Paul has now told them. So the call in the warning is to believe or else face the peril of being scoffers whom God will judge. The parallel from Habakkuk is that the nation failed to see how Babylon’s rising to power meant perilous judgment for Israel.

141 tn Grk “they”; the referents (Paul and Barnabas) have been specified in the translation for clarity.

142 tn Or “were leaving.” The participle ἐξιόντων (exiontwn) is taken temporally.

143 tn Grk “they”; the referent (the people) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

144 tn Or “begging,” “inviting.”

145 tn Or “matters.”

146 sn See the note on synagogue in 6:9.

147 tn BDAG 607 s.v. λύω 3 has “λυθείσης τ. συναγωγῆς when the meeting of the synagogue had broken up Ac 13:43.”

148 tn Normally the phrase σεβόμενοι τὸν θεόν (sebomenoi ton qeon) refers to Gentiles (“God-fearers”) who believed in God, attended the synagogue, and followed the Mosaic law to some extent, but stopped short of undergoing circumcision. BDAG 918 s.v. σέβω 1.b lists in this category references in Acts 16:14; 18:7; with σεβόμενοι alone, Acts 13:50; 17:4, 17; the phrase is also found in Josephus, Ant. 14.7.2 (14.110). Unique to this particular verse is the combination σεβόμενοι προσηλύτων (sebomenoi proshlutwn). Later rabbinic discussion suggests that to be regarded as a proper proselyte, a Gentile male had to submit to circumcision. If that is the case here, these Gentiles in the synagogue at Pisidian Antioch should be regarded as full proselytes who had converted completely to Judaism and undergone circumcision. It is probably more likely, however, that προσηλύτων is used here in a somewhat looser sense (note the use of σεβομένας [sebomena"] alone to refer to women in Acts 13:50) and that these Gentiles were still in the category commonly called “God-fearers” without being full, technical proselytes to Judaism. See further K. G. Kuhn, TDNT 6:732-34, 743-44. Regardless, the point is that many Gentiles, as well as Jews, came to faith.

149 tn This is the meaning given for ἔπειθον (epeiqon) in this verse by BDAG 791 s.v. πείθω 1.b.

150 tn Grk “who, as they were speaking with them, were persuading them.”

151 tn The verb προμένειν (promenein) is similar in force to the use of μένω (menw, “to reside/remain”) in the Gospel and Epistles of John.

152 tc Most mss (B* C E Ψ Ï sy bo) read θεοῦ (qeou, “of God”) here instead of κυρίου (kuriou, “of the Lord”). Other mss, among them some important early witnesses (Ì74 א A B2 33 81 323 945 1175 1739 al sa), read κυρίου. The external evidence favors κυρίου, though not decisively. Internally, the mention of “God” in v. 43, and especially “the word of God” in v. 46, would provide some temptation for scribes to assimilate the wording in v. 44 to these texts.

sn The word of the Lord is a technical expression in OT literature, often referring to a divine prophetic utterance (e.g., Gen 15:1, Isa 1:10, Jonah 1:1). In the NT it occurs 15 times: 3 times as ῥῆμα τοῦ κυρίου (rJhma tou kuriou; Luke 22:61, Acts 11:16, 1 Pet 1:25) and 12 times as λόγος τοῦ κυρίου (logo" tou kuriou; here and in vv. 48 and 49; Acts 8:25; 15:35, 36; 16:32; 19:10, 20; 1 Thess 1:8, 4:15; 2 Thess 3:1). As in the OT, this phrase focuses on the prophetic nature and divine origin of what has been said.



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