5:17 For if, by the transgression of the one man, 3 death reigned through the one, how much more will those who receive the abundance of grace and of the gift of righteousness reign in life through the one, Jesus Christ!
5:18 Consequently, 4 just as condemnation 5 for all people 6 came 7 through one transgression, 8 so too through the one righteous act 9 came righteousness leading to life 10 for all people. 5:19 For just as through the disobedience of the one man 11 many 12 were made sinners, so also through the obedience of one man 13 many 14 will be made righteous.
1 tn Here ἀνθρώπους (anqrwpou") has been translated as a generic (“people”) since both men and women are clearly intended in this context.
2 tn The translation of the phrase ἐφ᾿ ᾧ (ef Jw) has been heavily debated. For a discussion of all the possibilities, see C. E. B. Cranfield, “On Some of the Problems in the Interpretation of Romans 5.12,” SJT 22 (1969): 324-41. Only a few of the major options can be mentioned here: (1) the phrase can be taken as a relative clause in which the pronoun refers to Adam, “death spread to all people in whom [Adam] all sinned.” (2) The phrase can be taken with consecutive (resultative) force, meaning “death spread to all people with the result that all sinned.” (3) Others take the phrase as causal in force: “death spread to all people because all sinned.”
4 tn There is a double connective here that cannot be easily preserved in English: “consequently therefore,” emphasizing the conclusion of what he has been arguing.
5 tn Grk “[it is] unto condemnation for all people.”
6 tn Here ἀνθρώπους (anqrwpou") has been translated as a generic (“people”) since both men and women are clearly intended in this context.
9 sn The one righteous act refers to Jesus’ death on the cross.
10 tn Grk “righteousness of life.”
12 tn Grk “the many.”
13 sn One man refers here to Jesus Christ.
14 tn Grk “the many.”