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Revelation 2:1

Context
To the Church in Ephesus

2:1 “To the angel of the church in Ephesus, 1  write the following: 2 

“This is the solemn pronouncement of 3  the one who has a firm grasp on 4  the seven stars in his right hand 5  – the one who walks among the seven golden 6  lampstands:

Revelation 2:8

Context
To the Church in Smyrna

2:8 “To 7  the angel of the church in Smyrna write the following: 8 

“This is the solemn pronouncement of 9  the one who is the first and the last, the one who was dead, but 10  came to life:

Revelation 2:12

Context
To the Church in Pergamum

2:12 “To 11  the angel of the church in Pergamum write the following: 12 

“This is the solemn pronouncement of 13  the one who has the sharp double-edged sword: 14 

1 map For location see JP1 D2; JP2 D2; JP3 D2; JP4 D2.

2 tn The phrase “the following” after “write” is supplied to clarify that what follows is the content of what is to be written.

3 tn Grk “These things says [the One]…” The expression τάδε λέγει (tade legei) occurs eight times in the NT, seven of which are in Rev 2-3. “The pronoun is used to add solemnity to the prophetic utterance that follows. …In classical drama, it was used to introduce a new actor to the scene (Smyth, Greek Grammar, 307 [§1241]). But the τάδε λέγει formula in the NT derives from the OT, where it was used to introduce a prophetic utterance (BAGD, s.v. ὅδε, 1)” (ExSyn 328). Thus, the translation “this is the solemn pronouncement of” for τάδε λέγει is very much in keeping with the OT connotations of this expression.

sn The expression This is the solemn pronouncement of reflects an OT idiom. The LXX has the same Greek phrase (τάδε λέγει, tade legei) about 350 times, with nearly 320 of them having “the Lord” (Heb יהוה, Yahweh) as subject. That the author of Revelation would use such an expression seven times with the risen Christ as the speaker may well imply something of Christ’s sovereignty and deity. Cf. also Acts 21:11 in which the Holy Spirit is the speaker of this expression.

4 tn Grk “holds,” but the term (i.e., κρατῶν, kratwn) with an accusative object, along with the context, argues for a sense of firmness. (Cf. ExSyn 132.)

5 sn On seven stars in his right hand see 1:16.

6 tn Grk “lampstands of gold” with the genitive τῶν χρυσῶν (twn cruswn) translated as an attributive genitive.

7 tn Here καί (kai) has not been translated due to differences between Greek and English style.

8 tn The phrase “the following” after “write” is supplied to clarify that what follows is the content of what is to be written.

9 tn Grk “These things says [the One]…” See the note on the phrase “this is the solemn pronouncement of” in 2:1.

sn The expression This is the solemn pronouncement of reflects an OT idiom. See the note on this phrase in 2:1.

10 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “but” to indicate the contrast present between these two phrases.

11 tn Here καί (kai) has not been translated due to differences between Greek and English style.

12 tn The phrase “the following” after “write” is supplied to clarify that what follows is the content of what is to be written.

13 tn Grk “These things says [the One]…” See the note on the phrase “this is the solemn pronouncement of” in 2:1.

sn The expression This is the solemn pronouncement of reflects an OT idiom. See the note on this phrase in 2:1.

14 sn On the sharp double-edged sword see 1:16.



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