1:15 His feet were like polished bronze 1 refined 2 in a furnace, and his voice was like the roar 3 of many waters.
14:2 I also heard a sound 4 coming out of heaven like the sound of many waters and like the sound of loud thunder. Now 5 the sound I heard was like that made by harpists playing their harps,
1 tn The precise meaning of the term translated “polished bronze” (χαλκολιβάνῳ, calkolibanw), which appears nowhere else in Greek literature outside of the book of Revelation (see 2:18), is uncertain. Without question it is some sort of metal. BDAG 1076 s.v. χαλκολίβανον suggests “fine brass/bronze.” L&N 2.57 takes the word to refer to particularly valuable or fine bronze, but notes that the emphasis here and in Rev 2:18 is more on the lustrous quality of the metal.
2 tn Or “that has been heated in a furnace until it glows.”
3 tn Grk “sound,” but the idea is closer to the roar of a waterfall or rapids.
5 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “now” to indicate the introduction of a new topic.
6 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence within the narrative.
7 tn Grk “like the voice of a large crowd…saying.” Because of the complexity of the Greek sentence, a new sentence was started here in the translation by supplying the words “They were.”
8 tc Several
9 tn On this word BDAG 755 s.v. παντοκράτωρ states, “the Almighty, All-Powerful, Omnipotent (One) only of God…(ὁ) κύριος ὁ θεὸς ὁ π. …Rv 1:8; 4:8; 11:17; 15:3; 16:7; 21:22…κύριος ὁ θεὸς ἡμῶν ὁ π. Rv 19:6.”