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Acts 13:14--14:23

Context
13:14 Moving on from 1  Perga, 2  they arrived at Pisidian Antioch, 3  and on the Sabbath day they went into 4  the synagogue 5  and sat down. 13:15 After the reading from the law and the prophets, 6  the leaders of the synagogue 7  sent them a message, 8  saying, “Brothers, 9  if you have any message 10  of exhortation 11  for the people, speak it.” 12  13:16 So Paul stood up, 13  gestured 14  with his hand and said,

“Men of Israel, 15  and you Gentiles who fear God, 16  listen: 13:17 The God of this people Israel 17  chose our ancestors 18  and made the people great 19  during their stay as foreigners 20  in the country 21  of Egypt, and with uplifted arm 22  he led them out of it. 13:18 For 23  a period of about forty years he put up with 24  them in the wilderness. 25  13:19 After 26  he had destroyed 27  seven nations 28  in the land of Canaan, he gave his people their land as an inheritance. 29  13:20 All this took 30  about four hundred fifty years. After this 31  he gave them judges until the time of 32  Samuel the prophet. 13:21 Then they asked for a king, and God gave them Saul son of Kish, a man from the tribe of Benjamin, who ruled 33  forty years. 13:22 After removing him, God 34  raised up 35  David their king. He testified about him: 36 I have found David 37  the son of Jesse to be a man after my heart, 38  who will accomplish everything I want him to do.’ 39  13:23 From the descendants 40  of this man 41  God brought to Israel a Savior, Jesus, just as he promised. 42  13:24 Before 43  Jesus 44  arrived, John 45  had proclaimed a baptism for repentance 46  to all the people of Israel. 13:25 But while John was completing his mission, 47  he said repeatedly, 48  ‘What do you think I am? I am not he. But look, one is coming after me. I am not worthy to untie the sandals on his feet!’ 49  13:26 Brothers, 50  descendants 51  of Abraham’s family, 52  and those Gentiles among you who fear God, 53  the message 54  of this salvation has been sent to us. 13:27 For the people who live in Jerusalem and their rulers did not recognize 55  him, 56  and they fulfilled the sayings 57  of the prophets that are read every Sabbath by condemning 58  him. 59  13:28 Though 60  they found 61  no basis 62  for a death sentence, 63  they asked Pilate to have him executed. 13:29 When they had accomplished 64  everything that was written 65  about him, they took him down 66  from the cross 67  and placed him 68  in a tomb. 13:30 But God raised 69  him from the dead, 13:31 and 70  for many days he appeared to those who had accompanied 71  him from Galilee to Jerusalem. These 72  are now his witnesses to the people. 13:32 And we proclaim to you the good news about the promise to our ancestors, 73  13:33 that this promise 74  God has fulfilled to us, their children, by raising 75  Jesus, as also it is written in the second psalm, ‘You are my Son; 76  today I have fathered you.’ 77  13:34 But regarding the fact that he has raised Jesus 78  from the dead, never 79  again to be 80  in a state of decay, God 81  has spoken in this way: ‘I will give you 82  the holy and trustworthy promises 83  made to David.’ 84  13:35 Therefore he also says in another psalm, 85 You will not permit your Holy One 86  to experience 87  decay.’ 88  13:36 For David, after he had served 89  God’s purpose in his own generation, died, 90  was buried with his ancestors, 91  and experienced 92  decay, 13:37 but the one 93  whom God raised up did not experience 94  decay. 13:38 Therefore let it be known to you, brothers, that through this one 95  forgiveness of sins is proclaimed to you, 13:39 and by this one 96  everyone who believes is justified 97  from everything from which the law of Moses could not justify 98  you. 99  13:40 Watch out, 100  then, that what is spoken about by 101  the prophets does not happen to you:

13:41Look, you scoffers; be amazed and perish! 102 

For I am doing a work in your days,

a work you would never believe, even if someone tells you.’” 103 

13:42 As Paul and Barnabas 104  were going out, 105  the people 106  were urging 107  them to speak about these things 108  on the next Sabbath. 13:43 When the meeting of the synagogue 109  had broken up, 110  many of the Jews and God-fearing proselytes 111  followed Paul and Barnabas, who were speaking with them and were persuading 112  them 113  to continue 114  in the grace of God.

13:44 On the next Sabbath almost the whole city assembled together to hear the word of the Lord. 115  13:45 But when the Jews saw the crowds, they were filled with jealousy, 116  and they began to contradict 117  what Paul was saying 118  by reviling him. 119  13:46 Both Paul and Barnabas replied courageously, 120  “It was necessary to speak the word of God 121  to you first. Since you reject it and do not consider yourselves worthy 122  of eternal life, we 123  are turning to the Gentiles. 124  13:47 For this 125  is what the Lord has commanded us: ‘I have appointed 126  you to be a light 127  for the Gentiles, to bring salvation 128  to the ends of the earth.’” 129  13:48 When the Gentiles heard this, they began to rejoice 130  and praise 131  the word of the Lord, and all who had been appointed for eternal life 132  believed. 13:49 So the word of the Lord was spreading 133  through the entire region. 13:50 But the Jews incited 134  the God-fearing women of high social standing and the prominent men of the city, stirred up persecution against Paul and Barnabas, and threw them out 135  of their region. 13:51 So after they shook 136  the dust off their feet 137  in protest against them, they went to Iconium. 138  13:52 And the disciples were filled with joy 139  and with the Holy Spirit.

Paul and Barnabas at Iconium

14:1 The same thing happened in Iconium 140  when Paul and Barnabas 141  went into the Jewish synagogue 142  and spoke in such a way that a large group 143  of both Jews and Greeks believed. 14:2 But the Jews who refused to believe 144  stirred up the Gentiles and poisoned their minds 145  against the brothers. 14:3 So they stayed there 146  for a considerable time, speaking out courageously for the Lord, who testified 147  to the message 148  of his grace, granting miraculous signs 149  and wonders to be performed through their hands. 14:4 But the population 150  of the city was divided; some 151  sided with the Jews, and some with the apostles. 14:5 When both the Gentiles and the Jews (together with their rulers) made 152  an attempt to mistreat 153  them and stone them, 154  14:6 Paul and Barnabas 155  learned about it 156  and fled to the Lycaonian cities of Lystra 157  and Derbe 158  and the surrounding region. 14:7 There 159  they continued to proclaim 160  the good news.

Paul and Barnabas at Lystra

14:8 In 161  Lystra 162  sat a man who could not use his feet, 163  lame from birth, 164  who had never walked. 14:9 This man was listening to Paul as he was speaking. When Paul 165  stared 166  intently at him and saw he had faith to be healed, 14:10 he said with a loud voice, “Stand upright on your feet.” 167  And the man 168  leaped up and began walking. 169  14:11 So when the crowds saw what Paul had done, they shouted 170  in the Lycaonian language, 171  “The gods have come down to us in human form!” 172  14:12 They began to call 173  Barnabas Zeus 174  and Paul Hermes, 175  because he was the chief speaker. 14:13 The priest of the temple 176  of Zeus, 177  located just outside the city, brought bulls 178  and garlands 179  to the city gates; he and the crowds wanted to offer sacrifices to them. 180  14:14 But when the apostles 181  Barnabas and Paul heard about 182  it, they tore 183  their clothes and rushed out 184  into the crowd, shouting, 185  14:15 “Men, why are you doing these things? We too are men, with human natures 186  just like you! We are proclaiming the good news to you, so that you should turn 187  from these worthless 188  things to the living God, who made the heaven, the earth, 189  the sea, and everything that is in them. 14:16 In 190  past 191  generations he allowed all the nations 192  to go their own ways, 14:17 yet he did not leave himself without a witness by doing good, 193  by giving you rain from heaven 194  and fruitful seasons, satisfying you 195  with food and your hearts with joy.” 196  14:18 Even by saying 197  these things, they scarcely persuaded 198  the crowds not to offer sacrifice to them.

14:19 But Jews came from Antioch 199  and Iconium, 200  and after winning 201  the crowds over, they stoned 202  Paul and dragged him out of the city, presuming him to be dead. 14:20 But after the disciples had surrounded him, he got up and went back 203  into the city. On 204  the next day he left with Barnabas for Derbe. 205 

Paul and Barnabas Return to Antioch in Syria

14:21 After they had proclaimed the good news in that city and made many disciples, they returned to Lystra, 206  to Iconium, 207  and to Antioch. 208  14:22 They strengthened 209  the souls of the disciples and encouraged them to continue 210  in the faith, saying, “We must enter the kingdom 211  of God through many persecutions.” 212  14:23 When they had appointed elders 213  for them in the various churches, 214  with prayer and fasting 215  they entrusted them to the protection 216  of the Lord in whom they had believed.

1 tn Or “Passing by.”

2 sn Perga was a city in Pamphylia near the southern coast of Asia Minor.

3 tn Or “at Antioch in Pisidia.”

sn Pisidian Antioch was a city in Pisidia about 100 mi (160 km) north of Perga. It was both a Roman colony and the seat of military and civil authority in S. Galatia. One had to trek over the Taurus Mountains to get there, since the city was 3,600 ft (1,100 m) above sea level.

map For location see JP1 E2; JP2 E2; JP3 E2; JP4 E2.

4 tn Grk “going into the synagogue they sat down.” The participle εἰσελθόντες (eiselqonte") has been translated as a finite verb due to requirements of contemporary English style.

5 sn See the note on synagogue in 6:9.

6 sn After the reading from the law and the prophets. In the 1st century Jewish synagogue, it was customary after the reading of the Torah (law) and prophets for men to give exhortation from the scriptures.

7 tn Normally ἀρχισυνάγωγος (arcisunagwgo") refers to the “president of a synagogue” (so BDAG 139 s.v. and L&N 53.93). Since the term is plural here, however, and it would sound strange to the English reader to speak of “the presidents of the synagogue,” the alternative translation “leaders” is used. “Rulers” would also be acceptable, but does not convey quite the same idea.

8 tn Grk “sent to them”; the word “message” is an understood direct object. Direct objects in Greek were often omitted when clear from the context, but must be supplied for the modern English reader.

9 tn Grk “Men brothers,” but this is both awkward and unnecessary in English.

10 tn Or “word.”

11 tn Or “encouragement.”

12 tn Or “give it.”

13 tn This participle, ἀναστάς (anasta"), and the following one, κατασείσας (kataseisa"), are both translated as adverbial participles of attendant circumstance.

14 tn Or “motioned.”

15 tn Or “Israelite men,” although this is less natural English. The Greek term here is ἀνήρ (anhr), which only exceptionally is used in a generic sense of both males and females. In this context involving an address to a synagogue gathering, it is conceivable that this is a generic usage, although it can also be argued that Paul’s remarks were addressed primarily to the men present, even if women were there.

16 tn Grk “and those who fear God,” but this is practically a technical term for the category called God-fearers, Gentiles who worshiped the God of Israel and in many cases kept the Mosaic law, but did not take the final step of circumcision necessary to become a proselyte to Judaism. See further K. G. Kuhn, TDNT 6:732-34, 743-44.

17 tn Or “people of Israel.”

18 tn Or “forefathers”; Grk “fathers.”

sn Note how Paul identifies with his audience by referring to our ancestors. He speaks as a Jew. God’s design in history is the theme of the speech. The speech is like Stephen’s, only here the focus is on a promised Son of David.

19 tn That is, in both numbers and in power. The implication of greatness in both numbers and in power is found in BDAG 1046 s.v. ὑψόω 2.

20 tn Or “as resident aliens.”

21 tn Or “land.”

22 sn Here uplifted arm is a metaphor for God’s power by which he delivered the Israelites from Egypt. See Exod 6:1, 6; 32:11; Deut 3:24; 4:34; Ps 136:11-12.

23 tn Grk “And for.” Because of the difference between Greek style, which often begins sentences or clauses with “and,” and English style, which generally does not, καί (kai) has not been translated here.

24 tn For this verb, see BDAG 1017 s.v. τροποφορέω (cf. also Deut 1:31; Exod 16:35; Num 14:34).

25 tn Or “desert.”

26 tn Grk “And after.” Because of the difference between Greek style, which often begins sentences or clauses with “and,” and English style, which generally does not, καί (kai) has not been translated here.

27 tn The participle καθελών (kaqelwn) is taken temporally.

28 sn Seven nations. See Deut 7:1.

29 tn Grk “he gave their land as an inheritance.” The words “his people” are supplied to complete an ellipsis specifying the recipients of the land.

30 tn The words “all this took” are not in the Greek text, but are supplied to make a complete statement in English. There is debate over where this period of 450 years fits and what it includes: (1) It could include the years in Egypt, the conquest of Canaan, and the distribution of the land; (2) some connect it with the following period of the judges. This latter approach seems to conflict with 1 Kgs 6:1; see also Josephus, Ant. 8.3.1 (8.61).

31 tn Grk “And after these things.” Because of the difference between Greek style, which often begins sentences or clauses with “and,” and English style, which generally does not, καί (kai) has not been translated here.

32 tn The words “the time of” are not in the Greek text, but are implied.

33 tn The words “who ruled” are not in the Greek text, but are implied. They have been supplied as a clarification for the English reader. See Josephus, Ant. 6.14.9 (6.378).

34 tn Grk “he”; the referent (God) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

35 sn The expression raised up refers here to making someone king. There is a wordplay here: “raising up” refers to bringing someone onto the scene of history, but it echoes with the parallel to Jesus’ resurrection.

36 tn Grk “about whom.” The relative pronoun (“whom”) was replaced by the pronoun “him” and a new sentence was begun in the translation at this point to improve the English style, due to the length of the sentence in Greek. The verb εἶπεν (eipen) has not been translated (literally “he said testifying”) because it is redundant when combined with the participle μαρτυρήσας (marturhsa", “testifying”). Instead the construction of verb plus participle has been translated as a single English verb (“testified”).

37 sn A quotation from Ps 89:20.

38 sn A quotation from 1 Sam 13:14.

39 tn Or “who will perform all my will,” “who will carry out all my wishes.”

40 tn Or “From the offspring”; Grk “From the seed.”

sn From the descendants (Grk “seed”). On the importance of the seed promise involving Abraham, see Gal 3:6-29.

41 sn The phrase this man is in emphatic position in the Greek text.

42 tn Grk “according to [his] promise.” The comparative clause “just as he promised” is less awkward in English.

sn Just as he promised. Note how Paul describes Israel’s history carefully to David and then leaps forward immediately to Jesus. Paul is expounding the initial realization of Davidic promise as it was delivered in Jesus.

43 tn Grk “John having already proclaimed before his coming a baptism…,” a genitive absolute construction which is awkward in English. A new sentence was begun in the translation at this point.

44 tn Grk “he”; the referent (Jesus) has been specified in the context for clarity, since God is mentioned in the preceding context and John the Baptist in the following clause.

45 sn John refers here to John the Baptist.

46 tn Grk “a baptism of repentance”; the genitive has been translated as a genitive of purpose.

47 tn Or “task.”

48 tn The verb ἔλεγεν (elegen) has been translated as an iterative imperfect, since John undoubtedly said this or something similar on numerous occasions.

49 tn Literally a relative clause, “of whom I am not worthy to untie the sandals of his feet.” Because of the awkwardness of this construction in English, a new sentence was begun here.

50 tn Grk “Men brothers,” but this is both awkward and unnecessary in English.

51 tn Grk “sons”

52 tn Or “race.”

53 tn Grk “and those among you who fear God,” but this is practically a technical term for the category called God-fearers, Gentiles who worshiped the God of Israel and in many cases kept the Mosaic law, but did not take the final step of circumcision necessary to become a proselyte to Judaism. See further K. G. Kuhn, TDNT 6:732-34, 743-44. Note how Paul includes God-fearing Gentiles as recipients of this promise.

54 tn Grk “word.”

55 tn BDAG 12-13 s.v. ἀγνοέω 1.b gives “not to know w. acc. of pers.” as the meaning here, but “recognize” is a better translation in this context because recognition of the true identity of the one they condemned is the issue. See Acts 2:22-24; 4:26-28.

56 tn Grk “this one.”

57 tn Usually φωνή (fwnh) means “voice,” but BDAG 1071-72 s.v. φωνή 2.c has “Also of sayings in scripture…Ac 13:27.”

sn They fulfilled the sayings. The people in Jerusalem and the Jewish rulers should have known better, because they had the story read to them weekly in the synagogue.

58 tn The participle κρίναντες (krinante") is instrumental here.

59 tn The word “him” is not in the Greek text but is implied. Direct objects were often omitted in Greek when clear from the context, but must be supplied for the modern English reader.

60 tn Grk “And though.” Because of the difference between Greek style, which often begins sentences or clauses with “and,” and English style, which generally does not, καί (kai) has not been translated here.

61 tn The participle εὑρόντες (Jeuronte") has been translated as a concessive adverbial participle.

62 sn No basis. Luke insists on Jesus’ innocence again and again in Luke 23:1-25.

63 tn Grk “no basis for death,” but in this context a sentence of death is clearly indicated.

64 tn Or “carried out.”

65 sn That is, everything that was written in OT scripture.

66 tn Grk “taking him down from the cross, they placed him.” The participle καθελόντες (kaqelonte") has been translated as a finite verb due to requirements of contemporary English style.

67 tn Grk “tree,” but frequently figurative for a cross. The allusion is to Deut 21:23. See Acts 5:30; 10:39.

68 tn The word “him” is not in the Greek text but is implied. Direct objects were often omitted in Greek when clear from the context, but must be supplied for the modern English reader.

69 sn See the note on the phrase “raised up” in v. 22, which is the same Greek verb used here.

70 tn Grk “who.” The relative pronoun (“who”) was replaced by the conjunction “and” and the pronoun “he” at this point to improve the English style.

71 sn Those who had accompanied him refers to the disciples, who knew Jesus in ministry. Luke is aware of resurrection appearances in Galilee though he did not relate any of them in Luke 24.

72 tn Grk “who.” The relative pronoun (“who”) was replaced by the demonstrative pronoun “these” and a new sentence was begun in the translation at this point to improve the English style, due to the length of the sentence in Greek and the awkwardness of two relative clauses (“who for many days appeared” and “who are now his witnesses”) following one another.

73 tn Or “to our forefathers”; Grk “the fathers.”

74 tn Grk “that this”; the referent (the promise mentioned in the previous verse) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

sn This promise refers to the promise of a Savior through the seed (descendants) of David that is proclaimed as fulfilled (Rom 1:1-7).

75 tn Or “by resurrecting.” The participle ἀναστήσας (anasthsa") is taken as instrumental here.

sn By raising (i.e., by resurrection) tells how this promise came to be realized, though again the wordplay also points to his presence in history through this event (see the note on “raised up” in v. 22).

76 sn You are my Son. The key to how the quotation is used is the naming of Jesus as “Son” to the Father. The language is that of kingship, as Ps 2 indicates. Here is the promise about what the ultimate Davidic heir would be.

77 tn Grk “I have begotten you.” The traditional translation for γεγέννηκα (gegennhka, “begotten”) is misleading to the modern English reader because it is no longer in common use. Today one speaks of “fathering” a child in much the same way speakers of English formerly spoke of “begetting a child.”

sn A quotation from Ps 2:7.

78 tn Grk “him”; the referent (Jesus) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

79 tn Although μηκέτι (mhketi) can mean “no longer” or “no more,” the latter is more appropriate here, since to translate “no longer” in this context could give the reader the impression that Jesus did experience decay before his resurrection. Since the phrase “no more again to be” is somewhat awkward in English, the simpler phrase “never again to be” was used instead.

80 tn The translation “to be in again” for ὑποστρέφω (Jupostrefw) is given in L&N 13.24.

81 tn Grk “he”; the referent (God) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

82 tn The pronoun “you” is plural here. The promises of David are offered to the people.

83 tn Or “the trustworthy decrees made by God to David.” The phrase τὰ ὅσια Δαυὶδ τὰ πιστά (ta Josia Dauid ta pista) is “compressed,” that is, in a very compact or condensed form. It could be expanded in several different ways. BDAG 728 s.v. ὅσιος 3 understands it to refer to divine decrees: “I will grant you the sure decrees of God relating to David.” BDAG then states that this quotation from Isa 55:3 is intended to show that the following quotation from Ps 16:10 could not refer to David himself, but must refer to his messianic descendant (Jesus). L&N 33.290 render the phrase “I will give to you the divine promises made to David, promises that can be trusted,” although they also note that τὰ ὅσια in Acts 13:34 can mean “divine decrees” or “decrees made by God.” In contemporary English it is less awkward to translate πιστά as an adjective (“trustworthy”). The concept of “divine decrees,” not very understandable to the modern reader, has been replaced by “promises,” and since God is the implied speaker in the context, it is clear that these promises were made by God.

84 sn A quotation from Isa 55:3. The point of this citation is to make clear that the promise of a Davidic line and blessings are made to the people as well.

85 tn Grk “Therefore he also says in another”; the word “psalm” is not in the Greek text but is implied.

86 tn The Greek word translated “Holy One” here (ὅσιόν, {osion) is related to the use of ὅσια (Josia) in v. 34. The link is a wordplay. The Holy One, who does not die, brings the faithful holy blessings of promise to the people.

87 tn Grk “to see,” but the literal translation of the phrase “to see decay” could be misunderstood to mean simply “to look at decay,” while here “see decay” is really figurative for “experience decay.”

88 sn A quotation from Ps 16:10.

89 tn The participle ὑπηρετήσας (Juphrethsa") is taken temporally.

90 tn The verb κοιμάω (koimaw) literally means “sleep,” but it is often used in the Bible as a euphemism for the death of a believer.

91 tn Or “forefathers”; Grk “was gathered to his fathers” (a Semitic idiom).

92 tn Grk “saw,” but the literal translation of the phrase “saw decay” could be misunderstood to mean simply “looked at decay,” while here “saw decay” is really figurative for “experienced decay.” This remark explains why David cannot fulfill the promise.

93 sn The one whom God raised up refers to Jesus.

94 tn Grk “see,” but the literal translation of the phrase “did not see decay” could be misunderstood to mean simply “did not look at decay,” while here “did not see decay” is really figurative for “did not experience decay.”

95 tn That is, Jesus. This pronoun is in emphatic position in the Greek text. Following this phrase in the Greek text is the pronoun ὑμῖν (Jumin, “to you”), so that the emphasis for the audience is that “through Jesus to you” these promises have come.

96 sn This one refers here to Jesus.

97 tn Or “is freed.” The translation of δικαιωθῆναι (dikaiwqhnai) and δικαιοῦται (dikaioutai) in Acts 13:38-39 is difficult. BDAG 249 s.v. δικαιόω 3 categorizes δικαιωθῆναι in 13:38 (Greek text) under the meaning “make free/pure” but categorizes δικαιοῦται in Acts 13:39 as “be found in the right, be free of charges” (BDAG 249 s.v. δικαιόω 2.b.β). In the interest of consistency both verbs are rendered as “justified” in this translation.

98 tn Or “could not free.”

99 tn Grk “from everything from which you could not be justified by the law of Moses.” The passive construction has been converted to an active one in the translation, with “by the law of Moses” becoming the subject of the final clause. The words “from everything from which the law of Moses could not justify you” are part of v. 38 in the Greek text, but due to English style and word order must be placed in v. 39 in the translation.

100 sn The speech closes with a warning, “Watch out,” that also stresses culpability.

101 tn Or “in.”

102 tn Or “and die!”

103 sn A quotation from Hab 1:5. The irony in the phrase even if someone tells you, of course, is that Paul has now told them. So the call in the warning is to believe or else face the peril of being scoffers whom God will judge. The parallel from Habakkuk is that the nation failed to see how Babylon’s rising to power meant perilous judgment for Israel.

104 tn Grk “they”; the referents (Paul and Barnabas) have been specified in the translation for clarity.

105 tn Or “were leaving.” The participle ἐξιόντων (exiontwn) is taken temporally.

106 tn Grk “they”; the referent (the people) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

107 tn Or “begging,” “inviting.”

108 tn Or “matters.”

109 sn See the note on synagogue in 6:9.

110 tn BDAG 607 s.v. λύω 3 has “λυθείσης τ. συναγωγῆς when the meeting of the synagogue had broken up Ac 13:43.”

111 tn Normally the phrase σεβόμενοι τὸν θεόν (sebomenoi ton qeon) refers to Gentiles (“God-fearers”) who believed in God, attended the synagogue, and followed the Mosaic law to some extent, but stopped short of undergoing circumcision. BDAG 918 s.v. σέβω 1.b lists in this category references in Acts 16:14; 18:7; with σεβόμενοι alone, Acts 13:50; 17:4, 17; the phrase is also found in Josephus, Ant. 14.7.2 (14.110). Unique to this particular verse is the combination σεβόμενοι προσηλύτων (sebomenoi proshlutwn). Later rabbinic discussion suggests that to be regarded as a proper proselyte, a Gentile male had to submit to circumcision. If that is the case here, these Gentiles in the synagogue at Pisidian Antioch should be regarded as full proselytes who had converted completely to Judaism and undergone circumcision. It is probably more likely, however, that προσηλύτων is used here in a somewhat looser sense (note the use of σεβομένας [sebomena"] alone to refer to women in Acts 13:50) and that these Gentiles were still in the category commonly called “God-fearers” without being full, technical proselytes to Judaism. See further K. G. Kuhn, TDNT 6:732-34, 743-44. Regardless, the point is that many Gentiles, as well as Jews, came to faith.

112 tn This is the meaning given for ἔπειθον (epeiqon) in this verse by BDAG 791 s.v. πείθω 1.b.

113 tn Grk “who, as they were speaking with them, were persuading them.”

114 tn The verb προμένειν (promenein) is similar in force to the use of μένω (menw, “to reside/remain”) in the Gospel and Epistles of John.

115 tc Most mss (B* C E Ψ Ï sy bo) read θεοῦ (qeou, “of God”) here instead of κυρίου (kuriou, “of the Lord”). Other mss, among them some important early witnesses (Ì74 א A B2 33 81 323 945 1175 1739 al sa), read κυρίου. The external evidence favors κυρίου, though not decisively. Internally, the mention of “God” in v. 43, and especially “the word of God” in v. 46, would provide some temptation for scribes to assimilate the wording in v. 44 to these texts.

sn The word of the Lord is a technical expression in OT literature, often referring to a divine prophetic utterance (e.g., Gen 15:1, Isa 1:10, Jonah 1:1). In the NT it occurs 15 times: 3 times as ῥῆμα τοῦ κυρίου (rJhma tou kuriou; Luke 22:61, Acts 11:16, 1 Pet 1:25) and 12 times as λόγος τοῦ κυρίου (logo" tou kuriou; here and in vv. 48 and 49; Acts 8:25; 15:35, 36; 16:32; 19:10, 20; 1 Thess 1:8, 4:15; 2 Thess 3:1). As in the OT, this phrase focuses on the prophetic nature and divine origin of what has been said.

116 sn They were filled with jealousy. Their foolish response to the gospel is noted again (see Acts 5:17). The same verb is used in Acts 7:9; 17:5.

117 tn The imperfect verb ἀντέλεγον (antelegon) has been translated as an ingressive imperfect in the logical sequence of events: After they were filled with jealousy, the Jewish opponents began to contradict what Paul said.

118 tn Grk “the things being said by Paul.” For smoothness and simplicity of English style, the passive construction has been converted to active voice in the translation.

119 tn The participle βλασφημοῦντες (blasfhmounte") has been regarded as indicating the means of the action of the main verb. It could also be translated as a finite verb (“and reviled him”) in keeping with contemporary English style. The direct object (“him”) is implied rather than expressed and could be impersonal (“it,” referring to what Paul was saying rather than Paul himself), but the verb occurs more often in contexts involving defamation or slander against personal beings (not always God). For a very similar context to this one, compare Acts 18:6. The translation “blaspheme” is not used because in contemporary English its meaning is more narrowly defined and normally refers to blasphemy against God (not what Paul’s opponents were doing here). The modern term “slandering” comes close to what was being done to Paul here.

120 tn Grk “Both Paul and Barnabas spoke out courageously and said.” The redundancy is removed in the translation and the verb “replied” is used in keeping with the logical sequence of events. The theme of boldness reappears: Acts 4:24-30; 9:27-28.

121 tn Grk “It was necessary that the word of God be spoken.” For smoothness and simplicity of English style, the passive construction has been converted to active voice in the translation.

122 tn Or “and consider yourselves unworthy.”

123 tn Grk “behold, we.” In this context ἰδού (idou) is not easily translated into English.

124 sn This turning to the Gentiles would be a shocking rebuke to 1st century Jews who thought they alone were the recipients of the promise.

125 tn Here οὕτως (Joutws) is taken to refer to what follows, the content of the quotation, as given for this verse by BDAG 742 s.v. οὕτω/οὕτως 2.

126 tn BDAG 1004 s.v. τίθημι 3.a has “τιθέναι τινὰ εἴς τι place/appoint someone to or for (to function as) someth….Ac 13:47.” This is a double accusative construction of object (“you”) and complement (“a light”).

127 sn Paul alludes here to the language of the Servant in Isaiah, pointing to Isa 42:6; 49:6. He and Barnabas do the work of the Servant in Isaiah.

128 tn Grk “that you should be for salvation,” but more simply “to bring salvation.”

129 sn An allusion to Isa 42:6 and 49:6. The expression the ends of the earth recalls Luke 3:6 and Acts 1:8. Paul sees himself and Barnabas as carrying out the commission of Luke 24:27. (See 2 Cor 6:2, where servant imagery also appears concerning Paul’s message.)

130 tn The imperfect verb ἔχαιρον (ecairon) and the following ἐδόξαζον (edoxazon) are translated as ingressive imperfects.

131 tn Or “glorify.” Although “honor” is given by BDAG 258 s.v. δοξάζω as a translation, it would be misleading here, because the meaning is “to honor in the sense of attributing worth to something,” while in contemporary English usage one speaks of “honoring” a contract in the sense of keeping its stipulations. It is not a synonym for “obey” in this context (“obey the word of the Lord”), but that is how many English readers would understand it.

132 sn Note the contrast to v. 46 in regard to eternal life.

133 tn BDAG 239 s.v. διαφέρω 1 has “spread” for διαφέρετο (diafereto) in connection with a teaching. This is the first summary since Acts 9:31.

134 tn For the translation of παρώτρυναν (parwtrunan) as “incited” see BDAG 780 s.v. παροτρύνω.

135 tn BDAG 299 s.v. ἐκβάλλω 1 has “throw out.” Once again, many Jews reacted to the message (Acts 5:17, 33; 6:11; 13:45).

136 tn The participle ἐκτιναξάμενοι (ektinaxamenoi) is taken temporally. It could also be translated as a participle of attendant circumstance (“So they shook…and went”).

137 sn Shaking the dust off their feet was a symbolic gesture commanded by Jesus to his disciples, Matt 10:14; Mark 6:11; Luke 9:5. It shows a group of people as culpable before God.

138 sn Iconium was a city in Lycaonia about 90 mi (145 km) east southeast of Pisidian Antioch. It was the easternmost city of Phrygia.

139 sn The citizens of Pisidian Antioch were not discouraged by the persecution, but instead were filled with joy.

140 sn Iconium. See the note in 13:51.

141 tn Grk “they”; the referents (Paul and Barnabas) have been specified in the translation for clarity.

142 sn See the note on synagogue in 6:9.

143 tn Or “that a large crowd.”

144 tn Or “who would not believe.”

145 tn Or “embittered their minds” (Grk “their souls”). BDAG 502 s.v. κακόω 2 has “make angry, embitter τὰς ψυχάς τινων κατά τινος poison the minds of some persons against another Ac 14:2.”

146 tn The word “there” is not in the Greek text, but is implied.

147 sn The Lord testified to the message by granting the signs described in the following clause.

148 tn Grk “word.”

149 tn Here the context indicates the miraculous nature of the signs mentioned.

150 tn BDAG 825 s.v. πλῆθος 2.b.γ has this translation for πλῆθος (plhqo").

151 tn These clauses are a good example of the contrastive μὲνδέ (mende) construction: Some “on the one hand” sided with the Jews, but some “on the other hand” sided with the apostles.

152 tn Grk “So there came about an attempt” The introductory phrase ἐγένετο (egeneto, “it happened that”), common in Luke (69 times) and Acts (54 times), is redundant in contemporary English and has not been translated.

153 tn On this verb see BDAG 1022 s.v. ὑβρίζω.

154 tn The direct object “them” is repeated after both verbs in the translation for stylistic reasons, although it occurs only after λιθοβολῆσαι (liqobolhsai) in the Greek text.

155 tn Grk “they”; the referents (Paul and Barnabas) have been specified in the translation for clarity.

156 tn Grk “learning about it, fled.” The participle συνιδόντες (sunidonte") has been translated as a finite verb due to requirements of contemporary English style. It could also be taken temporally (“when they learned about it”) as long as opening clause of v. 5 is not translated as a temporal clause too, which results in a redundancy.

157 sn Lystra was a city in Lycaonia about 18 mi (30 km) south of Iconium, a Roman colony that was not on the main roads of Lycaonia. Because of its relative isolation, its local character was able to be preserved.

map For location see JP1 E2; JP2 E2; JP3 E2.

158 sn Derbe was a city in Lycaonia about 35 mi (60 km) southeast of Lystra.

map For location see JP1 E2; JP2 E2; JP3 E2.

159 tn Grk “region, and there.” Because of the length and complexity of the Greek sentence, καί (kai) has not been translated and a new sentence begun in the translation.

160 tn The periphrastic construction εὐαγγελιζόμενοι ἦσαν (euangelizomenoi hsan) has been translated as a progressive imperfect.

161 tn Grk “And in.” Because of the difference between Greek style, which often begins sentences or clauses with “and,” and English style, which generally does not, καί (kai) has not been translated here.

162 sn Lystra was a city in Lycaonia about 18 mi (30 km) south of Iconium.

map For location see JP1 E2; JP2 E2; JP3 E2.

163 tn Grk “powerless in his feet,” meaning he was unable to use his feet to walk.

164 tn Grk “lame from his mother’s womb” (an idiom).

sn The description lame from birth makes clear how serious the condition was, and how real it was. This event is very similar to Acts 3:1-10, except here the lame man’s faith is clear from the start.

165 tn Grk “speaking, who.” The relative pronoun has been replaced by the noun “Paul,” and a new sentence begun in the translation because an English relative clause would be very awkward here.

166 tn Or “looked.”

167 tn BDAG 722 s.v. ὀρθός 1.a has “stand upright on your feet.”

168 tn Grk “he”; the referent (the man) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

169 tn This verb is imperfect tense in contrast to the previous verb, which is aorist. It has been translated ingressively, since the start of a sequence is in view here.

170 tn Grk “they lifted up their voice” (an idiom).

171 tn Grk “in Lycaonian, saying.” The word “language” is not in the Greek text, but is implied. The participle λέγοντες (legontes) is redundant in English and has not been translated.

172 tn So BDAG 707 s.v. ὁμοιόω 1. However, L&N 64.4 takes the participle ὁμοιωθέντες (Jomoiwqente") as an adjectival participle modifying θεοί (qeoi): “the gods resembling men have come down to us.”

sn The gods have come down to us in human form. Greek culture spoke of “divine men.” In this region there was a story of Zeus and Hermes visiting the area (Ovid, Metamorphoses 8.611-725). The locals failed to acknowledge them, so judgment followed. The present crowd was determined not to make the mistake a second time.

173 tn The imperfect verb ἐκάλουν (ekaloun) has been translated as an ingressive imperfect.

174 sn Zeus was the chief Greek deity, worshiped throughout the Greco-Roman world (known to the Romans as Jupiter).

175 sn Hermes was a Greek god who (according to Greek mythology) was the messenger of the gods and the god of oratory (equivalent to the Roman god Mercury).

176 tn The words “the temple of” are not in the Greek text, but are implied. The translation “the priest of (the temple/shrine of) Zeus located before the city” is given for this phrase by BDAG 426 s.v. Ζεύς.

177 sn See the note on Zeus in the previous verse.

178 tn Or “oxen.”

179 tn Or “wreaths.”

sn Garlands were commonly wreaths of wool with leaves and flowers woven in, worn on a person’s head or woven around a staff. They were an important part of many rituals used to worship pagan gods. Although it was an erroneous reaction, the priest’s reaction shows how all acknowledged their power and access to God.

180 tn The words “to them” are not in the Greek text, but are clearly implied by the response of Paul and Barnabas in the following verse.

181 sn The apostles Barnabas and Paul. This is one of only two places where Luke calls Paul an apostle, and the description here is shared with Barnabas. This is a nontechnical use here, referring to a commissioned messenger.

182 tn The participle ἀκούσαντες (akousante") is taken temporally.

183 tn Grk “tearing their clothes they rushed out.” The participle διαρρήξαντες (diarrhxante") has been translated as a finite verb due to requirements of contemporary English style. This action is a Jewish response to blasphemy (m. Sanhedrin 7.5; Jdt 14:16-17).

184 tn So BDAG 307 s.v. ἐκπηδάω 1, “rush (lit. ‘leap’) outεἰς τὸν ὄχλον into the crowd Ac 14:14.”

185 tn Grk “shouting and saying.” The participle λέγοντες (legontes, in v. 15) has not been translated because it is redundant.

sn What follows is one of two speeches in Acts to a purely pagan audience (Acts 17 in Athens is the other). So Paul focused on God as Creator, a common link.

186 tn Grk “with the same kinds of feelings,” L&N 25.32. BDAG 706 s.v. ὁμοιοπαθής translates the phrase “with the same nature τινί as someone.” In the immediate context, the contrast is between human and divine nature, and the point is that Paul and Barnabas are mere mortals, not gods.

187 tn Grk “in order that you should turn,” with ἐπιστρέφειν (epistrefein) as an infinitive of purpose, but this is somewhat awkward contemporary English. To translate the infinitive construction “proclaim the good news, that you should turn,” which is much smoother English, could give the impression that the infinitive clause is actually the content of the good news, which it is not. The somewhat less formal “to get you to turn” would work, but might convey to some readers manipulativeness on the part of the apostles. Thus “proclaim the good news, so that you should turn,” is used, to convey that the purpose of the proclamation of good news is the response by the hearers. The emphasis here is like 1 Thess 1:9-10.

188 tn Or “useless,” “futile.” The reference is to idols and idolatry, worshiping the creation over the Creator (Rom 1:18-32). See also 1 Kgs 16:2, 13, 26; 2 Kgs 17:15; Jer 2:5; 8:19; 3 Macc 6:11.

189 tn Grk “and the earth, and the sea,” but καί (kai) has not been translated before “the earth” and “the sea” since contemporary English normally uses a coordinating conjunction only between the last two elements in a series of three or more.

190 tn Grk “them, who in.” The relative pronoun (“who”) was replaced by the pronoun “he” (“In past generations he”) and a new sentence was begun in the translation at this point to improve the English style, due to the length of the sentence in Greek and the awkwardness of two relative clauses (“who made the heaven” and “who in past generations”) following one another.

191 tn On this term see BDAG 780 s.v. παροίχομαι. The word is a NT hapax legomenon.

192 tn Or “all the Gentiles” (in Greek the word for “nation” and “Gentile” is the same). The plural here alludes to the variety of false religions in the pagan world.

193 tn The participle ἀγαθουργῶν (agaqourgwn) is regarded as indicating means here, parallel to the following participles διδούς (didou") and ἐμπιπλῶν (empiplwn). This is the easiest way to understand the Greek structure. Semantically, the first participle is a general statement, followed by two participles giving specific examples of doing good.

194 tn Or “from the sky” (the same Greek word means both “heaven” and “sky”).

195 tn Grk “satisfying [filling] your hearts with food and joy.” This is an idiomatic expression; it strikes the English reader as strange to speak of “filling one’s heart with food.” Thus the additional direct object “you” has been supplied, separating the two expressions somewhat: “satisfying you with food and your hearts with joy.”

196 sn God’s general sovereignty and gracious care in the creation are the way Paul introduces the theme of the goodness of God. He was trying to establish monotheism here. It is an OT theme (Gen 8:22; Ps 4:7; 145:15-16; 147:8-9; Isa 25:6; Jer 5:24) which also appears in the NT (Luke 12:22-34).

197 tn The participle λέγοντες (legontes) is regarded as indicating means.

198 tn BDAG 524 s.v. καταπαύω 2.b gives both “restrain” and “dissuade someone fr. someth.,” but “they scarcely dissuaded the crowds from offering sacrifice,” while accurate, is less common in contemporary English than saying “they scarcely persuaded the crowds not to offer sacrifice.” Paganism is portrayed as a powerful reality that is hard to reverse.

199 sn Antioch was a city in Pisidia about 90 mi (145 km) west northwest of Lystra.

map For location see JP1 E2; JP2 E2; JP3 E2; JP4 E2.

200 sn Iconium was a city in Lycaonia about 18 mi (30 km) north of Lystra. Note how Jews from other cities were chasing Paul (2 Cor 11:4-6; Gal 2:4-5; Acts 9:16).

201 tn The participle πείσαντες (peisante") is taken temporally (BDAG 791 s.v. πείθω 1.c).

202 tn Grk “stoning Paul they dragged him.” The participle λιθάσαντες (liqasante") has been translated as a finite verb due to requirements of contemporary English style.

203 tn Grk “and entered”; the word “back” is not in the Greek text but is implied.

204 tn Grk “And on.” Because of the difference between Greek style, which often begins sentences or clauses with “and,” and English style, which generally does not, καί (kai) has not been translated here.

205 sn Derbe was a city in Lycaonia about 35 mi (60 km) southeast of Lystra. This was the easternmost point of the journey.

map For location see JP1 E2; JP2 E2; JP3 E2.

206 sn Lystra was a city in Lycaonia about 35 mi (60 km) northwest of Derbe.

map For location see JP1 E2; JP2 E2; JP3 E2.

207 sn Iconium was a city in Lycaonia about 18 mi (30 km) north of Lystra.

208 sn Antioch was a city in Pisidia about 90 mi (145 km) west northwest of Lystra.

map For location see JP1 E2; JP2 E2; JP3 E2; JP4 E2.

209 tn Grk “to Antioch, strengthening.” Due to the length of the Greek sentence and the tendency of contemporary English to use shorter sentences, a new sentence was started here. This participle (ἐπιστηρίζοντες, episthrizonte") and the following one (παρακαλοῦντες, parakalounte") have been translated as finite verbs connected by the coordinating conjunction “and.”

210 sn And encouraged them to continue. The exhortations are like those noted in Acts 11:23; 13:43. An example of such a speech is found in Acts 20:18-35. Christianity is now characterized as “the faith.”

211 sn This reference to the kingdom of God clearly refers to its future arrival.

212 tn Or “sufferings.”

213 sn Appointed elders. See Acts 20:17.

214 tn The preposition κατά (kata) is used here in a distributive sense; see BDAG 512 s.v. κατά B.1.d.

215 tn Literally with a finite verb (προσευξάμενοι, proseuxamenoi) rather than a noun, “praying with fasting,” but the combination “prayer and fasting” is so familiar in English that it is preferable to use it here.

216 tn BDAG 772 s.v. παρατίθημι 3.b has “entrust someone to the care or protection of someone” for this phrase. The reference to persecution or suffering in the context (v. 22) suggests “protection” is a better translation here. This looks at God’s ultimate care for the church.



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