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Revelation 16:1--18:24

Context
The Bowls of God’s Wrath

16:1 Then 1  I heard a loud voice from the temple declaring to the seven angels: “Go and pour out on the earth the seven bowls containing God’s wrath.” 2  16:2 So 3  the first angel 4  went and poured out his bowl on the earth. Then 5  ugly and painful sores 6  appeared on the people 7  who had the mark of the beast and who worshiped his image.

16:3 Next, 8  the second angel 9  poured out his bowl on the sea and it turned into blood, like that of a corpse, and every living creature that was in the sea died.

16:4 Then 10  the third angel 11  poured out his bowl on the rivers and the springs of water, and they turned into blood. 16:5 Now 12  I heard the angel of the waters saying:

“You are just 13  – the one who is and who was,

the Holy One – because you have passed these judgments, 14 

16:6 because they poured out the blood of your saints and prophets,

so 15  you have given them blood to drink. They got what they deserved!” 16 

16:7 Then 17  I heard the altar reply, 18  “Yes, Lord God, the All-Powerful, 19  your judgments are true and just!”

16:8 Then 20  the fourth angel 21  poured out his bowl on the sun, and it was permitted to scorch people 22  with fire. 16:9 Thus 23  people 24  were scorched by the terrible heat, 25  yet 26  they blasphemed the name of God, who has ruling authority 27  over these plagues, and they would not repent and give him glory.

16:10 Then 28  the fifth angel 29  poured out his bowl on the throne of the beast so that 30  darkness covered his kingdom, 31  and people 32  began to bite 33  their tongues because 34  of their pain. 16:11 They blasphemed the God of heaven because of their sufferings 35  and because of their sores, 36  but nevertheless 37  they still refused to repent 38  of their deeds.

16:12 Then 39  the sixth angel 40  poured out his bowl on the great river Euphrates and dried up its water 41  to prepare the way 42  for the kings from the east. 43  16:13 Then 44  I saw three unclean spirits 45  that looked like frogs coming out of the mouth of the dragon, out of the mouth of the beast, and out of the mouth of the false prophet. 16:14 For they are the spirits of the demons performing signs who go out to the kings of the earth 46  to bring them together for the battle that will take place on the great day of God, the All-Powerful. 47 

16:15 (Look! I will come like a thief!

Blessed is the one who stays alert and does not lose 48  his clothes so that he will not have to walk around naked and his shameful condition 49  be seen.) 50 

16:16 Now 51  the spirits 52  gathered the kings and their armies 53  to the place that is called Armageddon 54  in Hebrew.

16:17 Finally 55  the seventh angel 56  poured out his bowl into the air and a loud voice came out of the temple from the throne, saying: “It is done!” 16:18 Then 57  there were flashes of lightning, roaring, 58  and crashes of thunder, and there was a tremendous earthquake – an earthquake unequaled since humanity 59  has been on the earth, so tremendous was that earthquake. 16:19 The 60  great city was split into three parts and the cities of the nations 61  collapsed. 62  So 63  Babylon the great was remembered before God, and was given the cup 64  filled with the wine made of God’s furious wrath. 65  16:20 Every 66  island fled away 67  and no mountains could be found. 68  16:21 And gigantic hailstones, weighing about a hundred pounds 69  each, fell from heaven 70  on people, 71  but they 72  blasphemed God because of the plague of hail, since it 73  was so horrendous. 74 

The Great Prostitute and the Beast

17:1 Then 75  one of the seven angels who had the seven bowls came and spoke to me. 76  “Come,” he said, “I will show you the condemnation and punishment 77  of the great prostitute who sits on many waters, 17:2 with whom the kings of the earth committed sexual immorality and the earth’s inhabitants got drunk with the wine of her immorality.” 78  17:3 So 79  he carried me away in the Spirit 80  to a wilderness, 81  and there 82  I saw a woman sitting on a scarlet beast that was full of blasphemous names and had seven heads and ten horns. 17:4 Now 83  the woman was dressed in purple and scarlet clothing, 84  and adorned with gold, 85  precious stones, and pearls. She held 86  in her hand a golden cup filled with detestable things and unclean things from her sexual immorality. 87  17:5 On 88  her forehead was written a name, a mystery: 89  “Babylon the Great, the Mother of prostitutes and of the detestable things of the earth.” 17:6 I saw that the woman was drunk with the blood of the saints and the blood of those who testified to Jesus. 90  I 91  was greatly astounded 92  when I saw her. 17:7 But 93  the angel said to me, “Why are you astounded? I will interpret 94  for you the mystery of the woman and of the beast with the seven heads and ten horns that carries her. 17:8 The beast you saw was, and is not, but is about to come up from the abyss 95  and then go to destruction. The 96  inhabitants of the earth – all those whose names have not been written in the book of life since the foundation of the world – will be astounded when they see that 97  the beast was, and is not, but is to come. 17:9 (This requires 98  a mind that has wisdom.) The seven heads are seven mountains 99  the woman sits on. They are also seven kings: 17:10 five have fallen; one is, 100  and the other has not yet come, but whenever he does come, he must remain for only a brief time. 17:11 The 101  beast that was, and is not, is himself an eighth king and yet is one of the seven, and is going to destruction. 17:12 The 102  ten horns that you saw are ten kings who have not yet received a kingdom, but will receive ruling authority 103  as kings with the beast for one hour. 17:13 These kings 104  have a single intent, and they will give their power and authority to the beast. 17:14 They will make war with the Lamb, but the Lamb will conquer them, because he is Lord of lords and King of kings, and those accompanying 105  the Lamb are the called, chosen, and faithful.”

17:15 Then 106  the angel 107  said to me, “The waters you saw (where the prostitute is seated) are peoples, multitudes, 108  nations, and languages. 17:16 The 109  ten horns that you saw, and the beast – these will hate the prostitute and make her desolate and naked. They 110  will consume her flesh and burn her up with fire. 111  17:17 For God has put into their minds 112  to carry out his purpose 113  by making 114  a decision 115  to give their royal power 116  to the beast until the words of God are fulfilled. 117  17:18 As for 118  the woman you saw, she is the great city that has sovereignty over the kings of the earth.”

Babylon is Destroyed

18:1 After these things I saw another angel, who possessed great authority, coming down out of heaven, and the earth was lit up by his radiance. 119  18:2 He 120  shouted with a powerful voice:

“Fallen, fallen, is Babylon the great!

She 121  has become a lair for demons,

a haunt 122  for every unclean spirit,

a haunt for every unclean bird,

a haunt for every unclean and detested beast. 123 

18:3 For all the nations 124  have fallen 125  from

the wine of her immoral passion, 126 

and the kings of the earth have committed sexual immorality with her,

and the merchants of the earth have gotten rich from the power of her sensual behavior.” 127 

18:4 Then 128  I heard another voice from heaven saying, “Come out of her, my people, so you will not take part in her sins and so you will not receive her plagues, 18:5 because her sins have piled 129  up all the way to heaven 130  and God has remembered 131  her crimes. 132  18:6 Repay her the same way she repaid others; 133  pay her back double 134  corresponding to her deeds. In the cup she mixed, mix double the amount for her. 18:7 As much as 135  she exalted herself and lived in sensual luxury, 136  to this extent give her torment and grief because she said to herself, 137  ‘I rule as queen and am no widow; I will never experience grief!’ 18:8 For this reason, she will experience her plagues 138  in a single day: disease, 139  mourning, 140  and famine, and she will be burned down 141  with fire, because the Lord God who judges her is powerful!”

18:9 Then 142  the kings of the earth who committed immoral acts with her and lived in sensual luxury 143  with her will weep and wail for her when they see the smoke from the fire that burns her up. 144  18:10 They will stand a long way off because they are afraid of her torment, and will say,

“Woe, woe, O great city,

Babylon the powerful city!

For in a single hour your doom 145  has come!”

18:11 Then 146  the merchants of the earth will weep and mourn for her because no one buys their cargo 147  any longer – 18:12 cargo such as gold, silver, 148  precious stones, pearls, fine linen, purple cloth, silk, 149  scarlet cloth, 150  all sorts of things made of citron wood, 151  all sorts of objects made of ivory, all sorts of things made of expensive wood, bronze, iron and marble, 18:13 cinnamon, spice, 152  incense, perfumed ointment, 153  frankincense, 154  wine, olive oil and costly flour, 155  wheat, cattle and sheep, horses and four-wheeled carriages, 156  slaves and human lives. 157 

18:14 (The ripe fruit 158  you greatly desired 159 

has gone from you,

and all your luxury 160  and splendor 161 

have gone from you –

they will never ever be found again!) 162 

18:15 The merchants who sold 163  these things, who got rich from her, will stand a long way off because they are afraid of her torment. They will weep 164  and mourn, 18:16 saying,

“Woe, woe, O great city –

dressed in fine linen, purple and scarlet clothing, 165 

and adorned with gold, 166  precious stones, and pearls –

18:17 because in a single hour such great wealth has been destroyed!” 167 

And every ship’s captain, 168  and all who sail along the coast 169  – seamen, and all who 170  make their living from the sea, stood a long way off 18:18 and began to shout 171  when they saw the smoke from the fire that burned her up, 172  “Who is like the great city?” 18:19 And they threw dust on their heads and were shouting with weeping and mourning, 173 

“Woe, Woe, O great city –

in which all those who had ships on the sea got rich from her wealth –

because in a single hour she has been destroyed!” 174 

18:20 (Rejoice over her, O heaven,

and you saints and apostles and prophets,

for God has pronounced judgment 175  against her on your behalf!) 176 

18:21 Then 177  one powerful angel picked up a stone like a huge millstone, threw it into the sea, and said,

“With this kind of sudden violent force 178 

Babylon the great city will be thrown down 179 

and it will never be found again!

18:22 And the sound of the harpists, musicians,

flute players, and trumpeters

will never be heard in you 180  again.

No 181  craftsman 182  who practices any trade

will ever be found in you again;

the noise of a mill 183  will never be heard in you again.

18:23 Even the light from a lamp

will never shine in you again!

The voices of the bridegroom and his bride

will never be heard in you again.

For your merchants were the tycoons of the world,

because all the nations 184  were deceived by your magic spells! 185 

18:24 The 186  blood of the saints and prophets was found in her, 187 

along with the blood 188  of all those who had been killed on the earth.”

1 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence within the narrative.

2 tn Or “anger.” Here τοῦ θυμοῦ (tou qumou) has been translated as a genitive of content.

3 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “so” to indicate the implied result of the directions given by the voice from the temple.

4 tn Grk “the first”; the referent (the first angel) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

5 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the vision.

6 tn Or “ulcerated sores”; the term in the Greek text is singular but is probably best understood as a collective singular.

7 tn Grk ‘the men,” but this is a generic use of ἄνθρωπος (anqrwpo") and refers to both men and women.

8 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “next” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the vision.

9 tn Grk “the second”; the referent (the second angel) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

10 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the vision.

11 tn Grk “the third”; the referent (the third angel) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

12 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “now” to indicate the somewhat parenthetical nature of the remarks that follow.

13 tn Or “righteous,” although the context favors justice as the theme.

14 tn Or “because you have judged these things.” The pronoun ταῦτα (tauta) is neuter gender.

15 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “so” to indicate that this judgment is the result of what these wicked people did to the saints and prophets.

16 tn Grk “They are worthy”; i.e., of this kind of punishment. By extension, “they got what they deserve.”

17 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the vision.

18 tn Grk “the altar saying.”

19 tn On this word BDAG 755 s.v. παντοκράτωρ states, “the Almighty, All-Powerful, Omnipotent (One) only of God…() κύριος ὁ θεὸς ὁ π. …Rv 1:8; 4:8; 11:17; 15:3; 16:7; 21:22.”

20 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the vision.

21 tn Grk “the fourth”; the referent (the fourth angel) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

22 tn Grk “men,” but this is a generic use of ἄνθρωπος (anqrwpo") and refers to both men and women.

23 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “thus” to indicate the implied result of the bowl poured on the sun.

24 tn Grk “men,” but this is a generic use of ἄνθρωπος (anqrwpo") and refers to both men and women.

25 tn On this phrase BDAG 536 s.v. καῦμα states, “burning, heat Rv 7:16καυματίζεσθαι κ. μέγα be burned with a scorching heat 16:9.”

26 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “yet” to indicate the contrast present in this context.

27 tn For the translation “ruling authority” for ἐξουσία (exousia) see L&N 37.35.

28 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the vision.

29 tn Grk “the fifth”; the referent (the fifth angel) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

30 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “so that” to indicate the implied result of the fifth bowl being poured out.

31 tn Grk “his kingdom became dark.”

32 tn Grk “men,” but this is a generic use of ἄνθρωπος (anqrwpo") and refers to both men and women.

33 tn On this term BDAG 620 s.v. μασάομαι states, “bite w. acc. τὰς γλώσσας bite their tongues Rv 16:10.”

34 tn The preposition ἐκ (ek) has been translated here and twice in the following verse with a causal sense.

35 tn Grk “pains” (the same term in Greek [πόνος, ponos] as the last word in v. 11, here translated “sufferings” because it is plural). BDAG 852 s.v. 2 states, “ἐκ τοῦ π. in painRv 16:10; pl. (Gen 41:51; Jos., C. Ap. 2, 146; Test. Jud. 18:4) ἐκ τῶν π. …because of their sufferings vs. 11.”

36 tn Or “ulcerated sores” (see 16:2).

37 tn Grk “and they did not repent.” Here καί (kai) has been translated as “but nevertheless” to express the contrast here.

38 tn Grk “they did not repent” The addition of “still refused” reflects the hardness of people’s hearts in the context.

39 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the vision.

40 tn Grk “the sixth”; the referent (the sixth angel) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

41 tn Grk “and its water was dried up.” Here the passive construction has been translated as an active one.

42 tn Grk “in order that the way might be prepared.” Here the passive construction has been translated as an active one.

43 tn Grk “from the rising of the sun.” BDAG 74 s.v. ἀνατολή 2.a takes this as a geographical direction: “ἀπὸ ἀ. ἡλίουfrom the east Rv 7:2; 16:12; simply ἀπὸ ἀ. …21:13.”

44 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the vision.

45 sn According to the next verse, these three unclean spirits are spirits of demons.

46 tn BDAG 699 s.v. οἰκουμένη 1 states, “the inhabited earth, the worldὅλη ἡ οἰκ. the whole inhabited earthMt 24:14; Ac 11:28; Rv 3:10; 16:14.”

47 tn On this word BDAG 755 s.v. παντοκράτωρ states, “the Almighty, All-Powerful, Omnipotent (One) only of God…() κύριος ὁ θεὸς ὁ π. …Rv 1:8; 4:8; 11:17; 15:3; 16:7; 21:22.”

48 tn Grk “and keeps.” BDAG 1002 s.v. τηρέω 2.c states “of holding on to someth. so as not to give it up or lose it…τὰ ἱμάτια αὐτοῦ Rv 16:15 (or else he will have to go naked).”

49 tn On the translation of ἀσχημοσύνη (aschmosunh) as “shameful condition” see L&N 25.202. The indefinite third person plural (“and they see”) has been translated as a passive here.

50 sn These lines are parenthetical, forming an aside to the narrative. The speaker here is the Lord Jesus Christ himself rather than the narrator. Many interpreters have seen this verse as so abrupt that it could not be an original part of the work, but the author has used such asides before (1:7; 14:13) and the suddenness here (on the eve of Armageddon) is completely parallel to Jesus’ warning in Mark 13:15-16 and parallels.

51 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “now” to indicate the resumption and conclusion of the remarks about the pouring out of the sixth bowl.

52 tn Grk “they”; the referent (the demonic spirits, v. 14) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

53 tn Grk “gathered them”; the referent (the kings and [implied] their armies, v. 14) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

54 tc There are many variations in the spelling of this name among the Greek mss, although ῾Αρμαγεδών (&armagedwn) has the best support. The usual English spelling is Armageddon, used in the translation.

tn Or “Harmagedon” (a literal transliteration of the Greek), or “Har-Magedon” (NASB), meaning “the Mount of Magedon” in Hebrew.

55 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “finally” to indicate the conclusion of the seven bowl judgments.

56 tn Grk “the seventh”; the referent (the seventh angel) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

57 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the vision.

58 tn Or “sounds,” “voices.” It is not entirely clear what this refers to. BDAG 1071 s.v. φωνή 1 states, “In Rv we have ἀστραπαὶ καὶ φωναὶ καὶ βρονταί (cp. Ex 19:16) 4:5; 8:5; 11:19; 16:18 (are certain other sounds in nature thought of here in addition to thunder, as e.g. the roar of the storm?…).”

59 tn The singular ἄνθρωπος (anqrwpo") is used generically here to refer to the human race.

60 tn Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.

61 tn Or “of the Gentiles” (the same Greek word may be translated “Gentiles” or “nations”).

62 tn Grk “fell.”

63 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “so” to indicate the implied result of Babylon’s misdeeds (see Rev 14:8).

64 tn Grk “the cup of the wine of the anger of the wrath of him.” The concatenation of four genitives has been rendered somewhat differently by various translations (see the note on the word “wrath”).

65 tn Following BDAG 461 s.v. θυμός 2, the combination of the genitives of θυμός (qumo") and ὀργή (orgh) in Rev 16:19 and 19:15 are taken to be a strengthening of the thought as in the OT and Qumran literature (Exod 32:12; Jer 32:37; Lam 2:3; CD 10:9). Thus in Rev 14:8 (to which the present passage alludes) and 18:3 there is irony: The wine of immoral behavior with which Babylon makes the nations drunk becomes the wine of God’s wrath for her.

66 tn Grk “And every.” Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.

67 tn Or “vanished.”

68 sn Every island fled away and no mountains could be found. Major geographical and topographical changes will accompany the Day of the Lord.

69 tn Here BDAG 988 s.v. ταλαντιαῖος states, “weighing a talentχάλαζα μεγάλη ὡς ταλαντιαία a severe hailstorm with hailstones weighing a talent (the talent=125 librae, or Roman pounds of c. 343 gr. or 12 ounces each) (weighing about a hundred pounds NRSV) Rv 16:21.” This means each hailstone would weigh just under 100 pounds or 40 kilograms.

70 tn Or “the sky.” Due to the apocalyptic nature of this book, it is probably best to leave the translation as “from heaven,” since God is ultimately the source of the judgment.

71 tn Grk “on men,” but ἄνθρωπος (anqrwpo") is used here in a generic sense to refer to people in general (the hailstones did not single out adult males, but would have also fallen on women and children).

72 tn Grk “the men”; for stylistic reasons the pronoun “they” is used here.

73 tn Grk “the plague of it.”

74 tn Grk “since the plague of it was exceedingly great.”

75 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence within the narrative.

76 tn Grk “with me.” The translation “with me” implies that John was engaged in a dialogue with the one speaking to him (e.g., Jesus or an angel) when in reality it was a one-sided conversation, with John doing all the listening. For this reason, μετ᾿ ἐμοῦ (met emou, “with me”) was translated as “to me.”

77 tn Here one Greek term, κρίμα (krima), has been translated by the two English terms “condemnation” and “punishment.” See BDAG 567 s.v. 4.b, “mostly in an unfavorable sense, of the condemnatory verdict and sometimes the subsequent punishment itself 2 Pt 2:3; Jd 4…τὸ κ. τῆς πόρνης the condemnation and punishment of the prostitute Rv 17:1.”

78 tn This is the same word translated “sexual immorality” earlier in the verse, but here the qualifier “sexual” has not been repeated for stylistic reasons.

79 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “so” to indicate the implied result of the angel’s invitation to witness the fate of the prostitute.

80 tn Or “in the spirit.” “Spirit” could refer either to the Holy Spirit or the human spirit, but in either case John was in “a state of spiritual exaltation best described as a trance” (R. H. Mounce, Revelation [NICNT], 75).

81 tn Or “desert.”

82 tn The word “there” is not in the Greek text, but is supplied for stylistic reasons.

83 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “now” to indicate the detailed description of the woman, which is somewhat parenthetical in nature.

84 tn The word “clothing” is supplied to clarify that the words “purple” and “scarlet” refer to cloth or garments rather than colors.

85 tn Grk “gilded with gold” (an instance of semantic reinforcement, see L&N 49.29).

86 tn Grk “pearls, having in her hand.” Due to the length and complexity of the Greek sentence, a new sentence was started here in the translation.

87 tc Several mss (including 1611 1854 2053 ÏK pc) read “sexual immorality on/of the earth” (πορνείας τῆς γῆς, porneia" th" gh") instead of “her sexual immorality.” Other mss (א syh** [co]) read “her sexual immorality and the earth’s” (πορνείας αὐτῆς καὶ τῆς γῆς, porneia" aujth" kai th" gh"). The translation is a rendering of πορνείας αὐτῆς, found in {A 1006 2344 al}. It seems that the first reading “sexuality immorality on/of the earth” was a scribal mistake in which letters may have been confused (auths would have been read as thsghs), or was perhaps influenced by the presence of “of the world” (τῆς γῆς) at the end of v. 5. The original wording seems to be “her sexual immorality”; codex א has conflated the two readings.

88 tn Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.

89 tn Some translations consider the word μυστήριον (musthrion, “mystery”) a part of the name written (“Mystery Babylon the Great,” so KJV, NIV), but the gender of both ὄνομα (onoma, “name”) and μυστήριον are neuter, while the gender of “Babylon” is feminine. This strongly suggests that μυστήριον should be understood as an appositive to ὄνομα (“a name, i.e., a mystery”).

90 tn Or “of the witnesses to Jesus.” Here the genitive ᾿Ιησοῦ (Ihsou) is taken as an objective genitive; Jesus is the object of their testimony.

91 tn Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.

92 tn Grk “I marveled a great marvel” (an idiom for great astonishment).

93 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “but” to indicate the contrast present in this context.

94 tn Grk “I will tell you,” but since what follows is the angel’s interpretation of the vision, “interpret for you” is the preferred translation here.

95 tn On this term BDAG 2 s.v. ἄβυσσος 2 states, “netherworld, abyss, esp. the abode of the dead Ro 10:7 (Ps 106:26) and of demons Lk 8:31; dungeon where the devil is kept Rv 20:3; abode of the θηρίον, the Antichrist 11:7; 17:8; of ᾿Αβαδδών (q.v.), the angel of the underworld 9:11φρέαρ τῆς ἀ. 9:1f; capable of being sealed 9:1; 20:1, 3.”

96 tn Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.

97 tn Some translations take the ὅτι (Joti) here as causal: “because he was, and is not, but is to come” (so NIV, NRSV), but it is much more likely that the subject of the ὅτι clause has been assimilated into the main clause: “when they see the beast, that he was…” = “when they see that the beast was” (so BDAG 732 s.v. ὅτι 1.f, where Rev 17:8 is listed).

98 tn Grk “Here is the mind that has wisdom.”

99 tn It is important to note that the height of “mountains” versus “hills” or other topographical terms is somewhat relative. In terms of Palestinian topography, Mount Tabor (traditionally regarded as the mount of transfiguration) is some 1,800 ft (550 m) above sea level, while the Mount of Olives is only some 100 ft (30 m) higher than Jerusalem.

100 tn That is, one currently reigns.

101 tn Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.

102 tn Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.

103 tn For the translation “ruling authority” for ἐξουσία (exousia) see L&N 37.35.

104 tn The word “kings” is not in the Greek text, but has been supplied to clarify the referent.

105 tn See BDAG 636 s.v. μετά A.2.a.α.

106 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence within the narrative.

107 tn Grk “he”; the referent (the angel) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

108 tn Grk “and multitudes,” but καί (kai) has not been translated here and before the following term since English normally uses a coordinating conjunction only between the last two elements in a series of three or more.

109 tn Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.

110 tn A new sentence was started here in the translation. Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.

111 tn The final clause could also be turned into an adverbial clause of means: “They will consume her flesh by burning her with fire.”

112 tn Grk “hearts.”

113 tn Or “his intent.”

114 tn The infinitive ποιῆσαι (poihsai) was translated here as giving the logical means by which God’s purpose was carried out.

115 tn On this term BDAG 203 s.v. γνώμη 4 states, “declaration, decision, resolution…of God Rv 17:17.”

116 tn For this translation see BDAG 168 s.v. βασιλεία 1.a, “kingship, royal power, royal rule.

117 tn Or “completed.”

118 tn Grk “And.” Because this remark is somewhat resumptive in nature, “as for” is used in the translation.

119 tn Grk “glory”; but often in the sense of splendor, brightness, or radiance (see L&N 14.49).

120 tn Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style

121 tn Or “It” (the subject is embedded in the verb in Greek; the verb only indicates that it is third person). Since the city has been personified as the great prostitute, the feminine pronoun was used in the translation.

122 tn Here BDAG 1067 s.v. φυλακή 3 states, “a place where guarding is done, prison…Of the nether world or its place of punishment (πνεῦμα 2 and 4c) 1 Pt 3:19 (BReicke, The Disobedient Spirits and Christian Baptism ’46, 116f). It is in a φ. in the latter sense that Satan will be rendered harmless during the millennium Rv 20:7. The fallen city of Babylon becomes a φυλακή haunt for all kinds of unclean spirits and birds 18:2ab.”

123 tc There are several problems in this verse. It seems that according to the ms evidence the first two phrases (i.e., “and a haunt for every unclean spirit, and a haunt for every unclean bird” [καὶ φυλακὴ παντὸς πνεύματος ἀκαθάρτου καὶ φυλακὴ παντὸς ὀρνέου ἀκαθάρτου, kai fulakh panto" pneumato" akaqartou kai fulakh panto" orneou akaqartou]) are to be regarded as authentic, though there are some ms discrepancies. The similar beginnings (καὶ φυλακὴ παντός) and endings (ἀκαθάρτου) of each phrase would easily account for some mss omitting one or the other phrase. The third phrase (“a haunt for every unclean animal” [καὶ φυλακὴ παντὸς θηρίου ἀκαθάρτου, kai fulakh panto" qhriou akaqartou]), however, is more problematic since it is missing in several important mss (א C 051 Ï). The passage as a whole, including the third phrase, seems to be an allusion to Isa 13:21 and 34:11. It seems reasonable, in such a case, to assume that since there is good ms evidence to support the third phrase (A 1611 2329 al), it probably dropped out of certain mss because of its similarity to the two preceding clauses. It is the presence of all three phrases in the original that most likely gave rise to the divergent ms evidence extant today.

124 tn Or “all the Gentiles” (the same Greek word may be translated “Gentiles” or “nations”).

125 tc ‡ Several mss (א A C 1006* 1611 1841 2030 ÏK), including the best witnesses, read “have fallen” (πεπτώκασιν or πέπτωκαν [peptwkasin or peptwkan]). The singular πέπτωκεν (peptwken), which is better grammatically with the neuter plural subject πάντα τὰ ἔθνη (panta ta eqnh, “all the nations”), is read by 1854 2062 pc; 2042 pc read πεπότικεν (pepotiken). A few mss (1006c 2329 pc latt syh) read “have drunk” (πέπωκαν/πεπώκασιν, pepwkan/pepwkasin); the singular πέπωκεν (pepwken) is read by P 051 1 2053* al. The more difficult reading and that which has the best ms support is “have fallen.” That it is not too difficult is evidenced by the fact that the great majority of Byzantine minuscules, which have a tendency to smooth out problems, left it stand as is. Nonetheless, it is somewhat difficult (TCGNT 683 says that this reading is “scarcely suitable in the context”), and for that reason certain mss seem to have changed it to “have drunk” to agree with the idea of “wine” (οἴνου, oinou). One can understand how this could happen: A scribe coming to the text and seeing the term “wine” expects a verb of drinking. When he sees “have fallen” and knows that in Greek the verbs “have fallen” and “have drunk” are spelled similarly, he concludes that there has been a slip of the pen in the ms he is using, which he then seeks to correct back to the “have drunk” reading. This appears to be more reasonable than to conclude that three early uncials (i.e., א A C) as well as a great number of other witnesses all felt the need to change “have drunk” (πέπωκαν) to “have fallen” (πέπτωκαν), even if “fallen” occurs in the immediate context (“fallen, fallen, [ἔπεσεν ἔπεσεν, epesen epesen] Babylon the great” in the preceding verse). The preferred reading, on both external and internal grounds, is “have fallen,” and thus the Seer intends to focus on the effects of wine, namely, a drunken stupor.

126 tn See the notes on the words “passion” in Rev 14:8 and “wrath” in 16:19.

127 tn According to BDAG 949 s.v. στρῆνος and στρηνιάω, these terms can refer either to luxury or sensuality. In the context of Rev 18, however (as L&N 88.254 indicate) the stress is on gratification of the senses by sexual immorality, so that meaning was emphasized in the translation here.

128 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence within the narrative.

129 tn On ἐκολλήθησαν (ekollhqhsan) BDAG 556 s.v. κολλάω 2.a.β states, “fig. cling to = come in close contact with (cp. Ps 21:16; 43:26 ἐκολλήθη εἰς γῆν ἡ γαστὴρ ἡμῶν. The act.=‘bring into contact’ PGM 5, 457 κολλήσας τ. λίθον τῷ ὠτίῳ) ἐκολλήθησαν αἱ ἁμαρτίαι ἄχρι τ. οὐρανοῦ the sins have touched the heaven = reached the sky (two exprs. are telescoped) Rv 18:5.”

130 tn Or “up to the sky” (the same Greek word means both “heaven” and “sky”).

131 tn That is, remembered her sins to execute judgment on them.

132 tn Or “her sins.”

133 tn The word “others” is not in the Greek text, but is implied. Direct objects were frequently omitted in Greek when clear from the context.

134 tn On this term BDAG 252 s.v. διπλόω states, “to double τὰ διπλᾶ pay back double Rv 18:6.”

135 tn “As much as” is the translation of ὅσα (Josa).

136 tn On the term ἐστρηνίασεν (estrhniasen) BDAG 949 s.v. στρηνιάω states, “live in luxury, live sensually Rv 18:7. W. πορνεύειν vs. 9.”

137 tn Grk “said in her heart,” an idiom for saying something to oneself.

138 tn Grk “For this reason, her plagues will come.”

139 tn Grk “death.” θάνατος (qanatos) can in particular contexts refer to a manner of death, specifically a contagious disease (see BDAG 443 s.v. 3; L&N 23.158).

140 tn This is the same Greek word (πένθος, penqo") translated “grief” in vv. 7-8.

141 tn Here “burned down” was used to translate κατακαυθήσεται (katakauqhsetai) because a city is in view.

142 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the vision.

143 tn On the term ἐστρηνίασεν (estrhniasen) BDAG 949 s.v. στρηνιάω states, “live in luxury, live sensually Rv 18:7. W. πορνεύειν vs. 9.”

144 tn Grk “from the burning of her.” For the translation “the smoke from the fire that burns her up,” see L&N 14.63.

145 tn Or “judgment,” condemnation,” “punishment.” BDAG 569 s.v. κρίσις 1.a.β states, “The word oft. means judgment that goes against a person, condemnation, and the sentence that follows…ἡ κ. σου your judgment Rv 18:10.”

146 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the vision.

147 tn On γόμος (gomos) BDAG 205 s.v. states, “load, freightcargo of a ship…Ac 21:3. W. gen. of the owner Rv 18:11. W. gen. of content…γ. χρυσοῦ a cargo of gold vs. 12.”

148 tn Grk “and silver,” but καί (kai) has not been translated before most of these terms since English normally uses a coordinating conjunction only between the last two elements in a series of three or more

149 tn On this term BDAG 924-25 s.v. σιρικός states, “per. to silk from Ser, subst. τὸ σιρικόν silk cloth or garments w. other costly materials Rv 18:12.”

150 tn On the translation of κόκκινον (kokkinon) as “scarlet cloth” see L&N 6.170.

151 tn On the phrase πᾶν ξύλον θύϊνον (pan xulon quinon) L&N 3.63 states, “pertaining to being made or consisting of citron wood (that is, from a citron tree) – ‘of citron wood.’ καὶ πᾶν ξύλον θύϊνον καὶ πᾶν σκεῦος ἐλεφάντινον ‘and all kinds of things made of citron wood and all kinds of objects made of ivory’ Re 18:12. The citron tree belongs to the citrus family of plants, and it produces a pale yellow fruit somewhat larger than a lemon, the rind of which is often candied. In Re 18:12, however, the focus is upon the fine quality of the wood.”

152 tn On the term ἄμωμον (amwmon) L&N 5.23 states, “a generic term for any kind of spice, though often a specific reference to amomum, an Indian type of spice – ‘spice, amomum.’ κιννάμωμον καὶ ἄμωμον καὶ θυμιάματα ‘cinnamon and spice and incense’ Re 18:13. In most translations ἄμωμον is interpreted as spice in general.”

153 tn Or “myrrh,” a strong aromatic ointment often used to prepare a body for burial (L&N 6.205).

154 tn The Greek term λίβανος (libano") refers to the aromatic resin of a certain type of tree (L&N 6.212).

155 tn On σεμίδαλις (semidali") L&N 5.10 states, “a fine grade of wheat flour – ‘fine flour.’ οἶνον καὶ ἔλαιον καὶ σεμίδαλιν καὶ σῖτον ‘wine and oil and fine flour and wheat’ Re 18:13. In some languages ‘fine flour’ may be best expressed as ‘expensive flour.’ Such a rendering fits well the context of Re 18:13.”

156 tn Or “and wagons.” On the term ῥέδη (rJedh) see L&N 6.53: “a four-wheeled carriage or wagon used for travel or the transportation of loads – ‘carriage, wagon.’ The term ῥέδη occurs only in Re 18:13 in a list of products bought and sold by merchants.”

157 tn Grk “and bodies and souls of men.” This could be understood (1) as a hendiadys (two things mentioned = one thing meant), referring only to slave trade; (2) it could be referring to two somewhat different concepts: slavery (bodies) and the cheapness of human life – some of the items earlier in the list of merchandise were to be obtained only at great cost of human life; or (3) a somewhat related idea, that the trade is in not just physical bodies (slavery) but human souls (people whose lives are destroyed through this trade).

158 tn On ὀπώρα (opwra) L&N 3.34 states, “ἡ ὀπώρα σου τῆς ἐπιθυμίας τῆς ψυχῆς ‘the ripe fruit for which you longed’ Re 18:14. In this one occurrence of ὀπώρα in the NT, ‘ripe fruit’ is to be understood in a figurative sense of ‘good things.’”

159 tn Grk “you desired in your soul.”

160 tn On λιπαρός (liparo") BDAG 597 s.v. states, “luxury Rv 18:14.”

161 tn On τὰ λαμπρά (ta lampra) BDAG 585 s.v. λαμπρός 4 states, “splendor…in which a rich man takes delight (cp. Jos., Ant. 12, 220 δωρεὰς δοὺς λαμπράς) Rv 18:14.”

162 tn Verse 14 is set in parentheses because in it the city, Babylon, is addressed directly in second person.

sn This verse forms a parenthetical aside in the narrative.

163 tn Grk “the merchants [sellers] of these things.”

164 tn Grk “her torment, weeping.” Because of the length and complexity of the Greek sentence, a new sentence was started in the translation by supplying the words “They will” here.

165 tn The word “clothing” is supplied to clarify that the words “purple” and “scarlet” refer to cloth or garments rather than colors.

166 tn Grk “gilded with gold” (an instance of semantic reinforcement, see L&N 49.29).

167 tn On ἠρημώθη (hrhmwqh) L&N 20.41 states, “to suffer destruction, with the implication of being deserted and abandoned – ‘to be destroyed, to suffer destruction, to suffer desolation.’ ἐρημόομαι: μιᾷ ὥρᾳ ἠρημώθη ὁ τοσοῦτος πλοῦτος ‘such great wealth has been destroyed within a single hour’ Re 18:17.”

168 tn On κυβερνήτης (kubernhth") BDAG 574 s.v. 1 states, “one who is responsible for the management of a ship, shipmaster, lit. Rv 18:17.”

169 tn Or perhaps, “everyone who sails as a passenger.” On πλέων (plewn) BDAG 825 s.v. πλέω states, “πᾶς ὁ ἐπὶ τόπον πλέων everyone who sails to a place = seafarer, sea travelerRv 18:17. The vv.ll.…have led to various interpretations. Some render: everyone who sails along the coast…See EbNestle, Einführung in das Griech. NT 1909, 182; AFridrichsen, K. Hum. Vetensk.-Samf. i Upps. Årsb. ’43, 31 note ὁ ἐπίτοπον πλέων=one who sails occasionally, a passenger. – S. also IHeikel, StKr 106, ’34/’35, 317).”

170 tn Grk “and as many as.”

171 tn Here the imperfect ἔκραζον (ekrazon) has been translated ingressively.

172 tn Grk “from the burning of her, saying.” For the translation “the smoke from the fire that burned her up,” see L&N 14.63. Here the participle λέγοντες (legontes, “saying”) has not been translated because it is redundant in contemporary English.

173 tn Grk “with weeping and mourning, saying.” Here the participle λέγοντες (legontes) has not been translated because it is redundant in contemporary English.

174 tn On ἡρημώθη (Jhrhmwqh) L&N 20.41 states, “to suffer destruction, with the implication of being deserted and abandoned – ‘to be destroyed, to suffer destruction, to suffer desolation.’ ἐρημόομαι: μιᾷ ὥρᾳ ἠρημώθη ὁ τοσοῦτος πλοῦτος ‘such great wealth has been destroyed within a single hour’ Re 18:17.”

175 tn On the phrase “pronounced judgment” BDAG 567 s.v. κρίμα 4.b states, “The OT is the source of the expr. κρίνειν τὸ κρ. (cp. Zech 7:9; 8:16; Ezk 44:24) ἔκρινεν ὁ θεὸς τὸ κρίμα ὑμῶν ἐξ αὐτῆς God has pronounced judgment for you against her or God has pronounced on her the judgment she wished to impose on you (HHoltzmann, Hdb. 1893 ad loc.) Rv 18:20.”

176 tn Grk “God has judged a judgment of you of her.” Verse 20 is set in parentheses because in it the saints, etc. are addressed directly in the second person.

sn This verse forms a parenthetical aside in the narrative.

177 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence within the narrative.

178 tn On ὅρμημα ({ormhma) BDAG 724 s.v. states, “violent rush, onset ὁρμήματι βληθήσεται Βαβυλών Babylon will be thrown down with violence Rv 18:21.” L&N 68.82 refers to the suddenness of the force or violence.

179 sn Thrown down is a play on both the words and the action. The angel’s action with the stone illustrates the kind of sudden violent force with which the city will be overthrown.

180 tn The shift to a second person pronoun here corresponds to the Greek text.

181 tn Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.

182 tn On this term BDAG 1001 s.v. τεχνίτης states, “craftsperson, artisan, designer…Of a silversmith Ac 19:24, 25 v.l., 38….Of a potter 2 Cl 8:2 (metaph., cp. Ath. 15:2). πᾶς τεχνίτης πάσης τέχνης Rv 18:22.”

183 tn This is a different Greek word (μύλος, mulos) from the one for the millstone in v. 21 (μύλινος, mulinos). See L&N 7.68.

184 tn Or “all the Gentiles” (the same Greek word may be translated “Gentiles” or “nations”).

185 tn On the term φαρμακεία (farmakeia, “magic spells”) see L&N 53.100: “the use of magic, often involving drugs and the casting of spells upon people – ‘to practice magic, to cast spells upon, to engage in sorcery, magic, sorcery.’ φαρμακεία: ἐν τῇ φαρμακείᾳ σου ἐπλανήθησαν πάντα τὰ ἔθνη ‘with your magic spells you deceived all the peoples (of the world)’ Re 18:23.”

186 tn Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.

187 tn The shift in pronouns from second to third person corresponds to the Greek text.

188 tn Grk “and of all.” The phrase “along with the blood” has been repeated from the previous clause for stylistic reasons.



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