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Revelation 19:11-21

Context
The Son of God Goes to War

19:11 Then 1  I saw heaven opened and here came 2  a white horse! The 3  one riding it was called “Faithful” and “True,” and with justice 4  he judges and goes to war. 19:12 His eyes are like a fiery 5  flame and there are many diadem crowns 6  on his head. He has 7  a name written 8  that no one knows except himself. 19:13 He is dressed in clothing dipped 9  in blood, and he is called 10  the Word of God. 19:14 The 11  armies that are in heaven, dressed in white, clean, fine linen, 12  were following him on white horses. 19:15 From his mouth extends a sharp sword, so that with it he can strike the nations. 13  He 14  will rule 15  them with an iron rod, 16  and he stomps the winepress 17  of the furious 18  wrath of God, the All-Powerful. 19  19:16 He has a name written on his clothing and on his thigh: “King of kings and Lord of lords.”

19:17 Then 20  I saw one angel standing in 21  the sun, and he shouted in a loud voice to all the birds flying high in the sky: 22 

“Come, gather around for the great banquet 23  of God,

19:18 to eat 24  your fill 25  of the flesh of kings,

the flesh of generals, 26 

the flesh of powerful people,

the flesh of horses and those who ride them,

and the flesh of all people, both free and slave, 27 

and small and great!”

19:19 Then 28  I saw the beast and the kings of the earth and their armies assembled to do battle with the one who rode the horse and with his army. 19:20 Now 29  the beast was seized, and along with him the false prophet who had performed the signs on his behalf 30  – signs by which he deceived those who had received the mark of the beast and those who worshiped his image. Both of them were thrown alive into the lake of fire burning with sulfur. 31  19:21 The 32  others were killed by the sword that extended from the mouth of the one who rode the horse, and all the birds gorged 33  themselves with their flesh.

1 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence within the narrative.

2 tn The phrase “and here came” expresses the sense of καὶ ἰδού (kai idou).

3 tn A new sentence was started in the translation at this point and καί (kai) was not translated because of differences between Greek and English style.

4 tn Or “in righteousness,” but since the context here involves the punishment of the wicked and the vindication of the saints, “justice” was preferred.

5 tn The genitive noun πυρός (puros) has been translated as an attributive genitive (see also Rev 1:14).

6 tn For the translation of διάδημα (diadhma) as “diadem crown” see L&N 6.196.

sn Diadem crowns were a type of crown used as a symbol of the highest ruling authority in a given area, and thus often associated with kingship.

7 tn Grk “head, having.” Because of the length and complexity of the Greek sentence, a new sentence was started here in the translation.

8 tn Although many translations supply a prepositional phrase to specify what the name was written on (“upon Him,” NASB; “on him,” NIV), there is no location for the name specified in the Greek text.

9 tc It appears that “dipped” (βεβαμμένον, bebammenon), supported by several uncials and other witnesses (A 051 Ï), is the original reading. Due to the lack of the preposition “in” (ἐν, en) after the verb (βεβαμμένον αἵματι, bebammenon {aimati), and also probably because of literary allusions to Isa 63:3, several mss and versions seem to have changed the text to “sprinkled” (either ῥεραντισμένον [rJerantismenon] in P 2329 al; ἐρραντισμένον [errantismenon] in 1006 1841; ἐρραμμένον [errammenon] in 2053 2062; or ῥεραμμένον [rJerammenon] in 1611; or in one case περιρεραμμένον [perirerammenon] in א[2]). The reading most likely to give rise to the others is “dipped.”

tn Or perhaps “soaked.”

10 tn Grk “the name of him is called.”

11 tn Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.

12 tn On the term translated “fine linen,” BDAG 185 s.v. βύσσινος states, “made of fine linen, subst. τὸ β. fine linen, linen garmentRv 18:12, 16; 19:8, 14.”

13 tn Or “the Gentiles” (the same Greek word may be translated “Gentiles” or “nations”).

14 tn Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.

15 tn Grk “will shepherd.”

16 tn Or “scepter.” The Greek term ῥάβδος (rJabdo") can mean either “rod” or “scepter.”

sn A quotation from Ps 2:9 (see also Rev 2:27, 12:5).

17 sn He stomps the winepress. See Isa 63:3, where Messiah does this alone (usually several individuals would join in the process), and Rev 14:20.

18 tn The genitive θυμοῦ (qumou) has been translated as an attributed genitive. Following BDAG 461 s.v. θυμός 2, the combination of the genitives of θυμός (qumos) and ὀργή (orgh) in Rev 16:19 and 19:15 are taken to be a strengthening of the thought as in the OT and Qumran literature (Exod 32:12; Jer 32:37; Lam 2:3; CD 10:9).

19 tn On this word BDAG 755 s.v. παντοκράτωρ states, “the Almighty, All-Powerful, Omnipotent (One) only of God…() κύριος ὁ θεὸς ὁ π. …Rv 1:8; 4:8; 11:17; 15:3; 16:7; 21:22.”

20 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence within the narrative.

21 tn The precise significance of ἐν (en) here is difficult to determine.

22 tn On μεσουρανήματι (mesouranhmati) here see L&N 1.10: “high in the sky, midpoint in the sky, directly overhead, straight above in the sky.” The birds mentioned here are carrion birds like vultures, circling high overhead, and now being summoned to feast on the corpses.

23 tn This is the same Greek word (δεῖπνον, deipnon) used in 19:9.

24 tn The ἵνα (Jina) clause, insofar as it is related to the first imperative, has the force of an imperative.

25 tn The idea of eating “your fill” is evident in the context with the use of χορτάζω (cortazw) in v. 21.

26 tn Grk “chiliarchs”; normally a chiliarch was a military officer commanding a thousand soldiers, but here probably used of higher-ranking commanders like generals (see L&N 55.15; cf. Rev 6:15).

27 tn See the note on the word “servants” in 1:1.

28 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence within the narrative.

29 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “now” to indicate the introduction of an unexpected development in the account: The opposing armies do not come together in battle; rather the leader of one side is captured.

30 tn For this meaning see BDAG 342 s.v. ἐνώπιον 4.b, “by the authority of, on behalf of Rv 13:12, 14; 19:20.”

31 tn Traditionally, “brimstone.”

32 tn Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.

33 tn On the translation of ἐχορτάσθησαν (ecortasqhsan) BDAG 1087 s.v. χορτάζω 1.a states, “of animals, pass. in act. sense πάντα τὰ ὄρνεα ἐχορτάσθησαν ἐκ τῶν σαρκῶν αὐτῶν all the birds gorged themselves with their flesh Rv 19:21 (cp. TestJud. 21:8).”



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