16:12 Then 1 the sixth angel 2 poured out his bowl on the great river Euphrates and dried up its water 3 to prepare the way 4 for the kings from the east. 5 16:13 Then 6 I saw three unclean spirits 7 that looked like frogs coming out of the mouth of the dragon, out of the mouth of the beast, and out of the mouth of the false prophet. 16:14 For they are the spirits of the demons performing signs who go out to the kings of the earth 8 to bring them together for the battle that will take place on the great day of God, the All-Powerful. 9
16:15 (Look! I will come like a thief!
16:17 Finally 17 the seventh angel 18 poured out his bowl into the air and a loud voice came out of the temple from the throne, saying: “It is done!” 16:18 Then 19 there were flashes of lightning, roaring, 20 and crashes of thunder, and there was a tremendous earthquake – an earthquake unequaled since humanity 21 has been on the earth, so tremendous was that earthquake. 16:19 The 22 great city was split into three parts and the cities of the nations 23 collapsed. 24 So 25 Babylon the great was remembered before God, and was given the cup 26 filled with the wine made of God’s furious wrath. 27 16:20 Every 28 island fled away 29 and no mountains could be found. 30 16:21 And gigantic hailstones, weighing about a hundred pounds 31 each, fell from heaven 32 on people, 33 but they 34 blasphemed God because of the plague of hail, since it 35 was so horrendous. 36
19:19 Then 37 I saw the beast and the kings of the earth and their armies assembled to do battle with the one who rode the horse and with his army. 19:20 Now 38 the beast was seized, and along with him the false prophet who had performed the signs on his behalf 39 – signs by which he deceived those who had received the mark of the beast and those who worshiped his image. Both of them were thrown alive into the lake of fire burning with sulfur. 40 19:21 The 41 others were killed by the sword that extended from the mouth of the one who rode the horse, and all the birds gorged 42 themselves with their flesh.
1 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the vision.
2 tn Grk “the sixth”; the referent (the sixth angel) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
3 tn Grk “and its water was dried up.” Here the passive construction has been translated as an active one.
4 tn Grk “in order that the way might be prepared.” Here the passive construction has been translated as an active one.
6 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the vision.
7 sn According to the next verse, these three unclean spirits are spirits of demons.
11 tn On the translation of ἀσχημοσύνη (aschmosunh) as “shameful condition” see L&N 25.202. The indefinite third person plural (“and they see”) has been translated as a passive here.
12 sn These lines are parenthetical, forming an aside to the narrative. The speaker here is the Lord Jesus Christ himself rather than the narrator. Many interpreters have seen this verse as so abrupt that it could not be an original part of the work, but the author has used such asides before (1:7; 14:13) and the suddenness here (on the eve of Armageddon) is completely parallel to Jesus’ warning in Mark 13:15-16 and parallels.
13 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “now” to indicate the resumption and conclusion of the remarks about the pouring out of the sixth bowl.
16 tc There are many variations in the spelling of this name among the Greek
tn Or “Harmagedon” (a literal transliteration of the Greek), or “Har-Magedon” (NASB), meaning “the Mount of Magedon” in Hebrew.
17 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “finally” to indicate the conclusion of the seven bowl judgments.
18 tn Grk “the seventh”; the referent (the seventh angel) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
19 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the vision.
20 tn Or “sounds,” “voices.” It is not entirely clear what this refers to. BDAG 1071 s.v. φωνή 1 states, “In Rv we have ἀστραπαὶ καὶ φωναὶ καὶ βρονταί (cp. Ex 19:16) 4:5; 8:5; 11:19; 16:18 (are certain other sounds in nature thought of here in addition to thunder, as e.g. the roar of the storm?…).”
21 tn The singular ἄνθρωπος (anqrwpo") is used generically here to refer to the human race.
22 tn Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.
23 tn Or “of the Gentiles” (the same Greek word may be translated “Gentiles” or “nations”).
24 tn Grk “fell.”
26 tn Grk “the cup of the wine of the anger of the wrath of him.” The concatenation of four genitives has been rendered somewhat differently by various translations (see the note on the word “wrath”).
27 tn Following BDAG 461 s.v. θυμός 2, the combination of the genitives of θυμός (qumo") and ὀργή (orgh) in Rev 16:19 and 19:15 are taken to be a strengthening of the thought as in the OT and Qumran literature (Exod 32:12; Jer 32:37; Lam 2:3; CD 10:9). Thus in Rev 14:8 (to which the present passage alludes) and 18:3 there is irony: The wine of immoral behavior with which Babylon makes the nations drunk becomes the wine of God’s wrath for her.
28 tn Grk “And every.” Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.
29 tn Or “vanished.”
30 sn Every island fled away and no mountains could be found. Major geographical and topographical changes will accompany the Day of the Lord.
31 tn Here BDAG 988 s.v. ταλαντιαῖος states, “weighing a talent…χάλαζα μεγάλη ὡς ταλαντιαία a severe hailstorm with hailstones weighing a talent (the talent=125 librae, or Roman pounds of c. 343 gr. or 12 ounces each) (weighing about a hundred pounds NRSV) Rv 16:21.” This means each hailstone would weigh just under 100 pounds or 40 kilograms.
32 tn Or “the sky.” Due to the apocalyptic nature of this book, it is probably best to leave the translation as “from heaven,” since God is ultimately the source of the judgment.
33 tn Grk “on men,” but ἄνθρωπος (anqrwpo") is used here in a generic sense to refer to people in general (the hailstones did not single out adult males, but would have also fallen on women and children).
34 tn Grk “the men”; for stylistic reasons the pronoun “they” is used here.
35 tn Grk “the plague of it.”
36 tn Grk “since the plague of it was exceedingly great.”
37 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence within the narrative.
38 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “now” to indicate the introduction of an unexpected development in the account: The opposing armies do not come together in battle; rather the leader of one side is captured.
40 tn Traditionally, “brimstone.”
41 tn Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.
42 tn On the translation of ἐχορτάσθησαν (ecortasqhsan) BDAG 1087 s.v. χορτάζω 1.a states, “of animals, pass. in act. sense πάντα τὰ ὄρνεα ἐχορτάσθησαν ἐκ τῶν σαρκῶν αὐτῶν all the birds gorged themselves with their flesh Rv 19:21 (cp. TestJud. 21:8).”