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Revelation 16:19

Context
16:19 The 1  great city was split into three parts and the cities of the nations 2  collapsed. 3  So 4  Babylon the great was remembered before God, and was given the cup 5  filled with the wine made of God’s furious wrath. 6 

Revelation 19:15

Context
19:15 From his mouth extends a sharp sword, so that with it he can strike the nations. 7  He 8  will rule 9  them with an iron rod, 10  and he stomps the winepress 11  of the furious 12  wrath of God, the All-Powerful. 13 

1 tn Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.

2 tn Or “of the Gentiles” (the same Greek word may be translated “Gentiles” or “nations”).

3 tn Grk “fell.”

4 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “so” to indicate the implied result of Babylon’s misdeeds (see Rev 14:8).

5 tn Grk “the cup of the wine of the anger of the wrath of him.” The concatenation of four genitives has been rendered somewhat differently by various translations (see the note on the word “wrath”).

6 tn Following BDAG 461 s.v. θυμός 2, the combination of the genitives of θυμός (qumo") and ὀργή (orgh) in Rev 16:19 and 19:15 are taken to be a strengthening of the thought as in the OT and Qumran literature (Exod 32:12; Jer 32:37; Lam 2:3; CD 10:9). Thus in Rev 14:8 (to which the present passage alludes) and 18:3 there is irony: The wine of immoral behavior with which Babylon makes the nations drunk becomes the wine of God’s wrath for her.

7 tn Or “the Gentiles” (the same Greek word may be translated “Gentiles” or “nations”).

8 tn Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.

9 tn Grk “will shepherd.”

10 tn Or “scepter.” The Greek term ῥάβδος (rJabdo") can mean either “rod” or “scepter.”

sn A quotation from Ps 2:9 (see also Rev 2:27, 12:5).

11 sn He stomps the winepress. See Isa 63:3, where Messiah does this alone (usually several individuals would join in the process), and Rev 14:20.

12 tn The genitive θυμοῦ (qumou) has been translated as an attributed genitive. Following BDAG 461 s.v. θυμός 2, the combination of the genitives of θυμός (qumos) and ὀργή (orgh) in Rev 16:19 and 19:15 are taken to be a strengthening of the thought as in the OT and Qumran literature (Exod 32:12; Jer 32:37; Lam 2:3; CD 10:9).

13 tn On this word BDAG 755 s.v. παντοκράτωρ states, “the Almighty, All-Powerful, Omnipotent (One) only of God…() κύριος ὁ θεὸς ὁ π. …Rv 1:8; 4:8; 11:17; 15:3; 16:7; 21:22.”



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