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  Discovery Box

Revelation 9:1--17:18

Context

9:1 Then 1  the fifth angel blew his trumpet, and I saw a star that had fallen from the sky 2  to the earth, and he was given the key to the shaft of the abyss. 3  9:2 He 4  opened the shaft of the abyss and smoke rose out of it 5  like smoke from a giant furnace. The 6  sun and the air were darkened with smoke from the shaft. 9:3 Then 7  out of the smoke came locusts onto the earth, and they were given power 8  like that of the scorpions of the earth. 9:4 They 9  were told 10  not to damage the grass of the earth, or any green plant or tree, but only those people 11  who did not have the seal of God on their 12  forehead. 9:5 The locusts 13  were not given permission 14  to kill 15  them, but only to torture 16  them 17  for five months, and their torture was like that 18  of a scorpion when it stings a person. 19  9:6 In 20  those days people 21  will seek death, but 22  will not be able to 23  find it; they will long to die, but death will flee from them.

9:7 Now 24  the locusts looked like horses equipped for battle. On 25  their heads were something like crowns similar to gold, 26  and their faces looked like men’s 27  faces. 9:8 They 28  had hair like women’s hair, and their teeth were like lions’ teeth. 9:9 They had breastplates 29  like iron breastplates, and the sound of their wings was like the noise of many horse-drawn chariots charging into battle. 9:10 They have 30  tails and stingers like scorpions, and their ability 31  to injure people for five months is in their tails. 9:11 They have as king over them the angel of the abyss, whose name in Hebrew is Abaddon, and in Greek, Apollyon. 32 

9:12 The first woe has passed, but 33  two woes are still coming after these things!

9:13 Then 34  the sixth angel blew his trumpet, and I heard a single voice coming from the 35  horns on the golden altar that is before God, 9:14 saying to the sixth angel, the one holding 36  the trumpet, “Set free 37  the four angels who are bound at the great river Euphrates!” 9:15 Then 38  the four angels who had been prepared for this 39  hour, day, 40  month, and year were set free to kill 41  a third of humanity. 9:16 The 42  number of soldiers on horseback was two hundred million; 43  I heard their number. 9:17 Now 44  this is what the horses and their riders 45  looked like in my 46  vision: The riders had breastplates that were fiery red, 47  dark blue, 48  and sulfurous 49  yellow in color. 50  The 51  heads of the horses looked like lions’ heads, and fire, smoke, and sulfur 52  came out of their mouths. 9:18 A third of humanity was killed by these three plagues, that is, 53  by the fire, the smoke, and the sulfur that came out of their mouths. 9:19 For the power 54  of the horses resides 55  in their mouths and in their tails, because their tails are like snakes, having heads that inflict injuries. 9:20 The rest of humanity, who had not been killed by these plagues, did not repent of the works of their hands, so that they did not stop worshiping demons and idols made 56  of gold, silver, 57  bronze, stone, and wood – idols that cannot see or hear or walk about. 9:21 Furthermore, 58  they did not repent of their murders, of their magic spells, 59  of their sexual immorality, or of their stealing.

The Angel with the Little Scroll

10:1 Then 60  I saw another powerful angel descending from heaven, wrapped 61  in a cloud, with a rainbow above his head; his face was like the sun and his legs were like pillars of fire. 62  10:2 He held 63  in his hand a little scroll that was open, and he put his right foot on the sea and his left on the land. 10:3 Then 64  he shouted in a loud voice like a lion roaring, and when he shouted, the seven thunders sounded their voices. 10:4 When the seven thunders spoke, I was preparing to write, but 65  just then 66  I heard a voice from heaven say, “Seal up what the seven thunders spoke and do not write it down.” 10:5 Then 67  the angel I saw standing on the sea and on the land raised his right hand to heaven 10:6 and swore by the one who lives forever and ever, who created heaven and what is in it, and the earth and what is in it, and the sea and what is in it, “There will be no more delay! 68  10:7 But in the days 69  when the seventh angel is about to blow his trumpet, the mystery of God is completed, 70  just as he has 71  proclaimed to his servants 72  the prophets.” 10:8 Then 73  the voice I had heard from heaven began to speak 74  to me 75  again, 76  “Go and take the open 77  scroll in the hand of the angel who is standing on the sea and on the land.” 10:9 So 78  I went to the angel and asked him to give me the little scroll. He 79  said to me, “Take the scroll 80  and eat it. It 81  will make your stomach bitter, but it will be as sweet as honey in your mouth.” 10:10 So 82  I took the little scroll from the angel’s hand and ate it, and it did taste 83  as sweet as honey in my mouth, but 84  when I had eaten it, my stomach became bitter. 10:11 Then 85  they 86  told me: “You must prophesy again about many peoples, nations, 87  languages, and kings.”

The Fate of the Two Witnesses

11:1 Then 88  a measuring rod 89  like a staff was given to me, and I was told, 90  “Get up and measure the temple of God, and the altar, and the ones who worship there. 11:2 But 91  do not measure the outer courtyard 92  of the temple; leave it out, 93  because it has been given to the Gentiles, 94  and they will trample on the holy city 95  for forty-two months. 11:3 And I will grant my two witnesses authority 96  to prophesy for 1,260 days, dressed in sackcloth. 11:4 (These are the two olive trees and the two lampstands that stand before the Lord of the earth.) 97  11:5 If 98  anyone wants to harm them, fire comes out of their mouths 99  and completely consumes 100  their enemies. If 101  anyone wants to harm them, they must be killed this way. 11:6 These two have the power 102  to close up the sky so that it does not rain during the time 103  they are prophesying. They 104  have power 105  to turn the waters to blood and to strike the earth with every kind of plague whenever they want. 11:7 When 106  they have completed their testimony, the beast that comes up from the abyss will make war on them and conquer 107  them and kill them. 11:8 Their 108  corpses will lie in the street 109  of the great city that is symbolically 110  called Sodom and Egypt, where their Lord was also crucified. 11:9 For three and a half days those from every 111  people, tribe, 112  nation, and language will look at their corpses, because they will not permit them to be placed in a tomb. 113  11:10 And those who live on the earth will rejoice over them and celebrate, even sending gifts to each other, because these two prophets had tormented those who live on the earth. 11:11 But 114  after three and a half days a breath of life from God entered them, and they stood on their feet, and tremendous fear seized 115  those who were watching them. 11:12 Then 116  they 117  heard a loud voice from heaven saying to them: “Come up here!” So the two prophets 118  went up to heaven in a cloud while 119  their enemies stared at them. 11:13 Just then 120  a major earthquake took place and a tenth of the city collapsed; seven thousand people 121  were killed in the earthquake, and the rest were terrified and gave glory to the God of heaven.

11:14 The second woe has come and gone; 122  the third is coming quickly.

The Seventh Trumpet

11:15 Then 123  the seventh angel blew his trumpet, and there were loud voices in heaven saying:

“The kingdom of the world

has become the kingdom of our Lord

and of his Christ, 124 

and he will reign for ever and ever.”

11:16 Then 125  the twenty-four elders who are seated on their thrones before God threw themselves down with their faces to the ground 126  and worshiped God 11:17 with these words: 127 

“We give you thanks, Lord God, the All-Powerful, 128 

the one who is and who was,

because you have taken your great power

and begun to reign. 129 

11:18 The 130  nations 131  were enraged,

but 132  your wrath has come,

and the time has come for the dead to be judged,

and the time has come to give to your servants, 133 

the prophets, their reward,

as well as to the saints

and to those who revere 134  your name, both small and great,

and the time has come 135  to destroy those who destroy 136  the earth.”

11:19 Then 137  the temple of God in heaven was opened and the ark of his covenant was visible within his temple. And there were flashes of lightning, roaring, 138  crashes of thunder, an earthquake, and a great hailstorm. 139 

The Woman, the Child, and the Dragon

12:1 Then 140  a great sign appeared in heaven: a woman clothed with the sun, and with the moon under her feet, and on her head was a crown of twelve stars. 141  12:2 She 142  was pregnant and was screaming in labor pains, struggling 143  to give birth. 12:3 Then 144  another sign appeared in heaven: a huge red dragon that had seven heads and ten horns, and on its heads were seven diadem crowns. 145  12:4 Now 146  the dragon’s 147  tail swept away a third of the stars in heaven and hurled them to the earth. Then 148  the dragon stood before the woman who was about to give birth, so that he might devour her child as soon as it was born. 12:5 So 149  the woman gave birth to a son, a male child, 150  who is going to rule 151  over all the nations 152  with an iron rod. 153  Her 154  child was suddenly caught up to God and to his throne, 12:6 and she 155  fled into the wilderness 156  where a place had been prepared for her 157  by God, so she could be taken care of 158  for 1,260 days.

War in Heaven

12:7 Then 159  war broke out in heaven: Michael 160  and his angels fought against the dragon, and the dragon and his angels fought back. 12:8 But 161  the dragon was not strong enough to prevail, 162  so there was no longer any place left 163  in heaven for him and his angels. 164  12:9 So 165  that huge dragon – the ancient serpent, the one called the devil and Satan, who deceives the whole world – was thrown down to the earth, and his angels along with him. 12:10 Then 166  I heard a loud voice in heaven saying,

“The salvation and the power

and the kingdom of our God,

and the ruling authority 167  of his Christ, 168  have now come,

because the accuser of our brothers and sisters, 169 

the one who accuses them day and night 170  before our God,

has been thrown down.

12:11 But 171  they overcame him

by the blood of the Lamb

and by the word of their testimony,

and they did not love their lives 172  so much that they were afraid to die.

12:12 Therefore you heavens rejoice, and all who reside in them!

But 173  woe to the earth and the sea

because the devil has come down to you!

He 174  is filled with terrible anger,

for he knows that he only has a little time!”

12:13 Now 175  when the dragon realized 176  that he had been thrown down to the earth, he pursued the woman who had given birth to the male child. 12:14 But 177  the woman was given the two wings of a giant eagle so that she could fly out into the wilderness, 178  to the place God 179  prepared for her, where she is taken care of – away from the presence of the serpent – for a time, times, and half a time. 180  12:15 Then 181  the serpent spouted water like a river out of his mouth after the woman in an attempt to 182  sweep her away by a flood, 12:16 but 183  the earth came to her rescue; 184  the ground opened up 185  and swallowed the river that the dragon had spewed from his mouth. 12:17 So 186  the dragon became enraged at the woman and went away to make war on the rest of her children, 187  those who keep 188  God’s commandments and hold to 189  the testimony about Jesus. 190  (12:18) And the dragon 191  stood 192  on the sand 193  of the seashore. 194 

The Two Beasts

13:1 Then 195  I saw a beast coming up out of the sea. It 196  had ten horns and seven heads, and on its horns were ten diadem crowns, 197  and on its heads a blasphemous name. 198  13:2 Now 199  the beast that I saw was like a leopard, but its feet were like a bear’s, and its mouth was like a lion’s mouth. The 200  dragon gave the beast 201  his power, his throne, and great authority to rule. 202  13:3 One of the beast’s 203  heads appeared to have been killed, 204  but the lethal wound had been healed. 205  And the whole world followed 206  the beast in amazement; 13:4 they worshiped the dragon because he had given ruling authority 207  to the beast, and they worshiped the beast too, saying: “Who is like the beast?” and “Who is able to make war against him?” 208  13:5 The beast 209  was given a mouth speaking proud words 210  and blasphemies, and he was permitted 211  to exercise ruling authority 212  for forty-two months. 13:6 So 213  the beast 214  opened his mouth to blaspheme against God – to blaspheme both his name and his dwelling place, 215  that is, those who dwell in heaven. 13:7 The beast 216  was permitted to go to war against the saints and conquer them. 217  He was given ruling authority 218  over every tribe, people, 219  language, and nation, 13:8 and all those who live on the earth will worship the beast, 220  everyone whose name has not been written since the foundation of the world 221  in the book of life belonging to the Lamb who was killed. 222  13:9 If anyone has an ear, he had better listen!

13:10 If anyone is meant for captivity,

into captivity he will go.

If anyone is to be killed by the sword, 223 

then by the sword he must be killed.

This 224  requires steadfast endurance 225  and faith from the saints.

13:11 Then 226  I saw another beast 227  coming up from the earth. He 228  had two horns like a lamb, 229  but 230  was speaking like a dragon. 13:12 He 231  exercised all the ruling authority 232  of the first beast on his behalf, 233  and made the earth and those who inhabit it worship the first beast, the one whose lethal wound had been healed. 13:13 He 234  performed momentous signs, even making fire come down from heaven in front of people 235  13:14 and, by the signs he was permitted to perform on behalf of the beast, he deceived those who live on the earth. He told 236  those who live on the earth to make an image to the beast who had been wounded by the sword, but still lived. 13:15 The second beast 237  was empowered 238  to give life 239  to the image of the first beast 240  so that it could speak, and could cause all those who did not worship the image of the beast to be killed. 13:16 He also caused 241  everyone (small and great, rich and poor, free and slave 242 ) to obtain a mark on their right hand or on their forehead. 13:17 Thus no one was allowed to buy 243  or sell things 244  unless he bore 245  the mark of the beast – that is, his name or his number. 246  13:18 This calls for wisdom: 247  Let the one who has insight calculate the beast’s number, for it is man’s number, 248  and his number is 666. 249 

An Interlude: The Song of the 144,000

14:1 Then 250  I looked, and here was 251  the Lamb standing on Mount Zion, and with him were one hundred and forty-four thousand, who had his name and his Father’s name written on their foreheads. 14:2 I also heard a sound 252  coming out of heaven like the sound of many waters and like the sound of loud thunder. Now 253  the sound I heard was like that made by harpists playing their harps, 14:3 and they were singing a new song before the throne and before the four living creatures and the elders. No 254  one was able to learn the song except the one hundred and forty-four thousand who had been redeemed from the earth.

14:4 These are the ones who have not defiled themselves 255  with women, for they are virgins. These are the ones who follow the Lamb wherever he goes. These were redeemed from humanity as firstfruits to God and to the Lamb, 14:5 and no lie was found on their lips; 256  they 257  are blameless.

Three Angels and Three Messages

14:6 Then 258  I saw another 259  angel flying directly overhead, 260  and he had 261  an eternal gospel to proclaim 262  to those who live 263  on the earth – to every nation, tribe, 264  language, and people. 14:7 He declared 265  in a loud voice: “Fear God and give him glory, because the hour of his judgment has arrived, and worship the one who made heaven and earth, the sea and the springs of water!”

14:8 A 266  second 267  angel 268  followed the first, 269  declaring: 270  “Fallen, fallen is Babylon the great city! 271  She made all the nations 272  drink of the wine of her immoral passion.” 273 

14:9 A 274  third angel 275  followed the first two, 276  declaring 277  in a loud voice: “If anyone worships the beast and his image, and takes the mark on his forehead or his hand, 14:10 that person 278  will also drink of the wine of God’s anger 279  that has been mixed undiluted in the cup of his wrath, and he will be tortured with fire and sulfur 280  in front of the holy angels and in front of the Lamb. 14:11 And the smoke from their 281  torture will go up 282  forever and ever, and those who worship the beast and his image will have 283  no rest day or night, along with 284  anyone who receives the mark of his name.” 14:12 This requires 285  the steadfast endurance 286  of the saints – those who obey 287  God’s commandments and hold to 288  their faith in Jesus. 289 

14:13 Then 290  I heard a voice from heaven say, “Write this:

‘Blessed are the dead,

those who die in the Lord from this moment on!’”

“Yes,” says the Spirit, “so they can rest from their hard work, 291  because their deeds will follow them.” 292 

14:14 Then 293  I looked, and a white cloud appeared, 294  and seated on the cloud was one like a son of man! 295  He had 296  a golden crown on his head and a sharp sickle in his hand. 14:15 Then 297  another angel came out of the temple, shouting in a loud voice to the one seated on the cloud, “Use 298  your sickle and start to reap, 299  because the time to reap has come, since the earth’s harvest is ripe!” 14:16 So 300  the one seated on the cloud swung his sickle over the earth, and the earth was reaped.

14:17 Then 301  another angel came out of the temple in heaven, and he too had a sharp sickle. 14:18 Another 302  angel, who was in charge of 303  the fire, came from the altar and called in a loud voice to the angel 304  who had the sharp sickle, “Use 305  your sharp sickle and gather 306  the clusters of grapes 307  off the vine of the earth, 308  because its grapes 309  are now ripe.” 310  14:19 So 311  the angel swung his sickle over the earth and gathered the grapes from the vineyard 312  of the earth and tossed them into the great 313  winepress of the wrath of God. 14:20 Then 314  the winepress was stomped 315  outside the city, and blood poured out of the winepress up to the height of horses’ bridles 316  for a distance of almost two hundred miles. 317 

The Final Plagues

15:1 Then 318  I saw another great and astounding sign in heaven: seven angels who have seven final plagues 319  (they are final because in them God’s anger is completed).

15:2 Then 320  I saw something like a sea of glass 321  mixed with fire, and those who had conquered 322  the beast and his image and the number of his name. They were standing 323  by 324  the sea of glass, holding harps given to them by God. 325  15:3 They 326  sang the song of Moses the servant 327  of God and the song of the Lamb: 328 

“Great and astounding are your deeds,

Lord God, the All-Powerful! 329 

Just 330  and true are your ways,

King over the nations! 331 

15:4 Who will not fear you, O Lord,

and glorify 332  your name, because you alone are holy? 333 

All nations 334  will come and worship before you

for your righteous acts 335  have been revealed.”

15:5 After 336  these things I looked, and the temple (the tent 337  of the testimony) 338  was opened in heaven, 15:6 and the seven angels who had the seven plagues came out of the temple, dressed in clean bright linen, wearing wide golden belts 339  around their chests. 15:7 Then 340  one of the four living creatures gave the seven angels seven golden bowls filled with the wrath 341  of God who lives forever and ever, 15:8 and the temple was filled with smoke from God’s glory and from his power. Thus 342  no one could enter the temple until the seven plagues from the seven angels were completed.

The Bowls of God’s Wrath

16:1 Then 343  I heard a loud voice from the temple declaring to the seven angels: “Go and pour out on the earth the seven bowls containing God’s wrath.” 344  16:2 So 345  the first angel 346  went and poured out his bowl on the earth. Then 347  ugly and painful sores 348  appeared on the people 349  who had the mark of the beast and who worshiped his image.

16:3 Next, 350  the second angel 351  poured out his bowl on the sea and it turned into blood, like that of a corpse, and every living creature that was in the sea died.

16:4 Then 352  the third angel 353  poured out his bowl on the rivers and the springs of water, and they turned into blood. 16:5 Now 354  I heard the angel of the waters saying:

“You are just 355  – the one who is and who was,

the Holy One – because you have passed these judgments, 356 

16:6 because they poured out the blood of your saints and prophets,

so 357  you have given them blood to drink. They got what they deserved!” 358 

16:7 Then 359  I heard the altar reply, 360  “Yes, Lord God, the All-Powerful, 361  your judgments are true and just!”

16:8 Then 362  the fourth angel 363  poured out his bowl on the sun, and it was permitted to scorch people 364  with fire. 16:9 Thus 365  people 366  were scorched by the terrible heat, 367  yet 368  they blasphemed the name of God, who has ruling authority 369  over these plagues, and they would not repent and give him glory.

16:10 Then 370  the fifth angel 371  poured out his bowl on the throne of the beast so that 372  darkness covered his kingdom, 373  and people 374  began to bite 375  their tongues because 376  of their pain. 16:11 They blasphemed the God of heaven because of their sufferings 377  and because of their sores, 378  but nevertheless 379  they still refused to repent 380  of their deeds.

16:12 Then 381  the sixth angel 382  poured out his bowl on the great river Euphrates and dried up its water 383  to prepare the way 384  for the kings from the east. 385  16:13 Then 386  I saw three unclean spirits 387  that looked like frogs coming out of the mouth of the dragon, out of the mouth of the beast, and out of the mouth of the false prophet. 16:14 For they are the spirits of the demons performing signs who go out to the kings of the earth 388  to bring them together for the battle that will take place on the great day of God, the All-Powerful. 389 

16:15 (Look! I will come like a thief!

Blessed is the one who stays alert and does not lose 390  his clothes so that he will not have to walk around naked and his shameful condition 391  be seen.) 392 

16:16 Now 393  the spirits 394  gathered the kings and their armies 395  to the place that is called Armageddon 396  in Hebrew.

16:17 Finally 397  the seventh angel 398  poured out his bowl into the air and a loud voice came out of the temple from the throne, saying: “It is done!” 16:18 Then 399  there were flashes of lightning, roaring, 400  and crashes of thunder, and there was a tremendous earthquake – an earthquake unequaled since humanity 401  has been on the earth, so tremendous was that earthquake. 16:19 The 402  great city was split into three parts and the cities of the nations 403  collapsed. 404  So 405  Babylon the great was remembered before God, and was given the cup 406  filled with the wine made of God’s furious wrath. 407  16:20 Every 408  island fled away 409  and no mountains could be found. 410  16:21 And gigantic hailstones, weighing about a hundred pounds 411  each, fell from heaven 412  on people, 413  but they 414  blasphemed God because of the plague of hail, since it 415  was so horrendous. 416 

The Great Prostitute and the Beast

17:1 Then 417  one of the seven angels who had the seven bowls came and spoke to me. 418  “Come,” he said, “I will show you the condemnation and punishment 419  of the great prostitute who sits on many waters, 17:2 with whom the kings of the earth committed sexual immorality and the earth’s inhabitants got drunk with the wine of her immorality.” 420  17:3 So 421  he carried me away in the Spirit 422  to a wilderness, 423  and there 424  I saw a woman sitting on a scarlet beast that was full of blasphemous names and had seven heads and ten horns. 17:4 Now 425  the woman was dressed in purple and scarlet clothing, 426  and adorned with gold, 427  precious stones, and pearls. She held 428  in her hand a golden cup filled with detestable things and unclean things from her sexual immorality. 429  17:5 On 430  her forehead was written a name, a mystery: 431  “Babylon the Great, the Mother of prostitutes and of the detestable things of the earth.” 17:6 I saw that the woman was drunk with the blood of the saints and the blood of those who testified to Jesus. 432  I 433  was greatly astounded 434  when I saw her. 17:7 But 435  the angel said to me, “Why are you astounded? I will interpret 436  for you the mystery of the woman and of the beast with the seven heads and ten horns that carries her. 17:8 The beast you saw was, and is not, but is about to come up from the abyss 437  and then go to destruction. The 438  inhabitants of the earth – all those whose names have not been written in the book of life since the foundation of the world – will be astounded when they see that 439  the beast was, and is not, but is to come. 17:9 (This requires 440  a mind that has wisdom.) The seven heads are seven mountains 441  the woman sits on. They are also seven kings: 17:10 five have fallen; one is, 442  and the other has not yet come, but whenever he does come, he must remain for only a brief time. 17:11 The 443  beast that was, and is not, is himself an eighth king and yet is one of the seven, and is going to destruction. 17:12 The 444  ten horns that you saw are ten kings who have not yet received a kingdom, but will receive ruling authority 445  as kings with the beast for one hour. 17:13 These kings 446  have a single intent, and they will give their power and authority to the beast. 17:14 They will make war with the Lamb, but the Lamb will conquer them, because he is Lord of lords and King of kings, and those accompanying 447  the Lamb are the called, chosen, and faithful.”

17:15 Then 448  the angel 449  said to me, “The waters you saw (where the prostitute is seated) are peoples, multitudes, 450  nations, and languages. 17:16 The 451  ten horns that you saw, and the beast – these will hate the prostitute and make her desolate and naked. They 452  will consume her flesh and burn her up with fire. 453  17:17 For God has put into their minds 454  to carry out his purpose 455  by making 456  a decision 457  to give their royal power 458  to the beast until the words of God are fulfilled. 459  17:18 As for 460  the woman you saw, she is the great city that has sovereignty over the kings of the earth.”

1 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the vision.

2 tn Or “from heaven” (the same Greek word means both “heaven” and “sky”).

3 tn On this term BDAG 2 s.v. ἄβυσσος 2 states, “netherworld, abyss, esp. the abode of the dead Ro 10:7 (Ps 106:26) and of demons Lk 8:31; dungeon where the devil is kept Rv 20:3; abode of the θηρίον, the Antichrist 11:7; 17:8; of ᾿Αβαδδών (q.v.), the angel of the underworld 9:11φρέαρ τῆς ἀ. 9:1f; capable of being sealed 9:1; 20:1, 3.”

4 tn Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.

5 tn Grk “the shaft,” but since this would be somewhat redundant in English, the pronoun “it” is used here.

6 tn Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.

7 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the vision.

8 tn See BDAG 352 s.v. ἐξουσία 2, “potential or resource to command, control, or govern, capability, might, power.

9 tn Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.

10 tn The dative indirect object (αὐταῖς, autais) was converted into the subject (“they”) as this more closely approximates English usage. The following ἵ῞να (Jina) is taken as substantival, introducing a direct object clause. In this case, because it is reported speech, the ἵνα is similar to the declarative ὅτι (Joti).

11 tn Grk “men”; but ἄνθρωπος (anqrwpo") is used in a generic sense here of both men and women.

12 tn The article τῶν (twn) has been translated as a possessive pronoun here (ExSyn 215).

13 tn Grk “It was not permitted to them”; the referent (the locusts) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

14 tn The word “permission” is not in the Greek text, but is implied.

15 tn The two ἵνα (Jina) clauses of 9:5 are understood to be functioning as epexegetical or complementary clauses related to ἐδόθη (edoqh).

16 tn On this term BDAG 168 s.v. βασανισμός states, “1. infliction of severe suffering or pain associated with torture or torment, tormenting, torture Rv 9:5b. – 2. the severe pain experienced through torture, torment vs. 5a; 14:11; 18:10, 15; (w. πένθος) vs. 7.”

17 tn The pronoun “them” is not in the Greek text but is picked up from the previous clause.

18 tn Grk “like the torture,” but this is redundant in contemporary English.

19 tn Grk “a man”; but ἄνθρωπος (anqrwpo") is used here in an individualized sense without being limited to the male gender.

20 tn Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.

21 tn Grk “men”; but ἄνθρωπος (anqrwpo") is used in a generic sense here of both men and women.

22 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “but” to indicate the contrast present in this context.

23 tn The phrase “not be able to” was used in the translation to emphasize the strong negation (οὐ μή, ou mh) in the Greek text.

24 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “now” to indicate the introduction of the description of the locusts, which is somewhat parenthetical in the narrative.

25 tn Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.

26 tn The translation attempts to bring out the double uncertainty in this clause in the Greek text, involving both the form (ὡς στέφανοι, Jw" stefanoi, “like crowns”) and the material (ὅμοιοι χρυσῷ, {omoioi crusw, “similar to gold”).

27 tn Or “human faces.” The Greek term ἄνθρωπος (anqrwpos) is often used in a generic sense, referring to both men and women. However, because “women’s hair” in the next clause suggests a possible gender distinction here, “men’s” was retained.

28 tn Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.

29 tn Or perhaps, “scales like iron breastplates” (RSV, NRSV) although the Greek term θώραξ (qwrax) would have to shift its meaning within the clause, and elsewhere in biblical usage (e.g., Eph 6:14; 1 Thess 5:8) it normally means “breastplate.” See also L&N 8.38.

30 tn In the Greek text there is a shift to the present tense here; the previous verbs translated “had” are imperfects.

31 tn See BDAG 352 s.v. ἐξουσία 2, “potential or resource to command, control, or govern, capability, might, power.

32 sn Both the Hebrew Abaddon and the Greek Apollyon mean “Destroyer.”

33 tn Grk “behold.” Here ἰδού (idou) has been translated as “but” to indicate the contrast present in the context.

34 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the vision.

35 tc ‡ Several key mss (Ì47 א1 A 0207 1611 2053 2344 pc lat syh co) lack the word τεσσάρων (tessarwn, “four”) before κεράτων (keratwn, “horns”). The word seems to have been added by scribes because a “horned” altar (described in the OT [Exod 30:2, 10]) could have only four “horns” or projections at the corners. NA27 includes the word in brackets, indicating doubts as to its authenticity.

36 tn Grk “having.”

37 tn On λῦσον (luson) BDAG 606-7 s.v. λύω 2 states, “set free, loose, untie – a. lit. a pers., animal, or thing that is bound or tied…Angels that are bound Rv 9:14f.”

38 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the vision.

39 tn The Greek article τήν (thn) has been translated with demonstrative force here.

40 tn The Greek term καί (kai) has not been translated here and before the following term “month” since English normally uses a coordinating conjunction only between the last two elements in a series of three or more.

41 tn Grk “so that they might kill,” but the English infinitive is an equivalent construction to indicate purpose here.

42 tn Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.

43 tn Grk “twenty thousand of ten thousands.”

44 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “now” to indicate the introduction of the description of the horses and riders, which is somewhat parenthetical in the narrative.

45 tn Grk “and those seated on them.”

46 tn Grk “the vision”; the Greek article has been translated as a possessive pronoun (ExSyn 215).

47 tn L&N 79.31 states, “‘fiery red’ (probably with a tinge of yellow or orange).”

48 tn On this term BDAG 1022 s.v. ὑακίνθινος states, “hyacinth-colored, i.e. dark blue (dark red?) w. πύρινος Rv 9:17.”

49 tn On this term BDAG 446 s.v. θειώδης states, “sulphurous Rv 9:17.”

50 sn The colors of the riders’ breastplates parallel the three plagues of fire, smoke, and sulfur in v. 18.

51 tn Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.

52 tn Traditionally, “brimstone.”

53 tn The phrase ἐκ τοῦ πυρὸς καὶ τοῦ καπνοῦ καὶ τοῦ θείου τοῦ ἐκπορευομένου ἐκ τῶν στομάτων αὐτῶν (“by the fire, the smoke, and the sulfur that came out of their mouths”) is taken as epexegetical (explanatory) to the phrase τῶν τριῶν πληγῶν τούτων (“these three plagues”).

54 tn See BDAG 352 s.v. ἐξουσία 2, “potential or resource to command, control, or govern, capability, might, power.

55 tn Grk “is.”

56 tn The word “made” is not in the Greek text but is implied.

57 tn The Greek conjunction καί (kai) has not been translated here or before the following materials in this list, since English normally uses a coordinating conjunction only between the last two elements in a series of three or more.

58 tn Grk “and.” Because of the length and complexity of the Greek sentence, a new sentence was started here in the translation, with “furthermore” used to indicate a continuation of the preceding.

59 tn On the term φαρμακεία (farmakeia, “magic spells”) see L&N 53.100: “the use of magic, often involving drugs and the casting of spells upon people – ‘to practice magic, to cast spells upon, to engage in sorcery, magic, sorcery.’ φαρμακεία: ἐν τῇ φαρμακείᾳ σου ἐπλανήθησαν πάντα τὰ ἔθνη ‘with your magic spells you deceived all the peoples (of the world)’ Re 18:23.”

60 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the vision.

61 tn Or “clothed.”

62 tn Or “like fiery pillars,” translating πυρός (puros) as an attributive genitive.

63 tn Grk “and having.” Because of the length and complexity of the Greek sentence, a new sentence was started here in the translation by supplying the pronoun “he.”

64 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the vision.

65 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “but” to indicate the contrast present in this context.

66 tn The words “just then” are not in the Greek text, but are implied.

67 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the vision.

68 tn On this phrase see BDAG 1092 s.v. χρόνος.

69 tn Grk “But in the days of the voice of the seventh angel.”

70 tn The aorist ἐτελέσθη (etelesqh) has been translated as a proleptic (futuristic) aorist (ExSyn 564 cites this verse as an example).

71 tn The time of the action described by the aorist εὐηγγέλισεν (euhngelisen) seems to be past with respect to the aorist passive ἐτελέσθη (etelesqh). This does not require that the prophets in view here be OT prophets. They may actually refer to the martyrs in the church (so G. B. Caird, Revelation [HNTC], 129).

72 tn See the note on the word “servants” in 1:1.

73 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the vision.

74 tn The participle λαλοῦσαν (lalousan) has been translated as “began to speak.” The use of πάλιν (palin) indicates an ingressive idea.

75 tn Grk “with me.” The translation “with me” implies that John was engaged in a dialogue with the one speaking to him (e.g., Jesus or an angel) when in reality it was a one-sided conversation, with John doing all the listening. For this reason, μετ᾿ ἐμοῦ (met emou, “with me”) was translated as “to me.”

76 tn Grk “again, saying.” The participle λέγουσαν (legousan) is redundant in contemporary English and has not been translated.

77 tn The perfect passive participle ἠνεῳγμένον (hnewgmenon) is in second attributive position and has been translated as an attributive adjective.

78 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “so” to indicate the implied result of the instructions given by the voice.

79 tn Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.

80 tn The words “the scroll” are not in the Greek text, but are implied. Direct objects were frequently omitted in Greek when clear from the context.

81 tn Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.

82 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “so” to indicate the implied result of the instructions given by the angel.

83 tn Grk “it was.” The idea of taste is implied.

84 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “but” to indicate the contrast present in this context.

85 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the vision.

86 tn The referent of “they” is not clear in the Greek text.

87 tn Grk “and nations,” but καί (kai) has not been translated here or before the next item since English normally uses a coordinating conjunction only between the last two elements in a series of three or more.

88 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence within the narrative.

89 tn Grk “a reed” (but these were used for measuring). Cf. Ezek 40:3ff.

90 tn Grk “saying.”

91 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “but” to indicate the contrast present in this context.

92 tn On the term αὐλήν (aulhn) BDAG 150 s.v. αὐλή 1 states, “(outer) court of the temple…Rv 11:2.”

93 tn The precise meaning of the phrase ἔκβαλε ἔξωθεν (ekbale exwqen) is difficult to determine.

94 tn Or “to the nations” (the same Greek word may be translated “Gentiles” or “nations”).

95 sn The holy city appears to be a reference to Jerusalem. See also Luke 21:24.

96 tn The word “authority” is not in the Greek text, but is implied. “Power” would be another alternative that could be supplied here.

97 sn This description is parenthetical in nature.

98 tn Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.

99 tn This is a collective singular in Greek.

100 tn See L&N 20.45 for the translation of κατεσθίω (katesqiw) as “to destroy utterly, to consume completely.”

101 tn Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.

102 tn Or “authority.”

103 tn Grk “the days.”

104 tn Because of the length and complexity of the Greek sentence, a new sentence was started here in the translation. Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.

105 tn Or “authority.”

106 tn Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.

107 tn Or “be victorious over”; traditionally, “overcome.”

108 tn Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.

109 tn The Greek word πλατεῖα (plateia) refers to a major (broad) street (L&N 1.103).

110 tn Grk “spiritually.”

111 tn The word “every” is not in the Greek text, but is implied by the following list.

112 tn The Greek term καί (kai) has not been translated before this and the following items in the list, since English normally uses a coordinating conjunction only between the last two elements in a series of three or more.

113 tn Or “to be buried.”

114 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “but” to indicate the contrast present in this context.

115 tn Grk “fell upon.”

116 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the vision.

117 tn Though the nearest antecedent to the subject of ἤκουσαν (hkousan) is the people (“those who were watching them”), it could also be (based on what immediately follows) that the two prophets are the ones who heard the voice.

118 tn Grk “they”; the referent (the two prophets) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

119 tn The conjunction καί (kai) seems to be introducing a temporal clause contemporaneous in time with the preceding clause.

120 tn Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.

121 tn Grk “seven thousand names of men.”

122 tn Grk “has passed.”

123 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the vision.

124 tn Or “Messiah”; both “Christ” (Greek) and “Messiah” (Hebrew and Aramaic) mean “one who has been anointed.”

125 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the vision.

126 tn Grk “they fell down on their faces.” BDAG 815 s.v. πίπτω 1.b.α.ב. has “fall down, throw oneself to the ground as a sign of devotion or humility, before high-ranking persons or divine beings.”

127 tn Grk “saying.”

128 tn On this word BDAG 755 s.v. παντοκράτωρ states, “the Almighty, All-Powerful, Omnipotent (One) only of God…() κύριος ὁ θεὸς ὁ π. …Rv 1:8; 4:8; 11:17; 15:3; 16:7; 21:22.”

129 tn The aorist verb ἐβασίλευσας (ebasileusa") has been translated ingressively.

130 tn Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.

131 tn Or “The Gentiles” (the same Greek word may be translated “Gentiles” or “nations”).

132 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “but” to indicate the contrast present in this context.

133 tn See the note on the word “servants” in 1:1.

134 tn Grk “who fear.”

135 tn The words “the time has come” do not occur except at the beginning of the verse; the phrase has been repeated for emphasis and contrast. The Greek has one finite verb (“has come”) with a compound subject (“your wrath,” “the time”), followed by three infinitive clauses (“to be judged,” “to give,” “to destroy”). The rhetorical power of the repetition of the finite verb in English thus emulates the rhetorical power of its lone instance in Greek.

136 tn Or “who deprave.” There is a possible wordplay here on two meanings for διαφθείρω (diafqeirw), with the first meaning “destroy” and the second meaning either “to ruin” or “to make morally corrupt.” See L&N 20.40.

137 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence on events within the vision.

138 tn Or “sounds,” “voices.” It is not entirely clear what this refers to. BDAG 1071 s.v. φωνή 1 states, “In Rv we have ἀστραπαὶ καὶ φωναὶ καὶ βρονταί (cp. Ex 19:16) 4:5; 8:5; 11:19; 16:18 (are certain other sounds in nature thought of here in addition to thunder, as e.g. the roar of the storm?…).”

139 tn Although BDAG 1075 s.v. χάλαζα gives the meaning “hail” here, it is not clear whether the adjective μεγάλη (megalh) refers to the intensity of the storm or the size of the individual hailstones, or both.

140 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence within the narrative.

141 sn Sunmoonstars. This imagery is frequently identified with the nation Israel because of Joseph’s dream in Gen 37.

142 tn Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.

143 tn Grk “and being tortured,” though βασανίζω (basanizw) in this context refers to birth pangs. BDAG 168 s.v. 2.b states, “Of birth-pangs (Anth. Pal. 9, 311 βάσανος has this mng.) Rv 12:2.” The καί (kai) has not been translated.

144 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the vision.

145 tn For the translation of διάδημα (diadhma) as “diadem crown” see L&N 6.196.

sn Diadem crowns were a type of crown used as a symbol of the highest ruling authority in a given area, and thus often associated with kingship.

146 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “now” to indicate that this remark is virtually parenthetical.

147 tn Grk “its”; the referent (the dragon) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

148 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the vision.

149 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “so” to indicate the conclusion of the anticipated birth.

150 tn On this term BDAG 135 s.v. ἄρσην states: “male…The neut. ἄρσεν Rv 12:5, difft. vs. 13, comes fr. Is 66:7 and is in apposition to υἱόν. On the juxtaposition s. FBoll, ZNW 15, 1914, 253; BOlsson, Glotta 23, ’34, 112.”

151 tn Grk “shepherd.”

152 tn Or “all the Gentiles” (the same Greek word may be translated “Gentiles” or “nations”).

153 tn Or “scepter.” The Greek term ῥάβδος (rJabdo") can mean either “rod” or “scepter.”

sn An allusion to Ps 2:9 (see also Rev 2:27; 19:15).

154 tn Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.

155 tn Grk “and the woman,” which would be somewhat redundant in English.

156 tn Or “desert.”

157 tn Grk “where she has there a place prepared by God.”

158 tn Grk “so they can take care of her.”

159 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence within the narrative.

160 sn The archangel Michael had a special role in protecting the nation of Israel in the OT (Dan 10:13, 21; 12:1; see also Jude 9).

161 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “but” to indicate the implied contrast.

162 tn The words “to prevail” are not in the Greek text, but are implied.

163 tn Grk “found.”

164 tn Grk “for them”; the referent (the dragon and his angels, v. 7) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

165 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “so” to indicate the result of the war in heaven.

166 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the vision.

167 tn Or “the right of his Messiah to rule.” See L&N 37.35.

168 tn Or “Messiah”; both “Christ” (Greek) and “Messiah” (Hebrew and Aramaic) mean “one who has been anointed.”

169 tn Grk “brothers,” but the Greek word may be used for “brothers and sisters” or “fellow Christians” (cf. BDAG 18 s.v. ἀδελφός 1, where considerable nonbiblical evidence for the plural ἀδελφοί [adelfoi] meaning “brothers and sisters” is cited). The translation “fellow believer” would normally apply (L&N 11.23), but since the speaker(s) are not specified in this context, it is not clear if such a translation would be appropriate here. The more generic “brothers and sisters” was chosen to emphasize the fact of a relationship without specifying its type.

170 tn Or “who accuses them continually.”

171 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “but” to indicate the contrast.

172 sn They did not love their lives. See Matt 16:25; Luke 17:33; John 12:25.

173 tn The word “But” is not in the Greek text, but the contrast is clearly implied. This is a case of asyndeton (lack of a connective).

174 tn Grk “and is filled,” a continuation of the previous sentence. Because English tends to use shorter sentences (especially when exclamations are involved), a new sentence was started here in the translation.

175 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “now” because the clause it introduces is clearly resumptive.

176 tn Grk “saw.”

177 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “but” to indicate the contrast present here.

178 tn Or “desert.”

179 tn The word “God” is supplied based on the previous statements made concerning “the place prepared for the woman” in 12:6.

180 tc The reading “and half a time” (καὶ ἥμισυ καιροῦ, kai {hmisu kairou) is lacking in the important uncial C. Its inclusion, however, is supported by {Ì47 א A and the rest of the ms tradition}. There is apparently no reason for the scribe of C to intentionally omit the phrase, and the fact that the word “time” (καιρὸν καὶ καιρούς, kairon kai kairou") appears twice before may indicate a scribal oversight.

sn The parallel statement in Rev 12:6 suggests that the phrase a time, times, and half a time equals 1,260 days (three and a half years of 360 days each).

181 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the vision.

182 tn Grk “so that he might make her swept away.”

183 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “but” to indicate the contrast present here.

184 tn Grk “the earth helped the woman.”

185 tn Grk “the earth opened its mouth” (a metaphor for the ground splitting open).

186 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “so” to indicate the implied result of the woman’s escape.

187 tn Grk “her seed” (an idiom for offspring, children, or descendants).

188 tn Or “who obey.”

189 tn Grk “and having.”

190 tn Grk “the testimony of Jesus,” which may involve a subjective genitive (“Jesus’ testimony”) or, more likely, an objective genitive (“testimony about Jesus”).

191 tn Grk “he”; the referent (the dragon) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

192 tc Grk ἐστάθη (estaqh, “he stood”). The reading followed by the translation is attested by the better mss (Ì47 א A C 1854 2344 2351 pc lat syh) while the majority of mss (051 Ï vgmss syph co) have the reading ἐστάθην (estaqhn, “I stood”). Thus, the majority of mss make the narrator, rather than the dragon of 12:17, the subject of the verb. The first person reading is most likely an assimilation to the following verb in 13:1, “I saw.” The reading “I stood” was introduced either by accident or to produce a smoother flow, giving the narrator a vantage point on the sea’s edge from which to observe the beast rising out of the sea in 13:1. But almost everywhere else in the book, the phrase καὶ εἶδον (kai eidon, “and I saw”) marks a transition to a new vision, without reference to the narrator’s activity. On both external and internal grounds, it is best to adopt the third person reading, “he stood.”

193 tn Or “sandy beach” (L&N 1.64).

194 sn The standard critical texts of the Greek NT, NA27 and UBS4, both include this sentence as 12:18, as do the RSV and NRSV. Other modern translations like the NASB and NIV include the sentence at the beginning of 13:1; in these versions chap. 12 has only 17 verses.

195 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence within the narrative.

196 tn Grk “having” (a continuation of the previous sentence). All of the pronouns referring to this beast (along with the second beast appearing in 13:11) could be translated as “it” because the word for beast (θηρίον, qhrion) is neuter gender in Greek and all the pronouns related to it are parsed as neuter in the Gramcord/Accordance database. Nevertheless, most interpreters would agree that the beast ultimately represents a human ruler, so beginning at the end of v. 4 the masculine pronouns (“he,” “him,” etc.) are used to refer to the first beast as well as the second beast appearing in 13:11.

197 tn For the translation of διάδημα (diadhma) as “diadem crown” see L&N 6.196.

sn Diadem crowns were a type of crown used as a symbol of the highest ruling authority in a given area, and thus often associated with kingship.

198 tc ‡ Several mss (A 051 1611 1854 2053 2344 2351 ÏK) read the plural ὀνόματα (onomata, “[blasphemous] names”), while the singular ὄνομα (onoma, “name”) has somewhat better support (Ì47 א C 1006 1841 2329 ÏA). The plural reading seems motivated by the fact that what is written is written “on its heads.” In the least, it is a clarifying reading. NA27 puts the plural in brackets, indicating doubts as to its authenticity.

sn Whether this means a single name on all seven heads or seven names, one on each head, is not clear.

199 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “now” to indicate the parenthetical nature of the following description of the beast.

200 tn Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.

201 tn Grk “gave it”; the referent (the beast) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

202 tn For the translation “authority to rule” for ἐξουσία (exousia) see L&N 37.35.

203 tn Grk “one of its heads”; the referent (the beast) has been specified in the translation for clarity. Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.

204 tn Grk “killed to death,” an expression emphatic in its redundancy. The phrase behind this translation is ὡς ἐσφαγμένον (Jw" ejsfagmenon). The particle ὡς is used in Greek generally for comparison, and in Revelation it is used often to describe the appearance of what the author saw. In this instance, the appearance of the beast’s head did not match reality, because the next phrase shows that in fact it did not die. This text does not affirm that the beast died and was resurrected, but some draw this conclusion because of the only other use of the phrase, which refers to Jesus in 5:6.

205 tn The phrase τοῦ θανάτου (tou qanatou) can be translated as an attributive genitive (“deathly wound”) or an objective genitive (the wound which caused death) and the final αὐτοῦ (autou) is either possessive or reference/respect.

206 tn On the phrase “the whole world followed the beast in amazement,” BDAG 445 s.v. θαυμάζω 2 states, “wonder, be amazedRv 17:8. In pregnant constr. ἐθαυμάσθη ὅλη ἡ γῆ ὀπίσω τ. θηρίου the whole world followed the beast, full of wonder 13:3 (here wonder becomes worship: cp. Ael. Aristid. 13 p. 290 D.; 39 p. 747 of Dionysus and Heracles, οἳ ὑφ᾿ ἡμῶν ἐθαυμάσθησαν. Sir 7:29; Jos., Ant. 3, 65. – The act. is also found in this sense: Cebes 2, 3 θ. τινά = ‘admire’ or ‘venerate’ someone; Epict. 1, 17, 19 θ. τὸν θεόν).”

207 tn For the translation “ruling authority” for ἐξουσία (exousia) see L&N 37.35.

208 tn On the use of the masculine pronoun to refer to the beast, see the note on the word “It” in 13:1.

209 tn Grk “and there was given to him.” Here the passive construction has been simplified, the referent (the beast) has been specified for clarity, and καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.

210 tn For the translation “proud words” (Grk “great things” or “important things”) see BDAG 624 s.v. μέγας 4.b.

211 tn Grk “to it was granted.”

212 tn For the translation “ruling authority” for ἐξουσία (exousia) see L&N 37.35.

213 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “so” to indicate the implied result of the permission granted to the beast.

214 tn Grk “he” (or “it”); the referent (the beast) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

215 tc The reading “and his dwelling place” does not occur in codex C, but its omission is probably due to scribal oversight since the phrase has the same ending as the phrase before it, i.e., they both end in “his” (αὐτοῦ, autou). This is similar to the mistake this scribe made in 12:14 with the omission of the reading “and half a time” (καὶ ἥμισυ καιροῦ, kai {hmisu kairou).

216 tn Grk “and it was given to him to go to war.” Here the passive construction has been simplified, the referent (the beast) has been specified for clarity, and καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.

217 tc Many mss omit the phrase “it was given to make war with the saints and to overcome them” (Ì47 A C 2053 ÏA sa). It is, however, found in Ì115vid א 051 1006 (1611) 1841 (1854) 2329 2344 2351 (ÏK) lat syph,(h) bo. Although the ms evidence is somewhat in favor of the shorter reading, the support of Ì115 (a recently-discovered ms) for the longer reading balances things out. Normally, the shorter reading should be given preference. However, in an instance in which homoioteleuton could play a role, caution must be exercised. In this passage, accidental omission is quite likely. That this could have happened seems apparent from the two occurrences of the identical phrase “and it was given to him” (καὶ ἐδόθη αὐτῷ, kai edoqh autw) in v. 7. The scribe’s eye skipped over the first καὶ ἐδόθη αὐτῷ and went to the second, hence creating an accidental omission of eleven words.

218 tn For the translation “ruling authority” for ἐξουσία (exousia) see L&N 37.35.

219 tn Grk “and people,” but καί (kai) has not been translated here or before the following term since English normally uses a coordinating conjunction only between the last two elements in a series of three or more.

220 tn Grk “it”; the referent (the beast) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

221 tn The prepositional phrase “since the foundation of the world” is traditionally translated as a modifier of the immediately preceding phrase in the Greek text, “the Lamb who was killed” (so also G. B. Caird, Revelation [HNTC], 168), but it is more likely that the phrase “since the foundation of the world” modifies the verb “written” (as translated above). Confirmation of this can be found in Rev 17:8 where the phrase “written in the book of life since the foundation of the world” occurs with no ambiguity.

222 tn Or “slaughtered”; traditionally, “slain.”

223 tc Many mss (C 051* 2351 ÏA pc) read “if anyone will kill with the sword, it is necessary for him to be killed with the sword” (εἴ τις ἐν μαχαίρῃ ἀποκτενεῖ, δεῖ αὐτὸν ἐν μαχαίρῃ ἀποκτανθῆναι). Other mss (א 1006 1611* 1854 al) are similar except that they read a present tense “kills” (ἀποκτείνει, apokteinei) in this sentence. Both of these variants may be regarded as essentially saying the same thing. On the other hand, codex A reads “if anyone is to be killed by the sword, he is to be killed by the sword” (εἴ τις ἐν μαχαίρῃ ἀποκτανθῆναι αὐτὸν ἐν μαχαίρῃ ἀποκτανθῆναι). Thus the first two variants convey the idea of retribution, while the last variant, supported by codex A, does not. (There are actually a dozen variants here, evidence that scribes found the original text quite difficult. Only the most important variants are discussed in this note.) The first two variants seem to be in line with Jesus’ comments in Matt 26:52: “everyone who takes up the sword will die by the sword.” The last variant, however, seems to be taking up an idea found in Jer 15:2: “Those destined for death, to death; those for the sword, to the sword; those for starvation, to starvation; those for captivity, to captivity.” Though G. B. Caird, Revelation (HNTC), 169-70, gives four arguments in favor of the first reading (i.e., “whoever kills with the sword must with the sword be killed”), the arguments he puts forward can be read equally as well to support the latter alternative. In the end, the reading in codex A seems to be original. The fact that this sentence seems to be in parallel with 10a (which simply focuses on God’s will and suffering passively and is therefore akin to the reading in codex A), and that it most likely gave rise to the others as the most difficult reading, argues for its authenticity.

224 tn On ὧδε (Jwde) here, BDAG 1101 s.v. 2 states: “a ref. to a present event, object, or circumstance, in this case, at this point, on this occasion, under these circumstancesin this case moreover 1 Cor 4:2. ὧδε ἡ σοφία ἐστίνRv 13:18; cf. 17:9. ὧδέ ἐστιν ἡ ὑπομονή…13:10; 14:12.”

225 tn Or “perseverance.”

226 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence within the narrative.

227 sn This second beast is identified in Rev 16:13 as “the false prophet.”

228 tn Grk “and it had,” a continuation of the preceding sentence. On the use of the pronoun “he” to refer to the second beast, see the note on the word “It” in 13:1.

229 tn Or perhaps, “like a ram.” Here L&N 4.25 states, “In the one context in the NT, namely, Re 13:11, in which ἀρνίον refers literally to a sheep, it is used in a phrase referring to the horns of an ἀρνίον. In such a context the reference is undoubtedly to a ‘ram,’ that is to say, the adult male of sheep.” In spite of this most translations render the word “lamb” here to maintain the connection between this false lamb and the true Lamb of the Book of Revelation, Jesus Christ.

230 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “but” to indicate the contrast present in this context.

231 tn Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.

232 tn For the translation “ruling authority” for ἐξουσία (exousia) see L&N 37.35.

233 tn For this meaning see BDAG 342 s.v. ἐνώπιον 4.b, “by the authority of, on behalf of Rv 13:12, 14; 19:20.”

234 tn Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.

235 tn This is a generic use of ἄνθρωπος (anqrwpo"), referring to both men and women.

236 tn Grk “earth, telling.” This is a continuation of the previous sentence in Greek.

sn He told followed by an infinitive (“to make an image…”) is sufficiently ambiguous in Greek that it could be taken as “he ordered” (so NIV) or “he persuaded” (so REB).

237 tn Grk “it”; the referent (the second beast) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

238 tn Grk “it was given [permitted] to it [the second beast].”

239 tn Grk “breath,” but in context the point is that the image of the first beast is made to come to life and speak.

240 tn Grk “of the beast”; the word “first” has been supplied to specify the referent.

241 tn Or “forced”; Grk “makes” (ποιεῖ, poiei).

242 tn See the note on the word “servants” in 1:1.

243 tn Grk “and that no one be able to buy or sell.” Because of the length and complexity of the Greek sentence, a new sentence was started here in the translation. Although the ἵνα (Jina) is left untranslated, the English conjunction “thus” is used to indicate that this is a result clause.

244 tn The word “things” is not in the Greek text, but is implied. Direct objects were frequently omitted in Greek when clear from the context. In the context of buying and selling, food could be primarily in view, but the more general “things” was used in the translation because the context is not specific.

245 tn Grk “except the one who had.”

246 tn Grk “his name or the number of his name.”

247 tn Grk “Here is wisdom.”

248 tn Grk “it is man’s number.” ExSyn 254 states “if ἀνθρώπου is generic, then the sense is, ‘It is [the] number of humankind.’ It is significant that this construction fits Apollonius’ Canon (i.e., both the head noun and the genitive are anarthrous), suggesting that if one of these nouns is definite, then the other is, too. Grammatically, those who contend that the sense is ‘it is [the] number of a man’ have the burden of proof on them (for they treat the head noun, ἀριθμός, as definite and the genitive, ἀνθρώπου, as indefinite – the rarest of all possibilities). In light of Johannine usage, we might also add Rev 16:18, where the Seer clearly uses the anarthrous ἄνθρωπος in a generic sense, meaning ‘humankind.’ The implications of this grammatical possibility, exegetically speaking, are simply that the number ‘666’ is the number that represents humankind. Of course, an individual is in view, but his number may be the number representing all of humankind. Thus the Seer might be suggesting here that the antichrist, who is the best representative of humanity without Christ (and the best counterfeit of a perfect man that his master, that old serpent, could muster), is still less than perfection (which would have been represented by the number seven).” See G. K. Beale, Revelation, [NIGTC], 723-24, who argues for the “generic” understanding of the noun; for an indefinite translation, see the ASV and ESV which both translate the clause as “it is the number of a man.”

sn The translation man’s number suggests that the beast’s number is symbolic of humanity in general, while the translation a man’s number suggests that it represents an individual.

249 tc A few mss (Ì115 C, along with a few mss known to Irenaeus {and two minuscule mss, 5 and 11, no longer extant}), read 616 here, and several other witnesses have other variations. Irenaeus’ mention of mss that have 616 is balanced by his rejection of such witnesses in this case. As intriguing as the reading 616 is (since the conversion of Nero Caesar’s name in Latin by way of gematria would come out to 616), it must remain suspect because such a reading seems motivated in that it conforms more neatly to Nero’s gematria.

250 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence within the narrative.

251 tn The phrase “and here was” expresses the sense of καὶ ἰδού (kai idou).

252 tn Or “a voice” (cf. Rev 1:15), but since in this context nothing is mentioned as the content of the voice, it is preferable to translate φωνή (fwnh) as “sound” here.

253 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “now” to indicate the introduction of a new topic.

254 tn Grk “elders, and no one.” This is a continuation of the previous sentence in the Greek text, but because of the length and complexity of the sentence a new sentence was started here in the translation.

255 tn The aorist passive verb is rendered as a reflexive (“defiled themselves”) by BDAG 657 s.v. μολύνω 2.

256 tn Grk “in their mouth was not found a lie.”

257 tc Several mss (Ì47 א 1 1006 1611 2351 ÏK pc) have the conjunction “for” (γάρ, gar) here so that the phrase reads: “for they are blameless.” Other important mss (A C P 1854 2053 al lat) lack the word. The shorter reading is to be preferred since the scribes were more likely to make the connection explicit through the addition of “for” than they would have been to omit the conjunction. As it is, the passage without the conjunction makes good sense and evokes a very somber tone.

258 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence within the narrative.

259 tc Most mss (Ì47 א* Ï sa) lack ἄλλον (allon, “another”) here, but the support for it is stronger (Ì115vid א2 A C P 051 1006 1611 1841 2053 2329 al latt sy bo). The problem that its inclusion represents is that there is no reference to any other angel in the immediate context (the last mention was in 11:15). In this instance, the longer reading is harder. The word was probably intentionally omitted in order to resolve the tension; less likely, it might have been accidentally omitted since its spelling is similar to “angel” (ἄγγελος, angelos).

260 tn L&N 1.10 states, “a point or region of the sky directly above the earth – ‘high in the sky, midpoint in the sky, directly overhead, straight above in the sky.’”

261 tn Grk “having.”

262 tn Or “an eternal gospel to announce as good news.”

263 tn Grk “to those seated on the earth.”

264 tn Grk “and tribe,” but καί (kai) has not been translated here or before the following term since English normally uses a coordinating conjunction only between the last two elements in a series of three or more.

265 tn Grk “people, saying.” In the Greek text this is a continuation of the previous sentence. For the translation of λέγω (legw) as “declare,” see BDAG 590 s.v. 2.e.

266 tn Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.

267 tc There are several different variants comprising a textual problem involving “second” (δεύτερος, deuteros). First, several mss (A 1 2329 ÏK) read “another, a second angel” (ἄλλος δεύτερος ἄγγελος, allo" deutero" angelo"). Second, other mss (Ì47 א* 1006 1841 1854 pc) read just “another, a second” (ἄλλος δεύτερος). Third, the reading “another angel” (ἄλλος ἄγγελος) is supported by a few Greek mss and some versional evidence (69 pc ar vg). Fourth, several mss (א2 [C reads δεύτερον instead of δεύτερος] 051 1611 2053 2344 ÏA) support the reading “another, a second angel” (ἄλλος ἄγγελος δεύτερος). The reading that most likely gave rise to the others is the fourth. The first reading attempts to smooth out the grammar by placing the adjective in front of the noun. The second reading may have dropped out the “angel” on the basis of its similarity to “another” (ἄλλος). The third reading either intentionally or accidentally left out the word “second.” In any event, this is weakly attested and should not be given much consideration. (If, however, this reading had had good support, with “second” floating, and with “third” in the text in 14:9, one could possibly see δεύτερος as a motivated reading. But without sufficient support for the third reading, the one thing that is most certain is that δεύτερος was part of the original text here.) It is difficult to account for the rise of the other readings if “second” is not original. And the undisputed use of “third” (τρίτος, tritos) in 14:9 may be another indicator that the adjective “second” was in the original text. Finally, the fourth reading is the more difficult and therefore, in this case, to be accepted as the progenitor of the others.

268 tn Grk “And another angel, a second.”

269 tn The words “the first” are not in the Greek text, but are implied. Direct objects were frequently omitted in Greek when clear from the context.

270 tn For the translation of λέγω (legw) as “declare,” see BDAG 590 s.v. 2.e.

271 sn The fall of Babylon the great city is described in detail in Rev 18:2-24.

272 tn Or “all the Gentiles” (the same Greek word may be translated “Gentiles” or “nations”).

273 tn Grk “of the wine of the passion of the sexual immorality of her.” Here τῆς πορνείας (th" porneia") has been translated as an attributive genitive. In an ironic twist of fate, God will make Babylon drink her own mixture, but it will become the wine of his wrath in retribution for her immoral deeds (see the note on the word “wrath” in 16:19).

274 tn Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.

275 tn Grk “And another angel, a third.”

276 tn Grk “followed them.”

277 tn For the translation of λέγω (legw) as “declare,” see BDAG 590 s.v. 2.e.

278 tn Grk “he himself.”

279 tn The Greek word for “anger” here is θυμός (qumos), a wordplay on the “passion” (θυμός) of the personified city of Babylon in 14:8.

280 tn Traditionally, “brimstone.”

281 tn The Greek pronoun is plural here even though the verbs in the previous verse are singular.

282 tn The present tense ἀναβαίνει (anabainei) has been translated as a futuristic present (ExSyn 535-36). This is also consistent with the future passive βασανισθήσεται (basanisqhsetai) in v. 10.

283 tn The present tense ἔχουσιν (ecousin) has been translated as a futuristic present to keep the English tense consistent with the previous verb (see note on “will go up” earlier in this verse).

284 tn Grk “and.”

285 tn Grk “Here is.”

286 tn Or “the perseverance.”

287 tn Grk “who keep.”

288 tn The words “hold to” are implied as a repetition of the participle translated “keep” (οἱ τηροῦντες, Joi throunte").

289 tn Grk “faith of Jesus.” The construction may mean either “faith in Jesus” or “faithful to Jesus.” Either translation implies that ᾿Ιησοῦ (Ihsou) is to be taken as an objective genitive; the difference is more lexical than grammatical because πίστις (pistis) can mean either “faith” or “faithfulness.”

290 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence within the narrative.

291 tn Or “from their trouble” (L&N 22.7).

292 tn Grk “their deeds will follow with them.”

293 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence within the narrative.

294 tn Grk “and behold, a white cloud.”

295 tn This phrase constitutes an allusion to Dan 7:13. Concerning υἱὸς τοῦ ἀνθρώπου (Juio" tou anqrwpou), BDAG 1026 s.v. υἱός 2.d.γ says: “ὁ υἱὸς τοῦ ἀνθρώπου lit. ‘the son of the man’…‘the human being, the human one, the man’…On Israelite thought contemporary w. Jesus and alleged knowledge of a heavenly being looked upon as a ‘Son of Man’ or ‘Man’, who exercises Messianic functions such as judging the world (metaph., pictorial passages in En 46-48; 4 Esdr 13:3, 51f)…Outside the gospels: Ac 7:56Rv 1:13; 14:14 (both after Da 7:13…).” The term “son” here in this expression is anarthrous and as such lacks specificity. Some commentators and translations take the expression as an allusion to Daniel 7:13 and not to “the son of man” found in gospel traditions (e.g., Mark 8:31; 9:12; cf. D. E. Aune, Revelation [WBC], 2:800-801; cf. also NIV). Other commentators and versions, however, take the phrase “son of man” as definite, involving allusions to Dan 7:13 and “the son of man” gospel traditions (see G. K. Beale, Revelation [NIGTC], 771-72; NRSV).

296 tn Grk “like a son of man, having.” In the Greek text this is a continuation of the previous sentence.

297 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the vision.

298 tn Grk “Send out.”

299 tn The aorist θέρισον (qerison) has been translated ingressively.

300 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “so” to indicate the implied result of the angel’s directions.

301 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence within the narrative.

302 tn Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.

303 tn Grk “who had authority over.” This appears to be the angel who tended the fire on the altar.

304 tn Grk “to the one having the sharp sickle”; the referent (the angel in v. 17) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

305 tn Grk “Send.”

306 tn On this term BDAG 1018 s.v. τρυγάω states: “‘gather in’ ripe fruit, esp. harvest (grapes) w. acc. of the fruit (POslo. 21, 13 [71 ad]; Jos., Ant. 4, 227) Lk 6:44; Rv 14:18 (in imagery, as in the foll. places)…W. acc. of that which bears the fruit gather the fruit of the vine…or the vineyard (s. ἄμπελος a) Rv 14:19.”

307 tn On this term BDAG 181 s.v. βότρυς states, “bunch of grapes Rv 14:18…The word is also found in the Phrygian Papias of Hierapolis, in a passage in which he speaks of the enormous size of the grapes in the new aeon (in the Lat. transl. in Irenaeus 5, 33, 2f.): dena millia botruum Papias (1:2). On this see Stephan. Byz. s.v. Εὐκαρπία: Metrophanes says that in the district of Εὐκαρπία in Phrygia Minor the grapes were said to be so large that one bunch of them caused a wagon to break down in the middle.”

308 tn The genitive τῆς γῆς (ths ghs), taken symbolically, could be considered a genitive of apposition.

309 tn Or perhaps, “its bunches of grapes” (a different Greek word from the previous clause). L&N 3.38 states, “the fruit of grapevines (see 3.27) – ‘grape, bunch of grapes.’ τρύγησον τοὺς βότρυας τῆς ἀμπέλου τῆς γῆς, ὅτι ἤκμασαν αἱ σταφυλαὶ αὐτῆς ‘cut the grapes from the vineyard of the earth because its grapes are ripe’ Re 14:18. Some scholars have contended that βότρυς means primarily a bunch of grapes, while σταφυλή designates individual grapes. In Re 14:18 this difference might seem plausible, but there is scarcely any evidence for such a distinction, since both words may signify grapes as well as bunches of grapes.”

310 tn On the use of ἥκμασαν (hkmasan) BDAG 36 s.v. ἀκμάζω states, “to bloom…of grapes…Rv 14:18.”

311 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “so” to indicate the implied result of the angel’s directions.

312 tn Or “vine.” BDAG 54 s.v. ἄμπελος a states, “τρυγᾶν τοὺς βότρυας τῆς ἀ. τῆς γῆς to harvest the grapes fr. the vine of the earth (i.e. fr. the earth, symbol. repr. as a grapevine) Rv 14:18f; but may be taking on the meaning of ἀμπελών, as oft. in pap., possibly PHib. 70b, 2 [III bc].” The latter alternative has been followed in the translation (ἀμπελών = “vineyard”).

313 tn Although the gender of μέγαν (megan, masc.) does not match the gender of ληνόν (lhnon, fem.) it has been taken to modify that word (as do most English translations).

314 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the vision.

315 sn The winepress was stomped. See Isa 63:3, where Messiah does this alone (usually several individuals would join in the process).

316 tn L&N 6.7 states, “In Re 14:20 the reference to a bit and bridle is merely an indication of measurement, that is to say, the height of the bit and bridle from the ground, and one may reinterpret this measurement as ‘about a meter and a half’ or ‘about five feet.’”

317 tn Grk “1,600 stades.” A stade was a measure of length about 607 ft (185 m). Thus the distance here would be 184 mi or 296 km.

318 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence within the narrative.

319 tn Grk “seven plagues – the last ones.”

320 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence within the narrative.

321 sn See Rev 4:6 where the sea of glass was mentioned previously.

322 tn Or “had been victorious over”; traditionally, “had overcome.”

323 tn Grk “of his name, standing.” A new sentence was started here in the translation by supplying the words “They were.”

324 tn Or “on.” The preposition ἐπί (epi) with the accusative case could mean “on, at, by, near”; given the nature of this scene appearing in a vision, it is difficult to know precisely which the author of Revelation intended. See BDAG 363 s.v. ἐπί 1.c.γ, “At, by, near someone or someth.

325 tn Grk “harps of God.” The phrase τοῦ θεοῦ (tou qeou) has been translated as a genitive of agency.

326 tn Here καί (kai) has not been translated.

327 tn See the note on the word “servants” in 1:1.

328 tn Grk “saying.” The participle λέγοντες (legontes) is redundant in contemporary English and has not been translated.

329 tn On this word BDAG 755 s.v. παντοκράτωρ states, “the Almighty, All-Powerful, Omnipotent (One) only of God…() κύριος ὁ θεὸς ὁ π. …Rv 1:8; 4:8; 11:17; 15:3; 16:7; 21:22.”

330 tn Or “righteous,” although the context favors justice as the theme.

331 tc Certain mss (Ì47 א*,2 C 1006 1611 1841 pc) read “ages” (αἰώνων, aiwnwn) instead of “nations” (ἐθνῶν, eqnwn), which itself is supported by several mss (א1 A 051 Ï). The ms evidence seems to be fairly balanced, though αἰώνων has somewhat better support. The replacement of “ages” with “nations” is possibly a scribal attempt to harmonize this verse with the use of “nations” in the following verse. On the other hand, the idea of “nations” fits well with v. 4 and it may be that “ages” is a scribal attempt to assimilate this text to 1 Tim 1:17: “the king of the ages” (βασιλεὺς τῶν αἰώνων, basileu" twn aiwnwn). The decision is a difficult one since both scenarios deal well with the evidence, though the verbal parallel with 1 Tim 1:17 is exact while the parallel with v. 4 is not. The term “king” occurs 17 other times (most occurrences refer to earthly kings) in Revelation and it is not used with either “ages” or “nations” apart from this verse. Probably the reading “nations” should be considered original due to the influence of 1 Tim 1:17.

332 tn Or “and praise.”

sn Jeremiah 10:7 probably stands behind the idea of fearing God, and Psalm 86:9-10 stands behind the ideas of glorifying God, his uniqueness, and the nations coming to worship him. Many other OT passages also speak about the nations “coming to his temple” to worship (Isa 2:2-3, 49:22-23, 66:23-24; Micah 4:2; Zech 8:20-22). See G. K. Beale, Revelation [NIGTC], 796-97.

333 sn Because you alone are holy. In the Greek text the sentence literally reads “because alone holy.” Three points can be made in connection with John’s language here: (1) Omitting the second person, singular verb “you are” lays stress on the attribute of God’s holiness. (2) The juxtaposition of alone with holy stresses the unique nature of God’s holiness and complete “otherness” in relationship to his creation. It is not just moral purity which is involved in the use of the term holy, though it certainly includes that. It is also the pervasive OT idea that although God is deeply involved in the governing of his creation, he is to be regarded as separate and distinct from it. (3) John’s use of the term holy is also intriguing since it is the term ὅσιος (Josios) and not the more common NT term ἅγιος (Jagios). The former term evokes images of Christ’s messianic status in early Christian preaching. Both Peter in Acts 2:27 and Paul in Acts 13:35 apply Psalm 16:10 (LXX) to Jesus, referring to him as the “holy one” (ὅσιος). It is also the key term in Acts 13:34 (Isa 55:3 [LXX]) where it refers to the “holy blessings” (i.e., forgiveness and justification) brought about through Jesus in fulfillment of Davidic promise. Thus, in Rev 15:3-4, when John refers to God as “holy,” using the term ὅσιος in a context where the emphasis is on both God and Christ, there might be an implicit connection between divinity and the Messiah. This is bolstered by the fact that the Lamb is referred to in other contexts as the King of Kings and Lord of Lords (cf. 1:5; 17:14; 19:16 and perhaps 11:15; G. K. Beale, Revelation [NIGTC], 796-97).

334 tn Or “all the Gentiles” (the same Greek word may be translated “Gentiles” or “nations”).

335 tn Or perhaps, “your sentences of condemnation.” On δικαίωμα (dikaiwma) in this context BDAG 249 s.v. 2. states, “righteous deedδι᾿ ἑνὸς δικαιώματος (opp. παράπτωμα) Ro 5:18. – B 1:2 (cp. Wengst, Barnabas-brief 196, n.4); Rv 15:4 (here perh.= ‘sentence of condemnation’ [cp. Pla., Leg. 9, 864e; ins fr. Asia Minor: LBW 41, 2 [κατὰ] τὸ δι[καί]ωμα τὸ κυρω[θέν]= ‘acc. to the sentence which has become valid’]; difft. Wengst, s. above); 19:8.”

336 tn Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.

337 tn On this term BDAG 928 s.v. σκηνή 1.b.α states, “ἡ σκηνὴ τοῦ μαρτυρίου the Tabernacle or Tent of Testimony (Ex 27:21; 29:4; Lev 1:1; Num 1:1 and oft.…) Ac 7:44; 1 Cl 43:2, 5,” and then continues in section 2 to state, “Rv 15:5 speaks of a ναὸς τῆς σκηνῆς τοῦ μαρτυρίου ἐν τῷ οὐρανῷ. God’s σκ.= dwelling is in heaven 13:6, and will some time be among humans 21:3.”

338 tn Grk “the temple of the tent of the testimony” (ὁ ναός τῆς σκηνῆς τοῦ μαρτυρίου, Jo naos ths skhnhs tou marturiou). The genitive “of the tent” is probably an appositional genitive and should be rendered as “the temple, which is the tent.” The entire expression, then, would be “the temple which is the tent of testimony,” that is, “the heavenly equivalent of the tent or tabernacle that was with Israel in the wilderness” (G. K. Beale, Revelation [NIGTC], 801-2).

sn In the OT the expression “tent of the testimony” occurs frequently (130 times in Exodus through Deuteronomy). The “testimony” refers to the ten commandments, i.e., the revelation of the righteous will of God (Exod 16:34; 25:21; 31:18; 32:15; 40:24). It is little wonder that the wrath of God upon an unrighteous, lawbreaking humanity follows in John’s description.

339 tn Or “wide golden sashes,” but these would not be diagonal, as some modern sashes are, but horizontal. The Greek term can refer to a wide band of cloth or leather worn on the outside of one’s clothing (L&N 6.178).

340 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the vision.

341 tn Or “anger.”

342 tn Grk “power, and no one.” A new sentence was started here in the translation. Here καί (kai) has been translated as “thus” to indicate the implied result of the temple being filled with smoke.

343 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence within the narrative.

344 tn Or “anger.” Here τοῦ θυμοῦ (tou qumou) has been translated as a genitive of content.

345 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “so” to indicate the implied result of the directions given by the voice from the temple.

346 tn Grk “the first”; the referent (the first angel) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

347 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the vision.

348 tn Or “ulcerated sores”; the term in the Greek text is singular but is probably best understood as a collective singular.

349 tn Grk ‘the men,” but this is a generic use of ἄνθρωπος (anqrwpo") and refers to both men and women.

350 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “next” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the vision.

351 tn Grk “the second”; the referent (the second angel) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

352 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the vision.

353 tn Grk “the third”; the referent (the third angel) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

354 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “now” to indicate the somewhat parenthetical nature of the remarks that follow.

355 tn Or “righteous,” although the context favors justice as the theme.

356 tn Or “because you have judged these things.” The pronoun ταῦτα (tauta) is neuter gender.

357 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “so” to indicate that this judgment is the result of what these wicked people did to the saints and prophets.

358 tn Grk “They are worthy”; i.e., of this kind of punishment. By extension, “they got what they deserve.”

359 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the vision.

360 tn Grk “the altar saying.”

361 tn On this word BDAG 755 s.v. παντοκράτωρ states, “the Almighty, All-Powerful, Omnipotent (One) only of God…() κύριος ὁ θεὸς ὁ π. …Rv 1:8; 4:8; 11:17; 15:3; 16:7; 21:22.”

362 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the vision.

363 tn Grk “the fourth”; the referent (the fourth angel) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

364 tn Grk “men,” but this is a generic use of ἄνθρωπος (anqrwpo") and refers to both men and women.

365 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “thus” to indicate the implied result of the bowl poured on the sun.

366 tn Grk “men,” but this is a generic use of ἄνθρωπος (anqrwpo") and refers to both men and women.

367 tn On this phrase BDAG 536 s.v. καῦμα states, “burning, heat Rv 7:16καυματίζεσθαι κ. μέγα be burned with a scorching heat 16:9.”

368 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “yet” to indicate the contrast present in this context.

369 tn For the translation “ruling authority” for ἐξουσία (exousia) see L&N 37.35.

370 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the vision.

371 tn Grk “the fifth”; the referent (the fifth angel) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

372 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “so that” to indicate the implied result of the fifth bowl being poured out.

373 tn Grk “his kingdom became dark.”

374 tn Grk “men,” but this is a generic use of ἄνθρωπος (anqrwpo") and refers to both men and women.

375 tn On this term BDAG 620 s.v. μασάομαι states, “bite w. acc. τὰς γλώσσας bite their tongues Rv 16:10.”

376 tn The preposition ἐκ (ek) has been translated here and twice in the following verse with a causal sense.

377 tn Grk “pains” (the same term in Greek [πόνος, ponos] as the last word in v. 11, here translated “sufferings” because it is plural). BDAG 852 s.v. 2 states, “ἐκ τοῦ π. in painRv 16:10; pl. (Gen 41:51; Jos., C. Ap. 2, 146; Test. Jud. 18:4) ἐκ τῶν π. …because of their sufferings vs. 11.”

378 tn Or “ulcerated sores” (see 16:2).

379 tn Grk “and they did not repent.” Here καί (kai) has been translated as “but nevertheless” to express the contrast here.

380 tn Grk “they did not repent” The addition of “still refused” reflects the hardness of people’s hearts in the context.

381 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the vision.

382 tn Grk “the sixth”; the referent (the sixth angel) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

383 tn Grk “and its water was dried up.” Here the passive construction has been translated as an active one.

384 tn Grk “in order that the way might be prepared.” Here the passive construction has been translated as an active one.

385 tn Grk “from the rising of the sun.” BDAG 74 s.v. ἀνατολή 2.a takes this as a geographical direction: “ἀπὸ ἀ. ἡλίουfrom the east Rv 7:2; 16:12; simply ἀπὸ ἀ. …21:13.”

386 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the vision.

387 sn According to the next verse, these three unclean spirits are spirits of demons.

388 tn BDAG 699 s.v. οἰκουμένη 1 states, “the inhabited earth, the worldὅλη ἡ οἰκ. the whole inhabited earthMt 24:14; Ac 11:28; Rv 3:10; 16:14.”

389 tn On this word BDAG 755 s.v. παντοκράτωρ states, “the Almighty, All-Powerful, Omnipotent (One) only of God…() κύριος ὁ θεὸς ὁ π. …Rv 1:8; 4:8; 11:17; 15:3; 16:7; 21:22.”

390 tn Grk “and keeps.” BDAG 1002 s.v. τηρέω 2.c states “of holding on to someth. so as not to give it up or lose it…τὰ ἱμάτια αὐτοῦ Rv 16:15 (or else he will have to go naked).”

391 tn On the translation of ἀσχημοσύνη (aschmosunh) as “shameful condition” see L&N 25.202. The indefinite third person plural (“and they see”) has been translated as a passive here.

392 sn These lines are parenthetical, forming an aside to the narrative. The speaker here is the Lord Jesus Christ himself rather than the narrator. Many interpreters have seen this verse as so abrupt that it could not be an original part of the work, but the author has used such asides before (1:7; 14:13) and the suddenness here (on the eve of Armageddon) is completely parallel to Jesus’ warning in Mark 13:15-16 and parallels.

393 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “now” to indicate the resumption and conclusion of the remarks about the pouring out of the sixth bowl.

394 tn Grk “they”; the referent (the demonic spirits, v. 14) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

395 tn Grk “gathered them”; the referent (the kings and [implied] their armies, v. 14) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

396 tc There are many variations in the spelling of this name among the Greek mss, although ῾Αρμαγεδών (&armagedwn) has the best support. The usual English spelling is Armageddon, used in the translation.

tn Or “Harmagedon” (a literal transliteration of the Greek), or “Har-Magedon” (NASB), meaning “the Mount of Magedon” in Hebrew.

397 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “finally” to indicate the conclusion of the seven bowl judgments.

398 tn Grk “the seventh”; the referent (the seventh angel) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

399 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the vision.

400 tn Or “sounds,” “voices.” It is not entirely clear what this refers to. BDAG 1071 s.v. φωνή 1 states, “In Rv we have ἀστραπαὶ καὶ φωναὶ καὶ βρονταί (cp. Ex 19:16) 4:5; 8:5; 11:19; 16:18 (are certain other sounds in nature thought of here in addition to thunder, as e.g. the roar of the storm?…).”

401 tn The singular ἄνθρωπος (anqrwpo") is used generically here to refer to the human race.

402 tn Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.

403 tn Or “of the Gentiles” (the same Greek word may be translated “Gentiles” or “nations”).

404 tn Grk “fell.”

405 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “so” to indicate the implied result of Babylon’s misdeeds (see Rev 14:8).

406 tn Grk “the cup of the wine of the anger of the wrath of him.” The concatenation of four genitives has been rendered somewhat differently by various translations (see the note on the word “wrath”).

407 tn Following BDAG 461 s.v. θυμός 2, the combination of the genitives of θυμός (qumo") and ὀργή (orgh) in Rev 16:19 and 19:15 are taken to be a strengthening of the thought as in the OT and Qumran literature (Exod 32:12; Jer 32:37; Lam 2:3; CD 10:9). Thus in Rev 14:8 (to which the present passage alludes) and 18:3 there is irony: The wine of immoral behavior with which Babylon makes the nations drunk becomes the wine of God’s wrath for her.

408 tn Grk “And every.” Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.

409 tn Or “vanished.”

410 sn Every island fled away and no mountains could be found. Major geographical and topographical changes will accompany the Day of the Lord.

411 tn Here BDAG 988 s.v. ταλαντιαῖος states, “weighing a talentχάλαζα μεγάλη ὡς ταλαντιαία a severe hailstorm with hailstones weighing a talent (the talent=125 librae, or Roman pounds of c. 343 gr. or 12 ounces each) (weighing about a hundred pounds NRSV) Rv 16:21.” This means each hailstone would weigh just under 100 pounds or 40 kilograms.

412 tn Or “the sky.” Due to the apocalyptic nature of this book, it is probably best to leave the translation as “from heaven,” since God is ultimately the source of the judgment.

413 tn Grk “on men,” but ἄνθρωπος (anqrwpo") is used here in a generic sense to refer to people in general (the hailstones did not single out adult males, but would have also fallen on women and children).

414 tn Grk “the men”; for stylistic reasons the pronoun “they” is used here.

415 tn Grk “the plague of it.”

416 tn Grk “since the plague of it was exceedingly great.”

417 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence within the narrative.

418 tn Grk “with me.” The translation “with me” implies that John was engaged in a dialogue with the one speaking to him (e.g., Jesus or an angel) when in reality it was a one-sided conversation, with John doing all the listening. For this reason, μετ᾿ ἐμοῦ (met emou, “with me”) was translated as “to me.”

419 tn Here one Greek term, κρίμα (krima), has been translated by the two English terms “condemnation” and “punishment.” See BDAG 567 s.v. 4.b, “mostly in an unfavorable sense, of the condemnatory verdict and sometimes the subsequent punishment itself 2 Pt 2:3; Jd 4…τὸ κ. τῆς πόρνης the condemnation and punishment of the prostitute Rv 17:1.”

420 tn This is the same word translated “sexual immorality” earlier in the verse, but here the qualifier “sexual” has not been repeated for stylistic reasons.

421 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “so” to indicate the implied result of the angel’s invitation to witness the fate of the prostitute.

422 tn Or “in the spirit.” “Spirit” could refer either to the Holy Spirit or the human spirit, but in either case John was in “a state of spiritual exaltation best described as a trance” (R. H. Mounce, Revelation [NICNT], 75).

423 tn Or “desert.”

424 tn The word “there” is not in the Greek text, but is supplied for stylistic reasons.

425 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “now” to indicate the detailed description of the woman, which is somewhat parenthetical in nature.

426 tn The word “clothing” is supplied to clarify that the words “purple” and “scarlet” refer to cloth or garments rather than colors.

427 tn Grk “gilded with gold” (an instance of semantic reinforcement, see L&N 49.29).

428 tn Grk “pearls, having in her hand.” Due to the length and complexity of the Greek sentence, a new sentence was started here in the translation.

429 tc Several mss (including 1611 1854 2053 ÏK pc) read “sexual immorality on/of the earth” (πορνείας τῆς γῆς, porneia" th" gh") instead of “her sexual immorality.” Other mss (א syh** [co]) read “her sexual immorality and the earth’s” (πορνείας αὐτῆς καὶ τῆς γῆς, porneia" aujth" kai th" gh"). The translation is a rendering of πορνείας αὐτῆς, found in {A 1006 2344 al}. It seems that the first reading “sexuality immorality on/of the earth” was a scribal mistake in which letters may have been confused (auths would have been read as thsghs), or was perhaps influenced by the presence of “of the world” (τῆς γῆς) at the end of v. 5. The original wording seems to be “her sexual immorality”; codex א has conflated the two readings.

430 tn Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.

431 tn Some translations consider the word μυστήριον (musthrion, “mystery”) a part of the name written (“Mystery Babylon the Great,” so KJV, NIV), but the gender of both ὄνομα (onoma, “name”) and μυστήριον are neuter, while the gender of “Babylon” is feminine. This strongly suggests that μυστήριον should be understood as an appositive to ὄνομα (“a name, i.e., a mystery”).

432 tn Or “of the witnesses to Jesus.” Here the genitive ᾿Ιησοῦ (Ihsou) is taken as an objective genitive; Jesus is the object of their testimony.

433 tn Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.

434 tn Grk “I marveled a great marvel” (an idiom for great astonishment).

435 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “but” to indicate the contrast present in this context.

436 tn Grk “I will tell you,” but since what follows is the angel’s interpretation of the vision, “interpret for you” is the preferred translation here.

437 tn On this term BDAG 2 s.v. ἄβυσσος 2 states, “netherworld, abyss, esp. the abode of the dead Ro 10:7 (Ps 106:26) and of demons Lk 8:31; dungeon where the devil is kept Rv 20:3; abode of the θηρίον, the Antichrist 11:7; 17:8; of ᾿Αβαδδών (q.v.), the angel of the underworld 9:11φρέαρ τῆς ἀ. 9:1f; capable of being sealed 9:1; 20:1, 3.”

438 tn Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.

439 tn Some translations take the ὅτι (Joti) here as causal: “because he was, and is not, but is to come” (so NIV, NRSV), but it is much more likely that the subject of the ὅτι clause has been assimilated into the main clause: “when they see the beast, that he was…” = “when they see that the beast was” (so BDAG 732 s.v. ὅτι 1.f, where Rev 17:8 is listed).

440 tn Grk “Here is the mind that has wisdom.”

441 tn It is important to note that the height of “mountains” versus “hills” or other topographical terms is somewhat relative. In terms of Palestinian topography, Mount Tabor (traditionally regarded as the mount of transfiguration) is some 1,800 ft (550 m) above sea level, while the Mount of Olives is only some 100 ft (30 m) higher than Jerusalem.

442 tn That is, one currently reigns.

443 tn Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.

444 tn Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.

445 tn For the translation “ruling authority” for ἐξουσία (exousia) see L&N 37.35.

446 tn The word “kings” is not in the Greek text, but has been supplied to clarify the referent.

447 tn See BDAG 636 s.v. μετά A.2.a.α.

448 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence within the narrative.

449 tn Grk “he”; the referent (the angel) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

450 tn Grk “and multitudes,” but καί (kai) has not been translated here and before the following term since English normally uses a coordinating conjunction only between the last two elements in a series of three or more.

451 tn Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.

452 tn A new sentence was started here in the translation. Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.

453 tn The final clause could also be turned into an adverbial clause of means: “They will consume her flesh by burning her with fire.”

454 tn Grk “hearts.”

455 tn Or “his intent.”

456 tn The infinitive ποιῆσαι (poihsai) was translated here as giving the logical means by which God’s purpose was carried out.

457 tn On this term BDAG 203 s.v. γνώμη 4 states, “declaration, decision, resolution…of God Rv 17:17.”

458 tn For this translation see BDAG 168 s.v. βασιλεία 1.a, “kingship, royal power, royal rule.

459 tn Or “completed.”

460 tn Grk “And.” Because this remark is somewhat resumptive in nature, “as for” is used in the translation.



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