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Romans 5:12

Context
The Amplification of Justification

5:12 So then, just as sin entered the world through one man and death through sin, and so death spread to all people 1  because 2  all sinned –

Romans 5:17-19

Context
5:17 For if, by the transgression of the one man, 3  death reigned through the one, how much more will those who receive the abundance of grace and of the gift of righteousness reign in life through the one, Jesus Christ!

5:18 Consequently, 4  just as condemnation 5  for all people 6  came 7  through one transgression, 8  so too through the one righteous act 9  came righteousness leading to life 10  for all people. 5:19 For just as through the disobedience of the one man 11  many 12  were made sinners, so also through the obedience of one man 13  many 14  will be made righteous.

1 tn Here ἀνθρώπους (anqrwpou") has been translated as a generic (“people”) since both men and women are clearly intended in this context.

2 tn The translation of the phrase ἐφ᾿ ᾧ (ef Jw) has been heavily debated. For a discussion of all the possibilities, see C. E. B. Cranfield, “On Some of the Problems in the Interpretation of Romans 5.12,” SJT 22 (1969): 324-41. Only a few of the major options can be mentioned here: (1) the phrase can be taken as a relative clause in which the pronoun refers to Adam, “death spread to all people in whom [Adam] all sinned.” (2) The phrase can be taken with consecutive (resultative) force, meaning “death spread to all people with the result that all sinned.” (3) Others take the phrase as causal in force: “death spread to all people because all sinned.”

3 sn Here the one man refers to Adam (cf. 5:14).

4 tn There is a double connective here that cannot be easily preserved in English: “consequently therefore,” emphasizing the conclusion of what he has been arguing.

5 tn Grk “[it is] unto condemnation for all people.”

6 tn Here ἀνθρώπους (anqrwpou") has been translated as a generic (“people”) since both men and women are clearly intended in this context.

7 tn There are no verbs in the Greek text of v. 18, forcing translators to supply phrases like “came through one transgression,” “resulted from one transgression,” etc.

8 sn One transgression refers to the sin of Adam in Gen 3:1-24.

9 sn The one righteous act refers to Jesus’ death on the cross.

10 tn Grk “righteousness of life.”

11 sn Here the one man refers to Adam (cf. 5:14).

12 tn Grk “the many.”

13 sn One man refers here to Jesus Christ.

14 tn Grk “the many.”



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