18:12 cargo such as gold, silver, 1 precious stones, pearls, fine linen, purple cloth, silk, 2 scarlet cloth, 3 all sorts of things made of citron wood, 4 all sorts of objects made of ivory, all sorts of things made of expensive wood, bronze, iron and marble,
“Woe, woe, O great city –
dressed in fine linen, purple and scarlet clothing, 5
and adorned with gold, 6 precious stones, and pearls –
19:14 The 9 armies that are in heaven, dressed in white, clean, fine linen, 10 were following him on white horses.
1 tn Grk “and silver,” but καί (kai) has not been translated before most of these terms since English normally uses a coordinating conjunction only between the last two elements in a series of three or more
3 tn On the translation of κόκκινον (kokkinon) as “scarlet cloth” see L&N 6.170.
4 tn On the phrase πᾶν ξύλον θύϊνον (pan xulon quinon) L&N 3.63 states, “pertaining to being made or consisting of citron wood (that is, from a citron tree) – ‘of citron wood.’ καὶ πᾶν ξύλον θύϊνον καὶ πᾶν σκεῦος ἐλεφάντινον ‘and all kinds of things made of citron wood and all kinds of objects made of ivory’ Re 18:12. The citron tree belongs to the citrus family of plants, and it produces a pale yellow fruit somewhat larger than a lemon, the rind of which is often candied. In Re 18:12, however, the focus is upon the fine quality of the wood.”
5 tn The word “clothing” is supplied to clarify that the words “purple” and “scarlet” refer to cloth or garments rather than colors.
6 tn Grk “gilded with gold” (an instance of semantic reinforcement, see L&N 49.29).
8 sn This phrase is treated as a parenthetical explanation by the author.
9 tn Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.