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Revelation 2:18-19

Context
To the Church in Thyatira

2:18 “To 1  the angel of the church in Thyatira write the following: 2 

“This is the solemn pronouncement of 3  the Son of God, the one who has eyes like a fiery flame 4  and whose feet are like polished bronze: 5  2:19 ‘I know your deeds: your love, faith, 6  service, and steadfast endurance. 7  In fact, 8  your more recent deeds are greater than your earlier ones.

1 tn Here καί (kai) has not been translated due to differences between Greek and English style.

2 tn The phrase “the following” after “write” is supplied to clarify that what follows is the content of what is to be written.

3 tn Grk “These things says [the One]…” See the note on the phrase “this is the solemn pronouncement of” in 2:1.

sn The expression This is the solemn pronouncement of reflects an OT idiom. See the note on this phrase in 2:1.

4 tn Grk “a flame of fire.” The Greek term πυρός (puros) has been translated as an attributive genitive.

5 tn The precise meaning of the term translated “polished bronze” (χαλκολιβάνῳ, calkolibanw), which appears no where else in Greek literature outside of the book of Revelation (see 1:15), is uncertain. Without question it is some sort of metal. BDAG 1076 s.v. χαλκολίβανον suggests “fine brass/bronze.” L&N 2.57 takes the word to refer to particularly valuable or fine bronze, but notes that the emphasis here and in Rev 1:15 is more on the lustrous quality of the metal.

6 tn Grk “and faith.” Here and before the following term καί (kai) has not been translated because English normally uses a coordinating conjunction only between the next to last and last terms in a list.

7 tn Or “perseverance.”

8 tn The phrase “In fact” is supplied in the translation to bring out the ascensive quality of the clause. It would also be possible to supply here an understood repetition of the phrase “I know” from the beginning of the verse (so NRSV). Grk “and your last deeds [that are] greater than the first.”



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