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Romans 5:12

Context
The Amplification of Justification

5:12 So then, just as sin entered the world through one man and death through sin, and so death spread to all people 1  because 2  all sinned –

Romans 5:18

Context

5:18 Consequently, 3  just as condemnation 4  for all people 5  came 6  through one transgression, 7  so too through the one righteous act 8  came righteousness leading to life 9  for all people.

1 tn Here ἀνθρώπους (anqrwpou") has been translated as a generic (“people”) since both men and women are clearly intended in this context.

2 tn The translation of the phrase ἐφ᾿ ᾧ (ef Jw) has been heavily debated. For a discussion of all the possibilities, see C. E. B. Cranfield, “On Some of the Problems in the Interpretation of Romans 5.12,” SJT 22 (1969): 324-41. Only a few of the major options can be mentioned here: (1) the phrase can be taken as a relative clause in which the pronoun refers to Adam, “death spread to all people in whom [Adam] all sinned.” (2) The phrase can be taken with consecutive (resultative) force, meaning “death spread to all people with the result that all sinned.” (3) Others take the phrase as causal in force: “death spread to all people because all sinned.”

3 tn There is a double connective here that cannot be easily preserved in English: “consequently therefore,” emphasizing the conclusion of what he has been arguing.

4 tn Grk “[it is] unto condemnation for all people.”

5 tn Here ἀνθρώπους (anqrwpou") has been translated as a generic (“people”) since both men and women are clearly intended in this context.

6 tn There are no verbs in the Greek text of v. 18, forcing translators to supply phrases like “came through one transgression,” “resulted from one transgression,” etc.

7 sn One transgression refers to the sin of Adam in Gen 3:1-24.

8 sn The one righteous act refers to Jesus’ death on the cross.

9 tn Grk “righteousness of life.”



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