20:11 Then 1 I saw a large 2 white throne and the one who was seated on it; the earth and the heaven 3 fled 4 from his presence, and no place was found for them. 20:12 And I saw the dead, the great and the small, standing before the throne. Then 5 books were opened, and another book was opened – the book of life. 6 So 7 the dead were judged by what was written in the books, according to their deeds. 8
1 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence within the narrative.
2 tn Traditionally, “great,” but μέγας (megas) here refers to size rather than importance.
3 tn Or “and the sky.” The same Greek word means both “heaven” and “sky,” and context usually determines which is meant. In this apocalyptic scene, however, it is difficult to be sure what referent to assign the term.
4 tn Or “vanished.”
sn The phrase the earth and the heaven fled from his presence can be understood (1) as visual imagery representing the fear of corruptible matter in the presence of God, but (2) it can also be understood more literally as the dissolution of the universe as we know it in preparation for the appearance of the new heaven and new earth (Rev 21:1).
5 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the vision.
6 tn Grk “another book was opened, which is of life.”
7 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “so” to indicate the implied result of the books being opened.
8 tn Grk “from the things written in the books according to their works.”