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Acts 13:5

Context
13:5 When 1  they arrived 2  in Salamis, 3  they began to proclaim 4  the word of God in the Jewish synagogues. 5  (Now they also had John 6  as their assistant.) 7 

Acts 13:15

Context
13:15 After the reading from the law and the prophets, 8  the leaders of the synagogue 9  sent them a message, 10  saying, “Brothers, 11  if you have any message 12  of exhortation 13  for the people, speak it.” 14 

Acts 13:44

Context

13:44 On the next Sabbath almost the whole city assembled together to hear the word of the Lord. 15 

Acts 14:1

Context
Paul and Barnabas at Iconium

14:1 The same thing happened in Iconium 16  when Paul and Barnabas 17  went into the Jewish synagogue 18  and spoke in such a way that a large group 19  of both Jews and Greeks believed.

Acts 17:2-4

Context
17:2 Paul went to the Jews in the synagogue, 20  as he customarily did, and on three Sabbath days he addressed 21  them from the scriptures, 17:3 explaining and demonstrating 22  that the Christ 23  had to suffer and to rise from the dead, 24  saying, 25  “This Jesus I am proclaiming to you is the Christ.” 26  17:4 Some of them were persuaded 27  and joined Paul and Silas, along with a large group 28  of God-fearing Greeks 29  and quite a few 30  prominent women.

Acts 17:10

Context
Paul and Silas at Berea

17:10 The brothers sent Paul and Silas off to Berea 31  at once, during the night. When they arrived, 32  they went to the Jewish synagogue. 33 

Acts 17:17

Context
17:17 So he was addressing 34  the Jews and the God-fearing Gentiles 35  in the synagogue, 36  and in the marketplace every day 37  those who happened to be there.

Acts 18:4

Context
18:4 He addressed 38  both Jews and Greeks in the synagogue 39  every Sabbath, attempting to persuade 40  them.

Acts 18:26

Context
18:26 He began to speak out fearlessly 41  in the synagogue, 42  but when Priscilla and Aquila 43  heard him, they took him aside 44  and explained the way of God to him more accurately.

Acts 19:8

Context
Paul Continues to Minister at Ephesus

19:8 So Paul 45  entered 46  the synagogue 47  and spoke out fearlessly 48  for three months, addressing 49  and convincing 50  them about the kingdom of God. 51 

1 tn Grk “And when.” Because of the difference between Greek style, which often begins sentences or clauses with “and,” and English style, which generally does not, καί (kai) has not been translated here.

2 tn The participle γενόμενοι (genomenoi) is taken temporally.

3 sn Salamis was a city on the southeastern coast of the island of Cyprus. This was a commercial center and a center of Judaism.

4 tn The imperfect verb κατήγγελλον (kathngellon) has been translated as an ingressive imperfect.

5 sn See the note on synagogue in 6:9.

6 sn John refers here to John Mark (see Acts 12:25).

7 tn The word ὑπηρέτης (Juphreth") usually has the meaning “servant,” but it is doubtful John Mark fulfilled that capacity for Barnabas and Saul. He was more likely an apprentice or assistant to them.

sn This is a parenthetical note by the author.

8 sn After the reading from the law and the prophets. In the 1st century Jewish synagogue, it was customary after the reading of the Torah (law) and prophets for men to give exhortation from the scriptures.

9 tn Normally ἀρχισυνάγωγος (arcisunagwgo") refers to the “president of a synagogue” (so BDAG 139 s.v. and L&N 53.93). Since the term is plural here, however, and it would sound strange to the English reader to speak of “the presidents of the synagogue,” the alternative translation “leaders” is used. “Rulers” would also be acceptable, but does not convey quite the same idea.

10 tn Grk “sent to them”; the word “message” is an understood direct object. Direct objects in Greek were often omitted when clear from the context, but must be supplied for the modern English reader.

11 tn Grk “Men brothers,” but this is both awkward and unnecessary in English.

12 tn Or “word.”

13 tn Or “encouragement.”

14 tn Or “give it.”

15 tc Most mss (B* C E Ψ Ï sy bo) read θεοῦ (qeou, “of God”) here instead of κυρίου (kuriou, “of the Lord”). Other mss, among them some important early witnesses (Ì74 א A B2 33 81 323 945 1175 1739 al sa), read κυρίου. The external evidence favors κυρίου, though not decisively. Internally, the mention of “God” in v. 43, and especially “the word of God” in v. 46, would provide some temptation for scribes to assimilate the wording in v. 44 to these texts.

sn The word of the Lord is a technical expression in OT literature, often referring to a divine prophetic utterance (e.g., Gen 15:1, Isa 1:10, Jonah 1:1). In the NT it occurs 15 times: 3 times as ῥῆμα τοῦ κυρίου (rJhma tou kuriou; Luke 22:61, Acts 11:16, 1 Pet 1:25) and 12 times as λόγος τοῦ κυρίου (logo" tou kuriou; here and in vv. 48 and 49; Acts 8:25; 15:35, 36; 16:32; 19:10, 20; 1 Thess 1:8, 4:15; 2 Thess 3:1). As in the OT, this phrase focuses on the prophetic nature and divine origin of what has been said.

16 sn Iconium. See the note in 13:51.

17 tn Grk “they”; the referents (Paul and Barnabas) have been specified in the translation for clarity.

18 sn See the note on synagogue in 6:9.

19 tn Or “that a large crowd.”

20 tn Grk “he went in to them”; the referent (the Jews in the synagogue) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

21 tn Although the word διελέξατο (dielexato; from διαλέγομαι, dialegomai) is frequently translated “reasoned,” “disputed,” or “argued,” this sense comes from its classical meaning where it was used of philosophical disputation, including the Socratic method of questions and answers. However, there does not seem to be contextual evidence for this kind of debate in Acts 17:2. As G. Schrenk (TDNT 2:94-95) points out, “What is at issue is the address which any qualified member of a synagogue might give.” Other examples of this may be found in the NT in Matt 4:23 and Mark 1:21.

22 tn BDAG 772 s.v. παρατίθημι 2.b has “demonstrate, point out” here.

23 tn Or “Messiah”; both “Christ” (Greek) and “Messiah” (Hebrew and Aramaic) mean “one who has been anointed.”

sn See the note on Christ in 2:31.

24 sn The Christ had to suffer and to rise from the dead. These two points (suffering and resurrection) would have been among the more controversial aspects of Paul’s messianic preaching. The term translated “had to” (δεῖ, dei) shows how divine design and scripture corresponded here.

25 tn The Greek words used here (καὶ ὅτι, kai {oti, “and that”) mark the switch from indirect to direct discourse. Contemporary English requires the use of an introductory verb of speaking or saying to make this transition.

26 tn Or “Messiah”; both “Christ” (Greek) and “Messiah” (Hebrew and Aramaic) mean “one who has been anointed.”

sn See the note on Christ in 2:31. The identification of the Messiah with Jesus indicates Paul was proclaiming the fulfillment of messianic promise.

27 tn Or “convinced.”

28 tn Or “a large crowd.”

29 tn Or “of devout Greeks,” but this is practically a technical term for the category called God-fearers, Gentiles who worshiped the God of Israel and in many cases kept the Mosaic law, but did not take the final step of circumcision necessary to become a proselyte to Judaism. See further K. G. Kuhn, TDNT 6:732-34, 743-44. Luke frequently mentions such people (Acts 13:43, 50; 16:14; 17:17; 18:7).

30 tn Grk “not a few”; this use of negation could be misleading to the modern English reader, however, and so has been translated as “quite a few” (which is the actual meaning of the expression).

31 sn Berea (alternate spelling in NRSV Beroea; Greek Beroia) was a very old city in Macedonia on the river Astraeus about 45 mi (75 km) west of Thessalonica.

map For location see JP1 C1; JP2 C1; JP3 C1; JP4 C1.

32 tn Grk “who arriving there, went to.” Because of the length and complexity of the Greek sentence, the relative pronoun (οἵτινες, Joitine") has been left untranslated and a new English sentence begun. The participle παραγενόμενοι (paragenomenoi) has been taken temporally.

33 sn See the note on synagogue in 6:9.

34 tn Although the word διελέξατο (dielexato; from διαλέγομαι, dialegomai) is frequently translated “reasoned,” “disputed,” or “argued,” this sense comes from its classical meaning where it was used of philosophical disputation, including the Socratic method of questions and answers. However, there does not seem to be contextual evidence for this kind of debate in Acts 17:17. As G. Schrenk (TDNT 2:94-95) points out, “What is at issue is the address which any qualified member of a synagogue might give.” Other examples of this may be found in the NT in Matt 4:23 and Mark 1:21.

35 tn Or “and the devout,” but this is practically a technical term for the category called God-fearers, Gentiles who worshiped the God of Israel and in many cases kept the Mosaic law, but did not take the final step of circumcision necessary to become a proselyte to Judaism. See further K. G. Kuhn, TDNT 6:732-34, 743-44, and the note on the phrase “God-fearing Greeks” in 17:4.

36 sn See the note on synagogue in 6:9.

37 tn BDAG 437 s.v. ἡμέρα 2.c has “every day” for this phrase in this verse.

38 tn Although the word διελέξατο (dielexato; from διαλέγομαι, dialegomai) is frequently translated “reasoned,” “disputed,” or “argued,” this sense comes from its classical meaning where it was used of philosophical disputation, including the Socratic method of questions and answers. However, there does not seem to be contextual evidence for this kind of debate in Acts 18:4. As G. Schrenk (TDNT 2:94-95) points out, “What is at issue is the address which any qualified member of a synagogue might give.” Other examples of this may be found in the NT in Matt 4:23 and Mark 1:21.

39 sn See the note on synagogue in 6:9.

40 tn Grk “Addressing in the synagogue every Sabbath, he was attempting to persuade both Jews and Greeks.” Because in English the verb “address” is not used absolutely but normally has an object specified, the direct objects of the verb ἔπειθεν (epeiqen) have been moved forward as the objects of the English verb “addressed,” and the pronoun “them” repeated in the translation as the object of ἔπειθεν. The verb ἔπειθεν has been translated as a conative imperfect.

41 tn Or “boldly.” This is a frequent term in Acts (9:27-28; 13:46; 14:3; 19:8; 26:26).

42 sn See the note on synagogue in 6:9.

43 sn Priscilla and Aquila. This key couple, of which Priscilla was an important enough figure to be mentioned by name, instructed Apollos about the most recent work of God. See also the note on Aquila in 18:2.

44 tn BDAG 883 s.v. προσλαμβάνω 3 has “take aside, mid. τινά someone…So prob. also Ac 18:26: Priscilla and Aquila take Apollos aside to teach him undisturbed.”

45 tn Grk “he”; the referent (Paul) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

46 tn Grk “So entering the synagogue, he spoke out fearlessly.” The participle εἰσελθών (eiselqwn) has been translated as a finite verb due to requirements of contemporary English style.

47 sn See the note on synagogue in 6:9.

48 tn Or “boldly.”

49 tn Although the word διελέξατο (dielexato; from διαλέγομαι, dialegomai) is frequently translated “reasoned,” “disputed,” or “argued,” this sense comes from its classical meaning where it was used of philosophical disputation, including the Socratic method of questions and answers. However, there does not seem to be contextual evidence for this kind of debate in Acts 19:8. As G. Schrenk (TDNT 2:94-95) points out, “What is at issue is the address which any qualified member of a synagogue might give.” Other examples of this may be found in the NT in Matt 4:23 and Mark 1:21.

50 tn Or “addressing them persuasively.” The two participles διαλεγόμενος and πείθων (dialegomeno" and peiqwn) can be understood as a hendiadys (so NIV, NRSV), thus, “addressing them persuasively.”

51 sn To talk about Jesus as the Christ who has come is to talk about the kingdom of God. This is yet another summary of the message like that in 18:28.



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