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Revelation 17:1--18:24

Context
The Great Prostitute and the Beast

17:1 Then 1  one of the seven angels who had the seven bowls came and spoke to me. 2  “Come,” he said, “I will show you the condemnation and punishment 3  of the great prostitute who sits on many waters, 17:2 with whom the kings of the earth committed sexual immorality and the earth’s inhabitants got drunk with the wine of her immorality.” 4  17:3 So 5  he carried me away in the Spirit 6  to a wilderness, 7  and there 8  I saw a woman sitting on a scarlet beast that was full of blasphemous names and had seven heads and ten horns. 17:4 Now 9  the woman was dressed in purple and scarlet clothing, 10  and adorned with gold, 11  precious stones, and pearls. She held 12  in her hand a golden cup filled with detestable things and unclean things from her sexual immorality. 13  17:5 On 14  her forehead was written a name, a mystery: 15  “Babylon the Great, the Mother of prostitutes and of the detestable things of the earth.” 17:6 I saw that the woman was drunk with the blood of the saints and the blood of those who testified to Jesus. 16  I 17  was greatly astounded 18  when I saw her. 17:7 But 19  the angel said to me, “Why are you astounded? I will interpret 20  for you the mystery of the woman and of the beast with the seven heads and ten horns that carries her. 17:8 The beast you saw was, and is not, but is about to come up from the abyss 21  and then go to destruction. The 22  inhabitants of the earth – all those whose names have not been written in the book of life since the foundation of the world – will be astounded when they see that 23  the beast was, and is not, but is to come. 17:9 (This requires 24  a mind that has wisdom.) The seven heads are seven mountains 25  the woman sits on. They are also seven kings: 17:10 five have fallen; one is, 26  and the other has not yet come, but whenever he does come, he must remain for only a brief time. 17:11 The 27  beast that was, and is not, is himself an eighth king and yet is one of the seven, and is going to destruction. 17:12 The 28  ten horns that you saw are ten kings who have not yet received a kingdom, but will receive ruling authority 29  as kings with the beast for one hour. 17:13 These kings 30  have a single intent, and they will give their power and authority to the beast. 17:14 They will make war with the Lamb, but the Lamb will conquer them, because he is Lord of lords and King of kings, and those accompanying 31  the Lamb are the called, chosen, and faithful.”

17:15 Then 32  the angel 33  said to me, “The waters you saw (where the prostitute is seated) are peoples, multitudes, 34  nations, and languages. 17:16 The 35  ten horns that you saw, and the beast – these will hate the prostitute and make her desolate and naked. They 36  will consume her flesh and burn her up with fire. 37  17:17 For God has put into their minds 38  to carry out his purpose 39  by making 40  a decision 41  to give their royal power 42  to the beast until the words of God are fulfilled. 43  17:18 As for 44  the woman you saw, she is the great city that has sovereignty over the kings of the earth.”

Babylon is Destroyed

18:1 After these things I saw another angel, who possessed great authority, coming down out of heaven, and the earth was lit up by his radiance. 45  18:2 He 46  shouted with a powerful voice:

“Fallen, fallen, is Babylon the great!

She 47  has become a lair for demons,

a haunt 48  for every unclean spirit,

a haunt for every unclean bird,

a haunt for every unclean and detested beast. 49 

18:3 For all the nations 50  have fallen 51  from

the wine of her immoral passion, 52 

and the kings of the earth have committed sexual immorality with her,

and the merchants of the earth have gotten rich from the power of her sensual behavior.” 53 

18:4 Then 54  I heard another voice from heaven saying, “Come out of her, my people, so you will not take part in her sins and so you will not receive her plagues, 18:5 because her sins have piled 55  up all the way to heaven 56  and God has remembered 57  her crimes. 58  18:6 Repay her the same way she repaid others; 59  pay her back double 60  corresponding to her deeds. In the cup she mixed, mix double the amount for her. 18:7 As much as 61  she exalted herself and lived in sensual luxury, 62  to this extent give her torment and grief because she said to herself, 63  ‘I rule as queen and am no widow; I will never experience grief!’ 18:8 For this reason, she will experience her plagues 64  in a single day: disease, 65  mourning, 66  and famine, and she will be burned down 67  with fire, because the Lord God who judges her is powerful!”

18:9 Then 68  the kings of the earth who committed immoral acts with her and lived in sensual luxury 69  with her will weep and wail for her when they see the smoke from the fire that burns her up. 70  18:10 They will stand a long way off because they are afraid of her torment, and will say,

“Woe, woe, O great city,

Babylon the powerful city!

For in a single hour your doom 71  has come!”

18:11 Then 72  the merchants of the earth will weep and mourn for her because no one buys their cargo 73  any longer – 18:12 cargo such as gold, silver, 74  precious stones, pearls, fine linen, purple cloth, silk, 75  scarlet cloth, 76  all sorts of things made of citron wood, 77  all sorts of objects made of ivory, all sorts of things made of expensive wood, bronze, iron and marble, 18:13 cinnamon, spice, 78  incense, perfumed ointment, 79  frankincense, 80  wine, olive oil and costly flour, 81  wheat, cattle and sheep, horses and four-wheeled carriages, 82  slaves and human lives. 83 

18:14 (The ripe fruit 84  you greatly desired 85 

has gone from you,

and all your luxury 86  and splendor 87 

have gone from you –

they will never ever be found again!) 88 

18:15 The merchants who sold 89  these things, who got rich from her, will stand a long way off because they are afraid of her torment. They will weep 90  and mourn, 18:16 saying,

“Woe, woe, O great city –

dressed in fine linen, purple and scarlet clothing, 91 

and adorned with gold, 92  precious stones, and pearls –

18:17 because in a single hour such great wealth has been destroyed!” 93 

And every ship’s captain, 94  and all who sail along the coast 95  – seamen, and all who 96  make their living from the sea, stood a long way off 18:18 and began to shout 97  when they saw the smoke from the fire that burned her up, 98  “Who is like the great city?” 18:19 And they threw dust on their heads and were shouting with weeping and mourning, 99 

“Woe, Woe, O great city –

in which all those who had ships on the sea got rich from her wealth –

because in a single hour she has been destroyed!” 100 

18:20 (Rejoice over her, O heaven,

and you saints and apostles and prophets,

for God has pronounced judgment 101  against her on your behalf!) 102 

18:21 Then 103  one powerful angel picked up a stone like a huge millstone, threw it into the sea, and said,

“With this kind of sudden violent force 104 

Babylon the great city will be thrown down 105 

and it will never be found again!

18:22 And the sound of the harpists, musicians,

flute players, and trumpeters

will never be heard in you 106  again.

No 107  craftsman 108  who practices any trade

will ever be found in you again;

the noise of a mill 109  will never be heard in you again.

18:23 Even the light from a lamp

will never shine in you again!

The voices of the bridegroom and his bride

will never be heard in you again.

For your merchants were the tycoons of the world,

because all the nations 110  were deceived by your magic spells! 111 

18:24 The 112  blood of the saints and prophets was found in her, 113 

along with the blood 114  of all those who had been killed on the earth.”

1 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence within the narrative.

2 tn Grk “with me.” The translation “with me” implies that John was engaged in a dialogue with the one speaking to him (e.g., Jesus or an angel) when in reality it was a one-sided conversation, with John doing all the listening. For this reason, μετ᾿ ἐμοῦ (met emou, “with me”) was translated as “to me.”

3 tn Here one Greek term, κρίμα (krima), has been translated by the two English terms “condemnation” and “punishment.” See BDAG 567 s.v. 4.b, “mostly in an unfavorable sense, of the condemnatory verdict and sometimes the subsequent punishment itself 2 Pt 2:3; Jd 4…τὸ κ. τῆς πόρνης the condemnation and punishment of the prostitute Rv 17:1.”

4 tn This is the same word translated “sexual immorality” earlier in the verse, but here the qualifier “sexual” has not been repeated for stylistic reasons.

5 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “so” to indicate the implied result of the angel’s invitation to witness the fate of the prostitute.

6 tn Or “in the spirit.” “Spirit” could refer either to the Holy Spirit or the human spirit, but in either case John was in “a state of spiritual exaltation best described as a trance” (R. H. Mounce, Revelation [NICNT], 75).

7 tn Or “desert.”

8 tn The word “there” is not in the Greek text, but is supplied for stylistic reasons.

9 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “now” to indicate the detailed description of the woman, which is somewhat parenthetical in nature.

10 tn The word “clothing” is supplied to clarify that the words “purple” and “scarlet” refer to cloth or garments rather than colors.

11 tn Grk “gilded with gold” (an instance of semantic reinforcement, see L&N 49.29).

12 tn Grk “pearls, having in her hand.” Due to the length and complexity of the Greek sentence, a new sentence was started here in the translation.

13 tc Several mss (including 1611 1854 2053 ÏK pc) read “sexual immorality on/of the earth” (πορνείας τῆς γῆς, porneia" th" gh") instead of “her sexual immorality.” Other mss (א syh** [co]) read “her sexual immorality and the earth’s” (πορνείας αὐτῆς καὶ τῆς γῆς, porneia" aujth" kai th" gh"). The translation is a rendering of πορνείας αὐτῆς, found in {A 1006 2344 al}. It seems that the first reading “sexuality immorality on/of the earth” was a scribal mistake in which letters may have been confused (auths would have been read as thsghs), or was perhaps influenced by the presence of “of the world” (τῆς γῆς) at the end of v. 5. The original wording seems to be “her sexual immorality”; codex א has conflated the two readings.

14 tn Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.

15 tn Some translations consider the word μυστήριον (musthrion, “mystery”) a part of the name written (“Mystery Babylon the Great,” so KJV, NIV), but the gender of both ὄνομα (onoma, “name”) and μυστήριον are neuter, while the gender of “Babylon” is feminine. This strongly suggests that μυστήριον should be understood as an appositive to ὄνομα (“a name, i.e., a mystery”).

16 tn Or “of the witnesses to Jesus.” Here the genitive ᾿Ιησοῦ (Ihsou) is taken as an objective genitive; Jesus is the object of their testimony.

17 tn Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.

18 tn Grk “I marveled a great marvel” (an idiom for great astonishment).

19 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “but” to indicate the contrast present in this context.

20 tn Grk “I will tell you,” but since what follows is the angel’s interpretation of the vision, “interpret for you” is the preferred translation here.

21 tn On this term BDAG 2 s.v. ἄβυσσος 2 states, “netherworld, abyss, esp. the abode of the dead Ro 10:7 (Ps 106:26) and of demons Lk 8:31; dungeon where the devil is kept Rv 20:3; abode of the θηρίον, the Antichrist 11:7; 17:8; of ᾿Αβαδδών (q.v.), the angel of the underworld 9:11φρέαρ τῆς ἀ. 9:1f; capable of being sealed 9:1; 20:1, 3.”

22 tn Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.

23 tn Some translations take the ὅτι (Joti) here as causal: “because he was, and is not, but is to come” (so NIV, NRSV), but it is much more likely that the subject of the ὅτι clause has been assimilated into the main clause: “when they see the beast, that he was…” = “when they see that the beast was” (so BDAG 732 s.v. ὅτι 1.f, where Rev 17:8 is listed).

24 tn Grk “Here is the mind that has wisdom.”

25 tn It is important to note that the height of “mountains” versus “hills” or other topographical terms is somewhat relative. In terms of Palestinian topography, Mount Tabor (traditionally regarded as the mount of transfiguration) is some 1,800 ft (550 m) above sea level, while the Mount of Olives is only some 100 ft (30 m) higher than Jerusalem.

26 tn That is, one currently reigns.

27 tn Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.

28 tn Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.

29 tn For the translation “ruling authority” for ἐξουσία (exousia) see L&N 37.35.

30 tn The word “kings” is not in the Greek text, but has been supplied to clarify the referent.

31 tn See BDAG 636 s.v. μετά A.2.a.α.

32 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence within the narrative.

33 tn Grk “he”; the referent (the angel) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

34 tn Grk “and multitudes,” but καί (kai) has not been translated here and before the following term since English normally uses a coordinating conjunction only between the last two elements in a series of three or more.

35 tn Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.

36 tn A new sentence was started here in the translation. Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.

37 tn The final clause could also be turned into an adverbial clause of means: “They will consume her flesh by burning her with fire.”

38 tn Grk “hearts.”

39 tn Or “his intent.”

40 tn The infinitive ποιῆσαι (poihsai) was translated here as giving the logical means by which God’s purpose was carried out.

41 tn On this term BDAG 203 s.v. γνώμη 4 states, “declaration, decision, resolution…of God Rv 17:17.”

42 tn For this translation see BDAG 168 s.v. βασιλεία 1.a, “kingship, royal power, royal rule.

43 tn Or “completed.”

44 tn Grk “And.” Because this remark is somewhat resumptive in nature, “as for” is used in the translation.

45 tn Grk “glory”; but often in the sense of splendor, brightness, or radiance (see L&N 14.49).

46 tn Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style

47 tn Or “It” (the subject is embedded in the verb in Greek; the verb only indicates that it is third person). Since the city has been personified as the great prostitute, the feminine pronoun was used in the translation.

48 tn Here BDAG 1067 s.v. φυλακή 3 states, “a place where guarding is done, prison…Of the nether world or its place of punishment (πνεῦμα 2 and 4c) 1 Pt 3:19 (BReicke, The Disobedient Spirits and Christian Baptism ’46, 116f). It is in a φ. in the latter sense that Satan will be rendered harmless during the millennium Rv 20:7. The fallen city of Babylon becomes a φυλακή haunt for all kinds of unclean spirits and birds 18:2ab.”

49 tc There are several problems in this verse. It seems that according to the ms evidence the first two phrases (i.e., “and a haunt for every unclean spirit, and a haunt for every unclean bird” [καὶ φυλακὴ παντὸς πνεύματος ἀκαθάρτου καὶ φυλακὴ παντὸς ὀρνέου ἀκαθάρτου, kai fulakh panto" pneumato" akaqartou kai fulakh panto" orneou akaqartou]) are to be regarded as authentic, though there are some ms discrepancies. The similar beginnings (καὶ φυλακὴ παντός) and endings (ἀκαθάρτου) of each phrase would easily account for some mss omitting one or the other phrase. The third phrase (“a haunt for every unclean animal” [καὶ φυλακὴ παντὸς θηρίου ἀκαθάρτου, kai fulakh panto" qhriou akaqartou]), however, is more problematic since it is missing in several important mss (א C 051 Ï). The passage as a whole, including the third phrase, seems to be an allusion to Isa 13:21 and 34:11. It seems reasonable, in such a case, to assume that since there is good ms evidence to support the third phrase (A 1611 2329 al), it probably dropped out of certain mss because of its similarity to the two preceding clauses. It is the presence of all three phrases in the original that most likely gave rise to the divergent ms evidence extant today.

50 tn Or “all the Gentiles” (the same Greek word may be translated “Gentiles” or “nations”).

51 tc ‡ Several mss (א A C 1006* 1611 1841 2030 ÏK), including the best witnesses, read “have fallen” (πεπτώκασιν or πέπτωκαν [peptwkasin or peptwkan]). The singular πέπτωκεν (peptwken), which is better grammatically with the neuter plural subject πάντα τὰ ἔθνη (panta ta eqnh, “all the nations”), is read by 1854 2062 pc; 2042 pc read πεπότικεν (pepotiken). A few mss (1006c 2329 pc latt syh) read “have drunk” (πέπωκαν/πεπώκασιν, pepwkan/pepwkasin); the singular πέπωκεν (pepwken) is read by P 051 1 2053* al. The more difficult reading and that which has the best ms support is “have fallen.” That it is not too difficult is evidenced by the fact that the great majority of Byzantine minuscules, which have a tendency to smooth out problems, left it stand as is. Nonetheless, it is somewhat difficult (TCGNT 683 says that this reading is “scarcely suitable in the context”), and for that reason certain mss seem to have changed it to “have drunk” to agree with the idea of “wine” (οἴνου, oinou). One can understand how this could happen: A scribe coming to the text and seeing the term “wine” expects a verb of drinking. When he sees “have fallen” and knows that in Greek the verbs “have fallen” and “have drunk” are spelled similarly, he concludes that there has been a slip of the pen in the ms he is using, which he then seeks to correct back to the “have drunk” reading. This appears to be more reasonable than to conclude that three early uncials (i.e., א A C) as well as a great number of other witnesses all felt the need to change “have drunk” (πέπωκαν) to “have fallen” (πέπτωκαν), even if “fallen” occurs in the immediate context (“fallen, fallen, [ἔπεσεν ἔπεσεν, epesen epesen] Babylon the great” in the preceding verse). The preferred reading, on both external and internal grounds, is “have fallen,” and thus the Seer intends to focus on the effects of wine, namely, a drunken stupor.

52 tn See the notes on the words “passion” in Rev 14:8 and “wrath” in 16:19.

53 tn According to BDAG 949 s.v. στρῆνος and στρηνιάω, these terms can refer either to luxury or sensuality. In the context of Rev 18, however (as L&N 88.254 indicate) the stress is on gratification of the senses by sexual immorality, so that meaning was emphasized in the translation here.

54 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence within the narrative.

55 tn On ἐκολλήθησαν (ekollhqhsan) BDAG 556 s.v. κολλάω 2.a.β states, “fig. cling to = come in close contact with (cp. Ps 21:16; 43:26 ἐκολλήθη εἰς γῆν ἡ γαστὴρ ἡμῶν. The act.=‘bring into contact’ PGM 5, 457 κολλήσας τ. λίθον τῷ ὠτίῳ) ἐκολλήθησαν αἱ ἁμαρτίαι ἄχρι τ. οὐρανοῦ the sins have touched the heaven = reached the sky (two exprs. are telescoped) Rv 18:5.”

56 tn Or “up to the sky” (the same Greek word means both “heaven” and “sky”).

57 tn That is, remembered her sins to execute judgment on them.

58 tn Or “her sins.”

59 tn The word “others” is not in the Greek text, but is implied. Direct objects were frequently omitted in Greek when clear from the context.

60 tn On this term BDAG 252 s.v. διπλόω states, “to double τὰ διπλᾶ pay back double Rv 18:6.”

61 tn “As much as” is the translation of ὅσα (Josa).

62 tn On the term ἐστρηνίασεν (estrhniasen) BDAG 949 s.v. στρηνιάω states, “live in luxury, live sensually Rv 18:7. W. πορνεύειν vs. 9.”

63 tn Grk “said in her heart,” an idiom for saying something to oneself.

64 tn Grk “For this reason, her plagues will come.”

65 tn Grk “death.” θάνατος (qanatos) can in particular contexts refer to a manner of death, specifically a contagious disease (see BDAG 443 s.v. 3; L&N 23.158).

66 tn This is the same Greek word (πένθος, penqo") translated “grief” in vv. 7-8.

67 tn Here “burned down” was used to translate κατακαυθήσεται (katakauqhsetai) because a city is in view.

68 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the vision.

69 tn On the term ἐστρηνίασεν (estrhniasen) BDAG 949 s.v. στρηνιάω states, “live in luxury, live sensually Rv 18:7. W. πορνεύειν vs. 9.”

70 tn Grk “from the burning of her.” For the translation “the smoke from the fire that burns her up,” see L&N 14.63.

71 tn Or “judgment,” condemnation,” “punishment.” BDAG 569 s.v. κρίσις 1.a.β states, “The word oft. means judgment that goes against a person, condemnation, and the sentence that follows…ἡ κ. σου your judgment Rv 18:10.”

72 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the vision.

73 tn On γόμος (gomos) BDAG 205 s.v. states, “load, freightcargo of a ship…Ac 21:3. W. gen. of the owner Rv 18:11. W. gen. of content…γ. χρυσοῦ a cargo of gold vs. 12.”

74 tn Grk “and silver,” but καί (kai) has not been translated before most of these terms since English normally uses a coordinating conjunction only between the last two elements in a series of three or more

75 tn On this term BDAG 924-25 s.v. σιρικός states, “per. to silk from Ser, subst. τὸ σιρικόν silk cloth or garments w. other costly materials Rv 18:12.”

76 tn On the translation of κόκκινον (kokkinon) as “scarlet cloth” see L&N 6.170.

77 tn On the phrase πᾶν ξύλον θύϊνον (pan xulon quinon) L&N 3.63 states, “pertaining to being made or consisting of citron wood (that is, from a citron tree) – ‘of citron wood.’ καὶ πᾶν ξύλον θύϊνον καὶ πᾶν σκεῦος ἐλεφάντινον ‘and all kinds of things made of citron wood and all kinds of objects made of ivory’ Re 18:12. The citron tree belongs to the citrus family of plants, and it produces a pale yellow fruit somewhat larger than a lemon, the rind of which is often candied. In Re 18:12, however, the focus is upon the fine quality of the wood.”

78 tn On the term ἄμωμον (amwmon) L&N 5.23 states, “a generic term for any kind of spice, though often a specific reference to amomum, an Indian type of spice – ‘spice, amomum.’ κιννάμωμον καὶ ἄμωμον καὶ θυμιάματα ‘cinnamon and spice and incense’ Re 18:13. In most translations ἄμωμον is interpreted as spice in general.”

79 tn Or “myrrh,” a strong aromatic ointment often used to prepare a body for burial (L&N 6.205).

80 tn The Greek term λίβανος (libano") refers to the aromatic resin of a certain type of tree (L&N 6.212).

81 tn On σεμίδαλις (semidali") L&N 5.10 states, “a fine grade of wheat flour – ‘fine flour.’ οἶνον καὶ ἔλαιον καὶ σεμίδαλιν καὶ σῖτον ‘wine and oil and fine flour and wheat’ Re 18:13. In some languages ‘fine flour’ may be best expressed as ‘expensive flour.’ Such a rendering fits well the context of Re 18:13.”

82 tn Or “and wagons.” On the term ῥέδη (rJedh) see L&N 6.53: “a four-wheeled carriage or wagon used for travel or the transportation of loads – ‘carriage, wagon.’ The term ῥέδη occurs only in Re 18:13 in a list of products bought and sold by merchants.”

83 tn Grk “and bodies and souls of men.” This could be understood (1) as a hendiadys (two things mentioned = one thing meant), referring only to slave trade; (2) it could be referring to two somewhat different concepts: slavery (bodies) and the cheapness of human life – some of the items earlier in the list of merchandise were to be obtained only at great cost of human life; or (3) a somewhat related idea, that the trade is in not just physical bodies (slavery) but human souls (people whose lives are destroyed through this trade).

84 tn On ὀπώρα (opwra) L&N 3.34 states, “ἡ ὀπώρα σου τῆς ἐπιθυμίας τῆς ψυχῆς ‘the ripe fruit for which you longed’ Re 18:14. In this one occurrence of ὀπώρα in the NT, ‘ripe fruit’ is to be understood in a figurative sense of ‘good things.’”

85 tn Grk “you desired in your soul.”

86 tn On λιπαρός (liparo") BDAG 597 s.v. states, “luxury Rv 18:14.”

87 tn On τὰ λαμπρά (ta lampra) BDAG 585 s.v. λαμπρός 4 states, “splendor…in which a rich man takes delight (cp. Jos., Ant. 12, 220 δωρεὰς δοὺς λαμπράς) Rv 18:14.”

88 tn Verse 14 is set in parentheses because in it the city, Babylon, is addressed directly in second person.

sn This verse forms a parenthetical aside in the narrative.

89 tn Grk “the merchants [sellers] of these things.”

90 tn Grk “her torment, weeping.” Because of the length and complexity of the Greek sentence, a new sentence was started in the translation by supplying the words “They will” here.

91 tn The word “clothing” is supplied to clarify that the words “purple” and “scarlet” refer to cloth or garments rather than colors.

92 tn Grk “gilded with gold” (an instance of semantic reinforcement, see L&N 49.29).

93 tn On ἠρημώθη (hrhmwqh) L&N 20.41 states, “to suffer destruction, with the implication of being deserted and abandoned – ‘to be destroyed, to suffer destruction, to suffer desolation.’ ἐρημόομαι: μιᾷ ὥρᾳ ἠρημώθη ὁ τοσοῦτος πλοῦτος ‘such great wealth has been destroyed within a single hour’ Re 18:17.”

94 tn On κυβερνήτης (kubernhth") BDAG 574 s.v. 1 states, “one who is responsible for the management of a ship, shipmaster, lit. Rv 18:17.”

95 tn Or perhaps, “everyone who sails as a passenger.” On πλέων (plewn) BDAG 825 s.v. πλέω states, “πᾶς ὁ ἐπὶ τόπον πλέων everyone who sails to a place = seafarer, sea travelerRv 18:17. The vv.ll.…have led to various interpretations. Some render: everyone who sails along the coast…See EbNestle, Einführung in das Griech. NT 1909, 182; AFridrichsen, K. Hum. Vetensk.-Samf. i Upps. Årsb. ’43, 31 note ὁ ἐπίτοπον πλέων=one who sails occasionally, a passenger. – S. also IHeikel, StKr 106, ’34/’35, 317).”

96 tn Grk “and as many as.”

97 tn Here the imperfect ἔκραζον (ekrazon) has been translated ingressively.

98 tn Grk “from the burning of her, saying.” For the translation “the smoke from the fire that burned her up,” see L&N 14.63. Here the participle λέγοντες (legontes, “saying”) has not been translated because it is redundant in contemporary English.

99 tn Grk “with weeping and mourning, saying.” Here the participle λέγοντες (legontes) has not been translated because it is redundant in contemporary English.

100 tn On ἡρημώθη (Jhrhmwqh) L&N 20.41 states, “to suffer destruction, with the implication of being deserted and abandoned – ‘to be destroyed, to suffer destruction, to suffer desolation.’ ἐρημόομαι: μιᾷ ὥρᾳ ἠρημώθη ὁ τοσοῦτος πλοῦτος ‘such great wealth has been destroyed within a single hour’ Re 18:17.”

101 tn On the phrase “pronounced judgment” BDAG 567 s.v. κρίμα 4.b states, “The OT is the source of the expr. κρίνειν τὸ κρ. (cp. Zech 7:9; 8:16; Ezk 44:24) ἔκρινεν ὁ θεὸς τὸ κρίμα ὑμῶν ἐξ αὐτῆς God has pronounced judgment for you against her or God has pronounced on her the judgment she wished to impose on you (HHoltzmann, Hdb. 1893 ad loc.) Rv 18:20.”

102 tn Grk “God has judged a judgment of you of her.” Verse 20 is set in parentheses because in it the saints, etc. are addressed directly in the second person.

sn This verse forms a parenthetical aside in the narrative.

103 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence within the narrative.

104 tn On ὅρμημα ({ormhma) BDAG 724 s.v. states, “violent rush, onset ὁρμήματι βληθήσεται Βαβυλών Babylon will be thrown down with violence Rv 18:21.” L&N 68.82 refers to the suddenness of the force or violence.

105 sn Thrown down is a play on both the words and the action. The angel’s action with the stone illustrates the kind of sudden violent force with which the city will be overthrown.

106 tn The shift to a second person pronoun here corresponds to the Greek text.

107 tn Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.

108 tn On this term BDAG 1001 s.v. τεχνίτης states, “craftsperson, artisan, designer…Of a silversmith Ac 19:24, 25 v.l., 38….Of a potter 2 Cl 8:2 (metaph., cp. Ath. 15:2). πᾶς τεχνίτης πάσης τέχνης Rv 18:22.”

109 tn This is a different Greek word (μύλος, mulos) from the one for the millstone in v. 21 (μύλινος, mulinos). See L&N 7.68.

110 tn Or “all the Gentiles” (the same Greek word may be translated “Gentiles” or “nations”).

111 tn On the term φαρμακεία (farmakeia, “magic spells”) see L&N 53.100: “the use of magic, often involving drugs and the casting of spells upon people – ‘to practice magic, to cast spells upon, to engage in sorcery, magic, sorcery.’ φαρμακεία: ἐν τῇ φαρμακείᾳ σου ἐπλανήθησαν πάντα τὰ ἔθνη ‘with your magic spells you deceived all the peoples (of the world)’ Re 18:23.”

112 tn Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.

113 tn The shift in pronouns from second to third person corresponds to the Greek text.

114 tn Grk “and of all.” The phrase “along with the blood” has been repeated from the previous clause for stylistic reasons.



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