1:4 From John, 1 to the seven churches that are in the province of Asia: 2 Grace and peace to you 3 from “he who is,” 4 and who was, and who is still to come, 5 and from the seven spirits who are before his throne,
1:11 saying: “Write in a book what you see and send it to the seven churches – to Ephesus, 6 Smyrna, 7 Pergamum, Thyatira, Sardis, Philadelphia, and Laodicea.”
1 tn Grk “John.” The word “From” is not in the Greek text, but has been supplied to indicate the sender of the letter.
2 tn Grk “Asia”; in the NT this always refers to the Roman province of Asia, made up of about one-third of the west and southwest end of modern Asia Minor. Asia lay to the west of the region of Phrygia and Galatia. The words “the province of” are supplied to indicate to the modern reader that this does not refer to the continent of Asia.
3 tn It is probable that the ὑμῖν (Jumin) applies to both elements of the greeting, i.e., to both grace and peace.
4 tc The earliest and best
5 tn BDAG 106 s.v. ἀπό 5.d states: “The expr. εἰρήνη ἀπὸ ‘ὁ ὢν καὶ ὁ ἦν καὶ ὁ ἐρχόμενος’ Rv 1:4 is quite extraordinary. It may be an interpretation of the name Yahweh already current, or an attempt to show reverence for the divine name by preserving it unchanged, or simply one more of the grammatical peculiarities so frequent in Rv.”
7 tn Grk “and to Smyrna.” For stylistic reasons the conjunction καί (kai) and the preposition εἰς (eis) have not been translated before the remaining elements of the list. In lists with more than two elements contemporary English generally does not repeat the conjunction except between the next to last and last elements.