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Acts 13:16-43

Context
13:16 So Paul stood up, 1  gestured 2  with his hand and said,

“Men of Israel, 3  and you Gentiles who fear God, 4  listen: 13:17 The God of this people Israel 5  chose our ancestors 6  and made the people great 7  during their stay as foreigners 8  in the country 9  of Egypt, and with uplifted arm 10  he led them out of it. 13:18 For 11  a period of about forty years he put up with 12  them in the wilderness. 13  13:19 After 14  he had destroyed 15  seven nations 16  in the land of Canaan, he gave his people their land as an inheritance. 17  13:20 All this took 18  about four hundred fifty years. After this 19  he gave them judges until the time of 20  Samuel the prophet. 13:21 Then they asked for a king, and God gave them Saul son of Kish, a man from the tribe of Benjamin, who ruled 21  forty years. 13:22 After removing him, God 22  raised up 23  David their king. He testified about him: 24 I have found David 25  the son of Jesse to be a man after my heart, 26  who will accomplish everything I want him to do.’ 27  13:23 From the descendants 28  of this man 29  God brought to Israel a Savior, Jesus, just as he promised. 30  13:24 Before 31  Jesus 32  arrived, John 33  had proclaimed a baptism for repentance 34  to all the people of Israel. 13:25 But while John was completing his mission, 35  he said repeatedly, 36  ‘What do you think I am? I am not he. But look, one is coming after me. I am not worthy to untie the sandals on his feet!’ 37  13:26 Brothers, 38  descendants 39  of Abraham’s family, 40  and those Gentiles among you who fear God, 41  the message 42  of this salvation has been sent to us. 13:27 For the people who live in Jerusalem and their rulers did not recognize 43  him, 44  and they fulfilled the sayings 45  of the prophets that are read every Sabbath by condemning 46  him. 47  13:28 Though 48  they found 49  no basis 50  for a death sentence, 51  they asked Pilate to have him executed. 13:29 When they had accomplished 52  everything that was written 53  about him, they took him down 54  from the cross 55  and placed him 56  in a tomb. 13:30 But God raised 57  him from the dead, 13:31 and 58  for many days he appeared to those who had accompanied 59  him from Galilee to Jerusalem. These 60  are now his witnesses to the people. 13:32 And we proclaim to you the good news about the promise to our ancestors, 61  13:33 that this promise 62  God has fulfilled to us, their children, by raising 63  Jesus, as also it is written in the second psalm, ‘You are my Son; 64  today I have fathered you.’ 65  13:34 But regarding the fact that he has raised Jesus 66  from the dead, never 67  again to be 68  in a state of decay, God 69  has spoken in this way: ‘I will give you 70  the holy and trustworthy promises 71  made to David.’ 72  13:35 Therefore he also says in another psalm, 73 You will not permit your Holy One 74  to experience 75  decay.’ 76  13:36 For David, after he had served 77  God’s purpose in his own generation, died, 78  was buried with his ancestors, 79  and experienced 80  decay, 13:37 but the one 81  whom God raised up did not experience 82  decay. 13:38 Therefore let it be known to you, brothers, that through this one 83  forgiveness of sins is proclaimed to you, 13:39 and by this one 84  everyone who believes is justified 85  from everything from which the law of Moses could not justify 86  you. 87  13:40 Watch out, 88  then, that what is spoken about by 89  the prophets does not happen to you:

13:41Look, you scoffers; be amazed and perish! 90 

For I am doing a work in your days,

a work you would never believe, even if someone tells you.’” 91 

13:42 As Paul and Barnabas 92  were going out, 93  the people 94  were urging 95  them to speak about these things 96  on the next Sabbath. 13:43 When the meeting of the synagogue 97  had broken up, 98  many of the Jews and God-fearing proselytes 99  followed Paul and Barnabas, who were speaking with them and were persuading 100  them 101  to continue 102  in the grace of God.

1 tn This participle, ἀναστάς (anasta"), and the following one, κατασείσας (kataseisa"), are both translated as adverbial participles of attendant circumstance.

2 tn Or “motioned.”

3 tn Or “Israelite men,” although this is less natural English. The Greek term here is ἀνήρ (anhr), which only exceptionally is used in a generic sense of both males and females. In this context involving an address to a synagogue gathering, it is conceivable that this is a generic usage, although it can also be argued that Paul’s remarks were addressed primarily to the men present, even if women were there.

4 tn Grk “and those who fear God,” but this is practically a technical term for the category called God-fearers, Gentiles who worshiped the God of Israel and in many cases kept the Mosaic law, but did not take the final step of circumcision necessary to become a proselyte to Judaism. See further K. G. Kuhn, TDNT 6:732-34, 743-44.

5 tn Or “people of Israel.”

6 tn Or “forefathers”; Grk “fathers.”

sn Note how Paul identifies with his audience by referring to our ancestors. He speaks as a Jew. God’s design in history is the theme of the speech. The speech is like Stephen’s, only here the focus is on a promised Son of David.

7 tn That is, in both numbers and in power. The implication of greatness in both numbers and in power is found in BDAG 1046 s.v. ὑψόω 2.

8 tn Or “as resident aliens.”

9 tn Or “land.”

10 sn Here uplifted arm is a metaphor for God’s power by which he delivered the Israelites from Egypt. See Exod 6:1, 6; 32:11; Deut 3:24; 4:34; Ps 136:11-12.

11 tn Grk “And for.” Because of the difference between Greek style, which often begins sentences or clauses with “and,” and English style, which generally does not, καί (kai) has not been translated here.

12 tn For this verb, see BDAG 1017 s.v. τροποφορέω (cf. also Deut 1:31; Exod 16:35; Num 14:34).

13 tn Or “desert.”

14 tn Grk “And after.” Because of the difference between Greek style, which often begins sentences or clauses with “and,” and English style, which generally does not, καί (kai) has not been translated here.

15 tn The participle καθελών (kaqelwn) is taken temporally.

16 sn Seven nations. See Deut 7:1.

17 tn Grk “he gave their land as an inheritance.” The words “his people” are supplied to complete an ellipsis specifying the recipients of the land.

18 tn The words “all this took” are not in the Greek text, but are supplied to make a complete statement in English. There is debate over where this period of 450 years fits and what it includes: (1) It could include the years in Egypt, the conquest of Canaan, and the distribution of the land; (2) some connect it with the following period of the judges. This latter approach seems to conflict with 1 Kgs 6:1; see also Josephus, Ant. 8.3.1 (8.61).

19 tn Grk “And after these things.” Because of the difference between Greek style, which often begins sentences or clauses with “and,” and English style, which generally does not, καί (kai) has not been translated here.

20 tn The words “the time of” are not in the Greek text, but are implied.

21 tn The words “who ruled” are not in the Greek text, but are implied. They have been supplied as a clarification for the English reader. See Josephus, Ant. 6.14.9 (6.378).

22 tn Grk “he”; the referent (God) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

23 sn The expression raised up refers here to making someone king. There is a wordplay here: “raising up” refers to bringing someone onto the scene of history, but it echoes with the parallel to Jesus’ resurrection.

24 tn Grk “about whom.” The relative pronoun (“whom”) was replaced by the pronoun “him” and a new sentence was begun in the translation at this point to improve the English style, due to the length of the sentence in Greek. The verb εἶπεν (eipen) has not been translated (literally “he said testifying”) because it is redundant when combined with the participle μαρτυρήσας (marturhsa", “testifying”). Instead the construction of verb plus participle has been translated as a single English verb (“testified”).

25 sn A quotation from Ps 89:20.

26 sn A quotation from 1 Sam 13:14.

27 tn Or “who will perform all my will,” “who will carry out all my wishes.”

28 tn Or “From the offspring”; Grk “From the seed.”

sn From the descendants (Grk “seed”). On the importance of the seed promise involving Abraham, see Gal 3:6-29.

29 sn The phrase this man is in emphatic position in the Greek text.

30 tn Grk “according to [his] promise.” The comparative clause “just as he promised” is less awkward in English.

sn Just as he promised. Note how Paul describes Israel’s history carefully to David and then leaps forward immediately to Jesus. Paul is expounding the initial realization of Davidic promise as it was delivered in Jesus.

31 tn Grk “John having already proclaimed before his coming a baptism…,” a genitive absolute construction which is awkward in English. A new sentence was begun in the translation at this point.

32 tn Grk “he”; the referent (Jesus) has been specified in the context for clarity, since God is mentioned in the preceding context and John the Baptist in the following clause.

33 sn John refers here to John the Baptist.

34 tn Grk “a baptism of repentance”; the genitive has been translated as a genitive of purpose.

35 tn Or “task.”

36 tn The verb ἔλεγεν (elegen) has been translated as an iterative imperfect, since John undoubtedly said this or something similar on numerous occasions.

37 tn Literally a relative clause, “of whom I am not worthy to untie the sandals of his feet.” Because of the awkwardness of this construction in English, a new sentence was begun here.

38 tn Grk “Men brothers,” but this is both awkward and unnecessary in English.

39 tn Grk “sons”

40 tn Or “race.”

41 tn Grk “and those among you who fear God,” but this is practically a technical term for the category called God-fearers, Gentiles who worshiped the God of Israel and in many cases kept the Mosaic law, but did not take the final step of circumcision necessary to become a proselyte to Judaism. See further K. G. Kuhn, TDNT 6:732-34, 743-44. Note how Paul includes God-fearing Gentiles as recipients of this promise.

42 tn Grk “word.”

43 tn BDAG 12-13 s.v. ἀγνοέω 1.b gives “not to know w. acc. of pers.” as the meaning here, but “recognize” is a better translation in this context because recognition of the true identity of the one they condemned is the issue. See Acts 2:22-24; 4:26-28.

44 tn Grk “this one.”

45 tn Usually φωνή (fwnh) means “voice,” but BDAG 1071-72 s.v. φωνή 2.c has “Also of sayings in scripture…Ac 13:27.”

sn They fulfilled the sayings. The people in Jerusalem and the Jewish rulers should have known better, because they had the story read to them weekly in the synagogue.

46 tn The participle κρίναντες (krinante") is instrumental here.

47 tn The word “him” is not in the Greek text but is implied. Direct objects were often omitted in Greek when clear from the context, but must be supplied for the modern English reader.

48 tn Grk “And though.” Because of the difference between Greek style, which often begins sentences or clauses with “and,” and English style, which generally does not, καί (kai) has not been translated here.

49 tn The participle εὑρόντες (Jeuronte") has been translated as a concessive adverbial participle.

50 sn No basis. Luke insists on Jesus’ innocence again and again in Luke 23:1-25.

51 tn Grk “no basis for death,” but in this context a sentence of death is clearly indicated.

52 tn Or “carried out.”

53 sn That is, everything that was written in OT scripture.

54 tn Grk “taking him down from the cross, they placed him.” The participle καθελόντες (kaqelonte") has been translated as a finite verb due to requirements of contemporary English style.

55 tn Grk “tree,” but frequently figurative for a cross. The allusion is to Deut 21:23. See Acts 5:30; 10:39.

56 tn The word “him” is not in the Greek text but is implied. Direct objects were often omitted in Greek when clear from the context, but must be supplied for the modern English reader.

57 sn See the note on the phrase “raised up” in v. 22, which is the same Greek verb used here.

58 tn Grk “who.” The relative pronoun (“who”) was replaced by the conjunction “and” and the pronoun “he” at this point to improve the English style.

59 sn Those who had accompanied him refers to the disciples, who knew Jesus in ministry. Luke is aware of resurrection appearances in Galilee though he did not relate any of them in Luke 24.

60 tn Grk “who.” The relative pronoun (“who”) was replaced by the demonstrative pronoun “these” and a new sentence was begun in the translation at this point to improve the English style, due to the length of the sentence in Greek and the awkwardness of two relative clauses (“who for many days appeared” and “who are now his witnesses”) following one another.

61 tn Or “to our forefathers”; Grk “the fathers.”

62 tn Grk “that this”; the referent (the promise mentioned in the previous verse) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

sn This promise refers to the promise of a Savior through the seed (descendants) of David that is proclaimed as fulfilled (Rom 1:1-7).

63 tn Or “by resurrecting.” The participle ἀναστήσας (anasthsa") is taken as instrumental here.

sn By raising (i.e., by resurrection) tells how this promise came to be realized, though again the wordplay also points to his presence in history through this event (see the note on “raised up” in v. 22).

64 sn You are my Son. The key to how the quotation is used is the naming of Jesus as “Son” to the Father. The language is that of kingship, as Ps 2 indicates. Here is the promise about what the ultimate Davidic heir would be.

65 tn Grk “I have begotten you.” The traditional translation for γεγέννηκα (gegennhka, “begotten”) is misleading to the modern English reader because it is no longer in common use. Today one speaks of “fathering” a child in much the same way speakers of English formerly spoke of “begetting a child.”

sn A quotation from Ps 2:7.

66 tn Grk “him”; the referent (Jesus) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

67 tn Although μηκέτι (mhketi) can mean “no longer” or “no more,” the latter is more appropriate here, since to translate “no longer” in this context could give the reader the impression that Jesus did experience decay before his resurrection. Since the phrase “no more again to be” is somewhat awkward in English, the simpler phrase “never again to be” was used instead.

68 tn The translation “to be in again” for ὑποστρέφω (Jupostrefw) is given in L&N 13.24.

69 tn Grk “he”; the referent (God) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

70 tn The pronoun “you” is plural here. The promises of David are offered to the people.

71 tn Or “the trustworthy decrees made by God to David.” The phrase τὰ ὅσια Δαυὶδ τὰ πιστά (ta Josia Dauid ta pista) is “compressed,” that is, in a very compact or condensed form. It could be expanded in several different ways. BDAG 728 s.v. ὅσιος 3 understands it to refer to divine decrees: “I will grant you the sure decrees of God relating to David.” BDAG then states that this quotation from Isa 55:3 is intended to show that the following quotation from Ps 16:10 could not refer to David himself, but must refer to his messianic descendant (Jesus). L&N 33.290 render the phrase “I will give to you the divine promises made to David, promises that can be trusted,” although they also note that τὰ ὅσια in Acts 13:34 can mean “divine decrees” or “decrees made by God.” In contemporary English it is less awkward to translate πιστά as an adjective (“trustworthy”). The concept of “divine decrees,” not very understandable to the modern reader, has been replaced by “promises,” and since God is the implied speaker in the context, it is clear that these promises were made by God.

72 sn A quotation from Isa 55:3. The point of this citation is to make clear that the promise of a Davidic line and blessings are made to the people as well.

73 tn Grk “Therefore he also says in another”; the word “psalm” is not in the Greek text but is implied.

74 tn The Greek word translated “Holy One” here (ὅσιόν, {osion) is related to the use of ὅσια (Josia) in v. 34. The link is a wordplay. The Holy One, who does not die, brings the faithful holy blessings of promise to the people.

75 tn Grk “to see,” but the literal translation of the phrase “to see decay” could be misunderstood to mean simply “to look at decay,” while here “see decay” is really figurative for “experience decay.”

76 sn A quotation from Ps 16:10.

77 tn The participle ὑπηρετήσας (Juphrethsa") is taken temporally.

78 tn The verb κοιμάω (koimaw) literally means “sleep,” but it is often used in the Bible as a euphemism for the death of a believer.

79 tn Or “forefathers”; Grk “was gathered to his fathers” (a Semitic idiom).

80 tn Grk “saw,” but the literal translation of the phrase “saw decay” could be misunderstood to mean simply “looked at decay,” while here “saw decay” is really figurative for “experienced decay.” This remark explains why David cannot fulfill the promise.

81 sn The one whom God raised up refers to Jesus.

82 tn Grk “see,” but the literal translation of the phrase “did not see decay” could be misunderstood to mean simply “did not look at decay,” while here “did not see decay” is really figurative for “did not experience decay.”

83 tn That is, Jesus. This pronoun is in emphatic position in the Greek text. Following this phrase in the Greek text is the pronoun ὑμῖν (Jumin, “to you”), so that the emphasis for the audience is that “through Jesus to you” these promises have come.

84 sn This one refers here to Jesus.

85 tn Or “is freed.” The translation of δικαιωθῆναι (dikaiwqhnai) and δικαιοῦται (dikaioutai) in Acts 13:38-39 is difficult. BDAG 249 s.v. δικαιόω 3 categorizes δικαιωθῆναι in 13:38 (Greek text) under the meaning “make free/pure” but categorizes δικαιοῦται in Acts 13:39 as “be found in the right, be free of charges” (BDAG 249 s.v. δικαιόω 2.b.β). In the interest of consistency both verbs are rendered as “justified” in this translation.

86 tn Or “could not free.”

87 tn Grk “from everything from which you could not be justified by the law of Moses.” The passive construction has been converted to an active one in the translation, with “by the law of Moses” becoming the subject of the final clause. The words “from everything from which the law of Moses could not justify you” are part of v. 38 in the Greek text, but due to English style and word order must be placed in v. 39 in the translation.

88 sn The speech closes with a warning, “Watch out,” that also stresses culpability.

89 tn Or “in.”

90 tn Or “and die!”

91 sn A quotation from Hab 1:5. The irony in the phrase even if someone tells you, of course, is that Paul has now told them. So the call in the warning is to believe or else face the peril of being scoffers whom God will judge. The parallel from Habakkuk is that the nation failed to see how Babylon’s rising to power meant perilous judgment for Israel.

92 tn Grk “they”; the referents (Paul and Barnabas) have been specified in the translation for clarity.

93 tn Or “were leaving.” The participle ἐξιόντων (exiontwn) is taken temporally.

94 tn Grk “they”; the referent (the people) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

95 tn Or “begging,” “inviting.”

96 tn Or “matters.”

97 sn See the note on synagogue in 6:9.

98 tn BDAG 607 s.v. λύω 3 has “λυθείσης τ. συναγωγῆς when the meeting of the synagogue had broken up Ac 13:43.”

99 tn Normally the phrase σεβόμενοι τὸν θεόν (sebomenoi ton qeon) refers to Gentiles (“God-fearers”) who believed in God, attended the synagogue, and followed the Mosaic law to some extent, but stopped short of undergoing circumcision. BDAG 918 s.v. σέβω 1.b lists in this category references in Acts 16:14; 18:7; with σεβόμενοι alone, Acts 13:50; 17:4, 17; the phrase is also found in Josephus, Ant. 14.7.2 (14.110). Unique to this particular verse is the combination σεβόμενοι προσηλύτων (sebomenoi proshlutwn). Later rabbinic discussion suggests that to be regarded as a proper proselyte, a Gentile male had to submit to circumcision. If that is the case here, these Gentiles in the synagogue at Pisidian Antioch should be regarded as full proselytes who had converted completely to Judaism and undergone circumcision. It is probably more likely, however, that προσηλύτων is used here in a somewhat looser sense (note the use of σεβομένας [sebomena"] alone to refer to women in Acts 13:50) and that these Gentiles were still in the category commonly called “God-fearers” without being full, technical proselytes to Judaism. See further K. G. Kuhn, TDNT 6:732-34, 743-44. Regardless, the point is that many Gentiles, as well as Jews, came to faith.

100 tn This is the meaning given for ἔπειθον (epeiqon) in this verse by BDAG 791 s.v. πείθω 1.b.

101 tn Grk “who, as they were speaking with them, were persuading them.”

102 tn The verb προμένειν (promenein) is similar in force to the use of μένω (menw, “to reside/remain”) in the Gospel and Epistles of John.



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