9:3 Then 1 out of the smoke came locusts onto the earth, and they were given power 2 like that of the scorpions of the earth.
9:5 The locusts 3 were not given permission 4 to kill 5 them, but only to torture 6 them 7 for five months, and their torture was like that 8 of a scorpion when it stings a person. 9
9:10 They have 10 tails and stingers like scorpions, and their ability 11 to injure people for five months is in their tails.
1 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the vision.
2 tn See BDAG 352 s.v. ἐξουσία 2, “potential or resource to command, control, or govern, capability, might, power.”
3 tn Grk “It was not permitted to them”; the referent (the locusts) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
4 tn The word “permission” is not in the Greek text, but is implied.
6 tn On this term BDAG 168 s.v. βασανισμός states, “1. infliction of severe suffering or pain associated with torture or torment, tormenting, torture Rv 9:5b. – 2. the severe pain experienced through torture, torment vs. 5a; 14:11; 18:10, 15; (w. πένθος) vs. 7.”
7 tn The pronoun “them” is not in the Greek text but is picked up from the previous clause.
8 tn Grk “like the torture,” but this is redundant in contemporary English.
9 tn Grk “a man”; but ἄνθρωπος (anqrwpo") is used here in an individualized sense without being limited to the male gender.
10 tn In the Greek text there is a shift to the present tense here; the previous verbs translated “had” are imperfects.
11 tn See BDAG 352 s.v. ἐξουσία 2, “potential or resource to command, control, or govern, capability, might, power.”