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Revelation 16:9-11

Context
16:9 Thus 1  people 2  were scorched by the terrible heat, 3  yet 4  they blasphemed the name of God, who has ruling authority 5  over these plagues, and they would not repent and give him glory.

16:10 Then 6  the fifth angel 7  poured out his bowl on the throne of the beast so that 8  darkness covered his kingdom, 9  and people 10  began to bite 11  their tongues because 12  of their pain. 16:11 They blasphemed the God of heaven because of their sufferings 13  and because of their sores, 14  but nevertheless 15  they still refused to repent 16  of their deeds.

1 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “thus” to indicate the implied result of the bowl poured on the sun.

2 tn Grk “men,” but this is a generic use of ἄνθρωπος (anqrwpo") and refers to both men and women.

3 tn On this phrase BDAG 536 s.v. καῦμα states, “burning, heat Rv 7:16καυματίζεσθαι κ. μέγα be burned with a scorching heat 16:9.”

4 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “yet” to indicate the contrast present in this context.

5 tn For the translation “ruling authority” for ἐξουσία (exousia) see L&N 37.35.

6 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the vision.

7 tn Grk “the fifth”; the referent (the fifth angel) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

8 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “so that” to indicate the implied result of the fifth bowl being poured out.

9 tn Grk “his kingdom became dark.”

10 tn Grk “men,” but this is a generic use of ἄνθρωπος (anqrwpo") and refers to both men and women.

11 tn On this term BDAG 620 s.v. μασάομαι states, “bite w. acc. τὰς γλώσσας bite their tongues Rv 16:10.”

12 tn The preposition ἐκ (ek) has been translated here and twice in the following verse with a causal sense.

13 tn Grk “pains” (the same term in Greek [πόνος, ponos] as the last word in v. 11, here translated “sufferings” because it is plural). BDAG 852 s.v. 2 states, “ἐκ τοῦ π. in painRv 16:10; pl. (Gen 41:51; Jos., C. Ap. 2, 146; Test. Jud. 18:4) ἐκ τῶν π. …because of their sufferings vs. 11.”

14 tn Or “ulcerated sores” (see 16:2).

15 tn Grk “and they did not repent.” Here καί (kai) has been translated as “but nevertheless” to express the contrast here.

16 tn Grk “they did not repent” The addition of “still refused” reflects the hardness of people’s hearts in the context.



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