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Revelation 4:1--6:17

Context
The Amazing Scene in Heaven

4:1 After these things I looked, and there was 1  a door standing open in heaven! 2  And the first voice I had heard speaking to me 3  like a trumpet 4  said: “Come up here so that 5  I can show you what must happen after these things.” 4:2 Immediately I was in the Spirit, 6  and 7  a throne was standing 8  in heaven with someone seated on it! 4:3 And the one seated on it was like jasper 9  and carnelian 10  in appearance, and a rainbow looking like it was made of emerald 11  encircled the throne. 4:4 In 12  a circle around the throne were twenty-four other thrones, and seated on those thrones were twenty-four elders. They were 13  dressed in white clothing and had golden crowns 14  on their heads. 4:5 From 15  the throne came out flashes of lightning and roaring 16  and crashes of thunder. Seven flaming torches, which are the seven spirits of God, 17  were burning in front of the throne 4:6 and in front of the throne was something like a sea of glass, like crystal. 18 

In 19  the middle of the throne 20  and around the throne were four living creatures 21  full of eyes in front and in back. 4:7 The 22  first living creature was like a lion, the 23  second creature like an ox, the third creature had a face like a man’s, and the fourth creature looked like an eagle flying. 4:8 Each one of the four living creatures had six wings 24  and was full of eyes all around and inside. 25  They never rest day or night, saying: 26 

Holy Holy Holy is the Lord God, the All-Powerful, 27 

Who was and who is, and who is still to come!”

4:9 And whenever the living creatures give glory, honor, 28  and thanks to the one who sits on the throne, who lives forever and ever, 4:10 the twenty-four elders throw themselves to the ground 29  before the one who sits on the throne and worship the one who lives forever and ever, and they offer their crowns 30  before his 31  throne, saying:

4:11 “You are worthy, our Lord and God,

to receive glory and honor and power,

since you created all things,

and because of your will they existed and were created!” 32 

The Opening of the Scroll

5:1 Then 33  I saw in the right hand of the one who was seated on the throne a scroll written on the front and back 34  and sealed with seven seals. 35  5:2 And I saw a powerful angel proclaiming in a loud voice: “Who is worthy to open the scroll and to break its seals?” 5:3 But 36  no one in heaven or on earth or under the earth was able to open the scroll or look into it. 5:4 So 37  I began weeping bitterly 38  because no one was found who was worthy to open the scroll or to look into it. 5:5 Then 39  one of the elders said 40  to me, “Stop weeping! 41  Look, the Lion of the tribe of Judah, the root of David, has conquered; 42  thus he can open 43  the scroll and its seven seals.”

5:6 Then 44  I saw standing in the middle of the throne 45  and of the four living creatures, and in the middle of the elders, a Lamb that appeared to have been killed. 46  He had 47  seven horns and seven eyes, which 48  are the seven 49  spirits of God 50  sent out into all the earth. 5:7 Then 51  he came and took the scroll 52  from the right hand of the one who was seated on the throne, 5:8 and when he had taken the scroll, the four living creatures and the twenty-four elders threw themselves to the ground 53  before the Lamb. Each 54  of them had a harp and golden bowls full of incense (which are the prayers of the saints). 55  5:9 They were singing a new song: 56 

“You are worthy to take the scroll

and to open its seals

because you were killed, 57 

and at the cost of your own blood 58  you have purchased 59  for God

persons 60  from every tribe, language, 61  people, and nation.

5:10 You have appointed 62  them 63  as a kingdom and priests 64  to serve 65  our God, and they will reign 66  on the earth.”

5:11 Then 67  I looked and heard the voice of many angels in a circle around the throne, as well as the living creatures and the elders. Their 68  number was ten thousand times ten thousand 69  – thousands times thousands – 5:12 all of whom 70  were singing 71  in a loud voice:

“Worthy is the lamb who was killed 72 

to receive power and wealth

and wisdom and might

and honor and glory and praise!”

5:13 Then 73  I heard every creature – in heaven, on earth, under the earth, in the sea, and all that is in them – singing: 74 

“To the one seated on the throne and to the Lamb

be praise, honor, glory, and ruling power 75  forever and ever!”

5:14 And the four living creatures were saying “Amen,” and the elders threw themselves to the ground 76  and worshiped.

The Seven Seals

6:1 I looked on when the Lamb opened one of the seven seals, and I heard one of the four living creatures saying with a thunderous voice, 77  “Come!” 78  6:2 So 79  I looked, 80  and here came 81  a white horse! The 82  one who rode it 83  had a bow, and he was given a crown, 84  and as a conqueror 85  he rode out to conquer.

6:3 Then 86  when the Lamb 87  opened the second seal, I heard the second living creature saying, “Come!” 6:4 And another horse, fiery red, 88  came out, and the one who rode it 89  was granted permission 90  to take peace from the earth, so that people would butcher 91  one another, and he was given a huge sword.

6:5 Then 92  when the Lamb opened the third seal I heard the third living creature saying, “Come!” So 93  I looked, 94  and here came 95  a black horse! The 96  one who rode it 97  had a balance scale 98  in his hand. 6:6 Then 99  I heard something like a voice from among the four living creatures saying, “A quart 100  of wheat will cost a day’s pay 101  and three quarts of barley will cost a day’s pay. But 102  do not damage the olive oil and the wine!”

6:7 Then 103  when the Lamb opened the fourth seal I heard the voice of the fourth living creature saying, “Come!” 6:8 So 104  I looked 105  and here came 106  a pale green 107  horse! The 108  name of the one who rode it 109  was Death, and Hades followed right behind. 110  They 111  were given authority over a fourth of the earth, to kill its population with the sword, 112  famine, and disease, 113  and by the wild animals of the earth.

6:9 Now 114  when the Lamb opened the fifth seal, I saw under the altar the souls of those who had been violently killed 115  because of the word of God and because of the testimony they had given. 6:10 They 116  cried out with a loud voice, 117  “How long, 118  Sovereign Master, 119  holy and true, before you judge those who live on the earth and avenge our blood?” 6:11 Each 120  of them was given a long white robe and they were told to rest for a little longer, until the full number was reached 121  of both their fellow servants 122  and their brothers who were going to be killed just as they had been.

6:12 Then 123  I looked when the Lamb opened the sixth seal, and a huge 124  earthquake took place; the sun became as black as sackcloth made of hair, 125  and the full moon became blood red; 126  6:13 and the stars in the sky 127  fell to the earth like a fig tree dropping 128  its unripe figs 129  when shaken by a fierce 130  wind. 6:14 The sky 131  was split apart 132  like a scroll being rolled up, 133  and every mountain and island was moved from its place. 6:15 Then 134  the kings of the earth, the 135  very important people, the generals, 136  the rich, the powerful, and everyone, slave 137  and free, hid themselves in the caves and among the rocks of the mountains. 6:16 They 138  said to the mountains and to the rocks, “Fall on us and hide us from the face of the one who is seated on the throne and from the wrath of the Lamb, 139  6:17 because the great day of their 140  wrath has come, and who is able to withstand it?” 141 

1 tn Grk “and behold.” The Greek word ἰδού (idou) at the beginning of this statement has not been translated because it has no exact English equivalent here, but adds interest and emphasis (BDAG 468 s.v. 1).

2 tn Or “in the sky” (the same Greek word means both “heaven” and “sky”).

3 tn Grk “with me.” The translation “with me” implies that John was engaged in a dialogue with the one speaking to him (e.g., Jesus or an angel) when in reality it was a one-sided conversation, with John doing all the listening. For this reason, μετ᾿ ἐμοῦ (met emou, “with me”) was translated as “to me.”

4 sn The phrase speaking to me like a trumpet refers back to Rev 1:10.

5 tn The conjunction καί (kai), much like the vav-consecutive in Hebrew, appears to be introducing a final/purpose clause here rather than a coordinate clause.

6 tn Or “in the spirit.” “Spirit” could refer either to the Holy Spirit or the human spirit, but in either case John was in “a state of spiritual exaltation best described as a trance” (R. H. Mounce, Revelation [NICNT], 75).

7 tn Grk “and behold.” The Greek word ἰδού (idou) at the beginning of this statement has not been translated because it has no exact English equivalent here, but adds interest and emphasis (BDAG 468 s.v. 1).

8 tn BDAG 537 s.v. κεῖμαι 2 gives the translation “stand” for the term in this verse.

9 tn Grk “jasper stone.”

sn Jasper was a semiprecious gemstone, probably green in color (L&N 2.30).

10 sn Carnelian was a semiprecious gemstone, usually red in color (L&N 2.36).

11 tn Or “a rainbow emerald-like in appearance.”

12 tn Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.

13 tn Because of the length and complexity of the Greek sentence, a new sentence was started here in the translation by supplying the words “They were” to indicate the connection to the preceding material.

14 sn See the note on the word crown in Rev 3:11.

15 tn Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.

16 tn Or “sounds,” “voices.” It is not entirely clear what this refers to. BDAG 1071 s.v. φωνή 1 states, “In Rv we have ἀστραπαὶ καὶ φωναὶ καὶ βρονταί (cp. Ex 19:16) 4:5; 8:5; 11:19; 16:18 (are certain other sounds in nature thought of here in addition to thunder, as e.g. the roar of the storm?…).”

17 sn Some interpret the seven spirits of God as angelic beings, while others see them as a reference to the sevenfold ministry of the Holy Spirit.

18 tn This could refer to rock crystal, but it is possible this refers to ice (an older meaning). See BDAG 571 s.v. κρύσταλλος.

19 tn Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.

20 tn Perhaps, “in the middle of the throne area” (see L&N 83.10).

21 tn On the meaning of ζῴον (zwon) BDAG 431 s.v. 2 states, “Of the four peculiar beings at God’s throne, whose description Rv 4:6-9 reminds one of the ζῷα in Ezk 1:5ff, the cherubim. S. also Rv 5:6, 8, 11, 14; 6:1, 3, 5-7; 7:11; 14:3; 15:7; 19:4.”

22 tn Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.

23 tn Both here and before the phrase “the third,” καί (kai) has not been translated since English normally uses a coordinating conjunction only between the last two elements in a series of three or more.

24 tn Grk “six wings apiece,” but this is redundant with “each one” in English.

25 tn Some translations render ἔσωθεν (eswqen) as “under [its] wings,” but the description could also mean “filled all around on the outside and on the inside with eyes.” Since the referent is not available to the interpreter, the exact force is difficult to determine.

26 tn Or “They never stop saying day and night.”

27 tn On this word BDAG 755 s.v. παντοκράτωρ states, “the Almighty, All-Powerful, Omnipotent (One) only of God…() κύριος ὁ θεὸς ὁ π. …Rv 1:8; 4:8; 11:17; 15:3; 16:7; 21:22.”

sn A quotation from (or an allusion to) Isa 6:3.

28 tn Here καί (kai) has not been translated since English normally uses a coordinating conjunction only between the last two elements in a series of three or more.

29 tn Grk “the twenty-four elders fall down.” BDAG 815 s.v. πίπτω 1.b.α.ב. has “fall down, throw oneself to the ground as a sign of devotion or humility, before high-ranking persons or divine beings.”

30 sn See the note on the word crown in Rev 3:11.

31 tn The pronoun “his” is understood from the demonstrative force of the article τοῦ (tou) before θρόνου (qronou).

32 tc The past tense of “they existed” (ἦσαν, hsan) and the order of the expression “they existed and were created” seems backwards both logically and chronologically. The text as it stands is the more difficult reading and seems to have given rise to codex A omitting the final “they were created,” 2329 replacing “they existed” (ἦσαν) with “have come into being” (ἐγένοντο, egeneto), and 046 adding οὐκ (ouk, “not”) before ἦσαν (“they did not exist, [but were created]”). Several mss (1854 2050 ÏA sa) also attempt to alleviate the problem by replacing ἦσαν with “they are” (εἰσιν, eisin).

33 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence within the narrative.

34 tn Grk “written on the inside and the outside” (an idiom for having writing on both sides).

35 tn L&N 6.55 states, “From the immediate context of Re 5:1 it is not possible to determine whether the scroll in question had seven seals on the outside or whether the scroll was sealed at seven different points. However, since according to chapter six of Revelation the seals were broken one after another, it would appear as though the scroll had been sealed at seven different places as it had been rolled up.”

36 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “but” to indicate the contrast present in this context.

37 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “so” to indicate the implied result of no one being found worthy to open the scroll.

38 tn Grk “much.”

39 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence within the narrative.

40 tn Grk “says” (a historical present).

41 tn The present imperative with μή (mh) is used here to command cessation of an action in progress (ExSyn 724 lists this verse as an example).

42 tn Or “has been victorious”; traditionally, “has overcome.”

43 tn The infinitive has been translated as an infinitive of result here.

44 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence within the narrative.

45 tn Perhaps, “in the middle of the throne area” (see L&N 83.10).

46 tn Or “slaughtered”; traditionally, “slain.” The phrase behind this translation is ὡς ἐσφαγμένον (Jw" ejsfagmenon). The particle ὡς is used in Greek generally for comparison, and in Revelation it is used often to describe the appearance of what the author saw. This phrase does not imply that the Lamb “appeared to have been killed” but in reality was not, because the wider context of the NT shows that in fact the Lamb, i.e., Jesus, was killed. See 13:3 for the only other occurrence of this phrase in the NT.

47 tn Grk “killed, having.” Because of the length and complexity of the Greek sentence, a new sentence was started here in the translation by supplying the pronoun “he.”

48 sn The relative pronoun which is masculine, referring back to the eyes rather than to the horns.

49 tc There is good ms evidence for the inclusion of “seven” (ἑπτά, Jepta; Ì24 א 2053 2351 ÏK). There is equally good ms support for the omission of the term (A 1006 1611 ÏA pc). It may have been accidentally added due to its repeated presence in the immediately preceding phrases, or it may have been intentionally added to maintain the symmetry of the phrases or more likely to harmonize the phrase with 1:4; 3:1; 4:5. Or it may have been accidentally deleted by way of homoioteleuton (τὰ ἑπτά, ta Jepta). A decision is difficult in this instance. NA27 also does not find the problem easy to solve, placing the word in brackets to indicate doubts as to its authenticity.

50 sn See the note on the phrase the seven spirits of God in Rev 4:5.

51 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the vision.

52 tn The words “the scroll” are not in the Greek text, but are implied. Direct objects were frequently omitted in Greek when clear from the context.

53 tn Grk “fell down.” BDAG 815 s.v. πίπτω 1.b.α.ב. has “fall down, throw oneself to the ground as a sign of devotion or humility, before high-ranking persons or divine beings.”

54 tn Because of the length and complexity of the Greek sentence, a new sentence was started here in the translation.

55 sn This interpretive comment by the author forms a parenthesis in the narrative.

56 tn The redundant participle λέγοντες (legontes) has not been translated here.

57 tn Or “slaughtered”; traditionally, “slain.”

58 tn The preposition ἐν (en) is taken to indicate price here, like the Hebrew preposition ב (bet) does at times. BDAG 329 s.v. ἐν 5.b states, “The ἐν which takes the place of the gen. of price is also instrumental ἠγόρασας ἐν τῷ αἵματί σου Rv 5:9 (cp. 1 Ch 21:24 ἀγοράζω ἐν ἀργυρίῳ).”

59 tc The Greek text as it stands above (i.e., the reading τῷ θεῷ [tw qew] alone) is found in codex A. א 2050 2344 Ï sy add the term “us” (ἡμᾶς, Jhmas), either before or after τῷ θεῷ, as an attempt to clarify the object of “purchased” (ἠγόρασας, hgorasa"). A few mss (1 vgms) delete the reference to God altogether and simply replace it with “us” (ἡμᾶς). This too is an attempt to remove ambiguity in the phrase and provide an object for “purchased.” The shorter reading, supported by the best witness for Revelation, best accounts for the other readings.

60 tn The word “persons” is not in the Greek text, but is implied. Direct objects were often omitted in Greek when clear from the context.

61 tn Grk “and language,” but καί (kai) has not been translated since English normally uses a coordinating conjunction only between the last two elements in a series of three or more.

62 tn The verb ἐποίησας (epoihsas) is understood to mean “appointed” here. For an example of this use, see Mark 3:14.

63 tc The vast majority of witnesses have αὐτούς (autous, “them”) here, while the Textus Receptus reads ἡμᾶς (Jhmas, “us”) with insignificant support (pc gig vgcl sa Prim Bea). There is no question that the original text read αὐτούς here.

64 tn The reference to “kingdom and priests” may be a hendiadys: “priestly kingdom.”

65 tn The words “to serve” are not in the Greek text, but are implied by the word “priests.”

66 tc The textual problem here between the present tense βασιλεύουσιν (basileuousin, “they are reigning”; so A 1006 1611 ÏK pc) and the future βασιλεύσουσιν (basileusousin, “they will reign”; so א 1854 2053 ÏA pc lat co) is a difficult one. Both readings have excellent support. On the one hand, the present tense seems to be the harder reading in this context. On the other hand, codex A elsewhere mistakes the future for the present (20:6). Further, the lunar sigma in uncial script could have been overlooked by some scribes, resulting in the present tense. All things considered, there is a slight preference for the future.

67 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the vision.

68 tn Grk “elders, and the number of them was.” Because of the length and complexity of the Greek sentence, a new sentence was started here in the translation.

69 tn Or “myriads of myriads.” Although μυριάς (murias) literally means “10,000,” the point of the combination here may simply be to indicate an incalculably huge number. See L&N 60.9.

70 tn The words “all of whom” are not in the Greek text, but have been supplied to indicate the resumption of the phrase “the voice of many angels” at the beginning of the verse.

71 tn Grk “saying.”

72 tn Or “slaughtered”; traditionally, “slain.”

73 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the vision.

74 tn Grk “saying.”

75 tn Or “dominion.”

76 tn Grk “fell down.” BDAG 815 s.v. πίπτω 1.b.α.ב. has “fall down, throw oneself to the ground as a sign of devotion or humility, before high-ranking persons or divine beings.”

77 tn Grk “saying like a voice [or sound] of thunder.”

78 tc The addition of “and see” (καὶ ἴδε or καὶ βλέπε [kai ide or kai blepe]) to “come” (ἔρχου, ercou) in 6:1, 3-5, 7 is a gloss directed to John, i.e., “come and look at the seals and the horsemen!” But the command ἔρχου is better interpreted as directed to each of the horsemen. The shorter reading also has the support of the better witnesses.

79 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “so” to indicate the implied result of hearing the voice summon the first rider.

80 tc The reading “and I looked” (καὶ εἶδον, kai eidon) or some slight variation (e.g., ἶδον, idon) has excellent ms support ({א A C P 1611}) and its omission seems to come through the mss that have already placed “and look” (καὶ ἴδε or καὶ βλέπε [kai ide or kai blepe]) after the verb “come” (ἔρχου, ercou) as mentioned in the text-critical note on 6:1. Thus, for these copyists it was redundant to add “and I looked” again.

81 tn The phrase “and here came” expresses the sense of καὶ ἰδού (kai idou).

82 tn Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.

83 tn Grk “the one sitting on it.”

sn The one who rode it. The identity of the first rider on the white horse has been discussed at great length by interpreters. Several answers are given: (1) A number understand the rider on the white horse to be Christ himself, identifying this horse and rider with the one mentioned in 19:11, where the identification is clear (cf. 19:13, 16). It must be noted, though, that there is little in common between the two riders beyond the white horse. The word for “crown” is different, the armament is different, and the context here is different (conquest vs. retribution), with three other horsemen bringing catastrophe following. (2) Others see the rider on the white horse representing a spirit of military conquest that dominates human history and leads to the catastrophes that follow. (3) Another possibility is that the white horse rider represents the Antichrist, who appears later in Rev 11:7; 13:17, and whose similarity to Christ explains the similarity with the rider in 19:11. This interpretation has been discussed at length by M. Rissi, “The Rider on the White Horse: A Study of Revelation 6:1-8,” Int 18 (1964): 407-18. This interpretation is the most probable one.

84 sn See the note on the word crown in Rev 3:11.

85 tn The participle νικῶν (nikwn) has been translated as substantival, the subject of the verb ἐξῆλθεν (exhlqen). Otherwise, as an adverbial participle of manner, it is somewhat redundant: “he rode out conquering and to conquer.”

86 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the vision.

87 tn Grk “he”; the referent (the Lamb) has been specified in the translation for clarity here and throughout the rest of the chapter.

88 tn L&N 79.31 states, “‘fiery red’ (probably with a tinge of yellow or orange).”

89 tn Grk “the one sitting on it.”

90 tn The word “permission” is implied; Grk “it was given to him to take peace from the earth.”

91 tn BDAG 979 s.v. σφάζω states, “Of the killing of a person by violence…σφάζειν τινά butcher or murder someone (4 Km 10:7; Jer 52:10; Manetho: 609 fgm. 8, 76 Jac. [in Jos., C. Ap. 1, 76]; Demetr.[?]: 722 fgm. 7; Ar. 10, 9) 1J 3:12; Rv 6:4. Pass. (Hdt. 5, 5) 5:9; 6:9; 18:24.”

92 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the vision.

93 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “so” to indicate the implied result of the summons by the third creature.

94 tc The reading “and I looked” (καὶ εἶδον, kai eidon) or some slight variation (e.g., ἶδον, idon) has excellent ms support ({א A C P 1611}) and its omission seems to have come through the mss that have already placed “and look” (καὶ ἴδε or καὶ βλέπε [kai ide or kai blepe]) after the verb “come” (ἔρχου, ercou) in 6:1. Thus, for these copyists it was redundant to add “and I looked” again.

95 tn The phrase “and here came” expresses the sense of καὶ ἰδού (kai idou).

96 tn Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.

97 tn Grk “the one sitting on it.”

98 sn A balance scale would have been a rod held by a rope in the middle with pans attached to both ends for measuring.

99 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the vision.

100 tn BDAG 1086 s.v. χοῖνιξ states, “a dry measure, oft. used for grain, approximately equivalent to one quart or one liter, quart. A χ.of grain was a daily ration for one pers.…Rv 6:6ab.”

101 tn Grk “a quart of wheat for a denarius.” A denarius was one day’s pay for an average worker. The words “will cost” are used to indicate the genitive of price or value; otherwise the English reader could understand the phrase to mean “a quart of wheat to be given as a day’s pay.”

102 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “but” to indicate the contrast present in this context.

103 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the vision.

104 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “so” to indicate the implied result of the summons by the fourth creature.

105 tc The reading “and I looked” (καὶ εἶδον, kai eidon) or some slight variation (e.g., ἶδον, idon) has excellent ms support ({א A C P 1611}) and its omission seems to have come through the mss that have already placed “and look” (καὶ ἴδε or καὶ βλέπε [kai ide or kai blepe]) after the verb “come” (ἔρχου, ercou) in 6:1. Thus, for these copyists it was redundant to add “and I looked” again.

106 tn The phrase “and here came” expresses the sense of καὶ ἰδού (kai idou).

107 tn A sickly pallor, when referring to persons, or the green color of plants. BDAG 1085 s.v. χλωρός 2 states, “pale, greenish gray…as the color of a pers. in sickness contrasted with appearance in health…so the horse ridden by Death…ἵππος χλωρός Rv 6:8.” Because the color of the horse is symbolic, “pale green” is used in the translation. Cf. NIV, NCV “pale”; NASB “ashen.”

108 tn Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.

109 tn Grk “the one sitting on it.”

110 tn Grk “And Hades was following with him.” The Greek expression μετ᾿ αὐτοῦ (met autou, “with him”) is Semitic and indicates close proximity. The translation “followed right behind” reflects this.

111 tn Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style. Because of the length and complexity of the Greek sentence, a new sentence was started here in the translation.

112 tn Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.

113 tn Grk “with death.” θάνατος (qanatos) can in particular contexts refer to a manner of death, specifically a contagious disease (see BDAG 443 s.v. 3; L&N 23.158).

114 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “now” to indicate the introduction of a new and somewhat different topic after the introduction of the four riders.

115 tn Or “murdered.” See the note on the word “butcher” in 6:4.

116 tn Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.

117 tn Grk “voice, saying”; the participle λέγοντες (legontes) is redundant in contemporary English and has not been translated here.

118 tn The expression ἕως πότε (ews pote) was translated “how long.” Cf. BDAG 423 s.v. ἕως 1.b.γ.

119 tn The Greek term here is δεσπότης (despoths; see L&N 37.63).

120 tn Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.

121 tn Grk “until they had been completed.” The idea of a certain “number” of people is implied by the subject of πληρωθῶσιν (plhrwqwsin).

122 tn Though σύνδουλος (sundoulos) has been translated “fellow servant,” the word does not bear the connotation of a free individual serving another. See the note on the word “servants” in 1:1.

123 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the vision.

124 tn Or “powerful”; Grk “a great.”

125 tn Or “like hairy sackcloth” (L&N 8.13).

126 tn Grk “like blood,” understanding αἷμα (aima) as a blood-red color rather than actual blood (L&N 8.64).

127 tn Or “in heaven” (the same Greek word means both “heaven” and “sky”). The genitive τοῦ οὐρανοῦ (tou ouranou) is taken as a genitive of place.

128 tn Grk “throws [off]”; the indicative verb has been translated as a participle due to English style.

129 tn L&N 3.37 states, “a fig produced late in the summer season (and often falling off before it ripens) – ‘late fig.’ ὡς συκὴ βάλλει τοὺς ὀλύνθους αὐτῆς ὑπὸ ἀνέμου μεγάλου σειομένη ‘as the fig tree sheds its late figs when shaken by a great wind’ Re 6:13. In the only context in which ὄλυνθος occurs in the NT (Re 6:13), one may employ an expression such as ‘unripe fig’ or ‘fig which ripens late.’”

130 tn Grk “great wind.”

131 tn Or “The heavens were.” The Greek word οὐρανός (ouranos) can mean either “heaven” or “sky.”

132 tn BDAG 125 s.v. ἀποχωρίζω states, “ὁ οὐρανὸς ἀπεχωρίσθη the sky was split Rv 6:14.” Although L&N 79.120 gives the meaning “the sky disappeared like a rolled-up scroll” here, a scroll that is rolled up does not “disappear,” and such a translation could be difficult for modern readers to understand.

133 tn On this term BDAG 317 s.v. ἑλίσσω states, “ὡς βιβλίον ἑλισσόμενον like a scroll that is rolled upRv 6:14.”

134 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the vision.

135 tn Here καί (kai) has not been translated; nor is it translated before each of the following categories, since English normally uses a coordinating conjunction only between the last two elements in a series of three or more.

136 tn Grk “chiliarchs.” A chiliarch was normally a military officer commanding a thousand soldiers, but here probably used of higher-ranking commanders like generals (see L&N 55.15; cf. Rev 6:15).

137 tn See the note on the word “servants” in 1:1.

138 tn Because of the length and complexity of the Greek sentence, a new sentence was started here in the translation. Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.

139 tn It is difficult to say where this quotation ends. The translation ends it after “withstand it” at the end of v. 17, but it is possible that it should end here, after “Lamb” at the end of v. 16. If it ends after “Lamb,” v. 17 is a parenthetical explanation by the author.

140 tc Most mss (A Ï bo) change the pronoun “their” to “his” (αὐτοῦ, autou) in order to bring the text in line with the mention of the one seated on the throne in the immediately preceding verse, and to remove the ambiguity about whose wrath is in view here. The reading αὐτῶν (autwn, “their”) is well supported by א C 1611 1854 2053 2329 2344 pc latt sy. On both internal and external grounds, it should be regarded as original.

141 tn The translation “to withstand (it)” for ἵστημι (Jisthmi) is based on the imagery of holding one’s ground in a military campaign or an attack (BDAG 482 s.v. B.4).



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