1 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the vision.
2 tn See BDAG 352 s.v. ἐξουσία 2, “potential or resource to command, control, or govern, capability, might, power.”
3 tn Grk “It was not permitted to them”; the referent (the locusts) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
4 tn The word “permission” is not in the Greek text, but is implied.
5 tn The two ἵνα (Jina) clauses of 9:5 are understood to be functioning as epexegetical or complementary clauses related to ἐδόθη (edoqh).
6 tn On this term BDAG 168 s.v. βασανισμός states, “1. infliction of severe suffering or pain associated with torture or torment, tormenting, torture Rv 9:5b. – 2. the severe pain experienced through torture, torment vs. 5a; 14:11; 18:10, 15; (w. πένθος) vs. 7.”
7 tn The pronoun “them” is not in the Greek text but is picked up from the previous clause.
8 tn Grk “like the torture,” but this is redundant in contemporary English.
9 tn Grk “a man”; but ἄνθρωπος (anqrwpo") is used here in an individualized sense without being limited to the male gender.
10 tn In the Greek text there is a shift to the present tense here; the previous verbs translated “had” are imperfects.
11 tn See BDAG 352 s.v. ἐξουσία 2, “potential or resource to command, control, or govern, capability, might, power.”