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Revelation 14:8

Context

14:8 A 1  second 2  angel 3  followed the first, 4  declaring: 5  “Fallen, fallen is Babylon the great city! 6  She made all the nations 7  drink of the wine of her immoral passion.” 8 

Revelation 17:1

Context
The Great Prostitute and the Beast

17:1 Then 9  one of the seven angels who had the seven bowls came and spoke to me. 10  “Come,” he said, “I will show you the condemnation and punishment 11  of the great prostitute who sits on many waters,

Revelation 17:5

Context
17:5 On 12  her forehead was written a name, a mystery: 13  “Babylon the Great, the Mother of prostitutes and of the detestable things of the earth.”

Revelation 17:18

Context
17:18 As for 14  the woman you saw, she is the great city that has sovereignty over the kings of the earth.”

Revelation 18:21

Context

18:21 Then 15  one powerful angel picked up a stone like a huge millstone, threw it into the sea, and said,

“With this kind of sudden violent force 16 

Babylon the great city will be thrown down 17 

and it will never be found again!

1 tn Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.

2 tc There are several different variants comprising a textual problem involving “second” (δεύτερος, deuteros). First, several mss (A 1 2329 ÏK) read “another, a second angel” (ἄλλος δεύτερος ἄγγελος, allo" deutero" angelo"). Second, other mss (Ì47 א* 1006 1841 1854 pc) read just “another, a second” (ἄλλος δεύτερος). Third, the reading “another angel” (ἄλλος ἄγγελος) is supported by a few Greek mss and some versional evidence (69 pc ar vg). Fourth, several mss (א2 [C reads δεύτερον instead of δεύτερος] 051 1611 2053 2344 ÏA) support the reading “another, a second angel” (ἄλλος ἄγγελος δεύτερος). The reading that most likely gave rise to the others is the fourth. The first reading attempts to smooth out the grammar by placing the adjective in front of the noun. The second reading may have dropped out the “angel” on the basis of its similarity to “another” (ἄλλος). The third reading either intentionally or accidentally left out the word “second.” In any event, this is weakly attested and should not be given much consideration. (If, however, this reading had had good support, with “second” floating, and with “third” in the text in 14:9, one could possibly see δεύτερος as a motivated reading. But without sufficient support for the third reading, the one thing that is most certain is that δεύτερος was part of the original text here.) It is difficult to account for the rise of the other readings if “second” is not original. And the undisputed use of “third” (τρίτος, tritos) in 14:9 may be another indicator that the adjective “second” was in the original text. Finally, the fourth reading is the more difficult and therefore, in this case, to be accepted as the progenitor of the others.

3 tn Grk “And another angel, a second.”

4 tn The words “the first” are not in the Greek text, but are implied. Direct objects were frequently omitted in Greek when clear from the context.

5 tn For the translation of λέγω (legw) as “declare,” see BDAG 590 s.v. 2.e.

6 sn The fall of Babylon the great city is described in detail in Rev 18:2-24.

7 tn Or “all the Gentiles” (the same Greek word may be translated “Gentiles” or “nations”).

8 tn Grk “of the wine of the passion of the sexual immorality of her.” Here τῆς πορνείας (th" porneia") has been translated as an attributive genitive. In an ironic twist of fate, God will make Babylon drink her own mixture, but it will become the wine of his wrath in retribution for her immoral deeds (see the note on the word “wrath” in 16:19).

9 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence within the narrative.

10 tn Grk “with me.” The translation “with me” implies that John was engaged in a dialogue with the one speaking to him (e.g., Jesus or an angel) when in reality it was a one-sided conversation, with John doing all the listening. For this reason, μετ᾿ ἐμοῦ (met emou, “with me”) was translated as “to me.”

11 tn Here one Greek term, κρίμα (krima), has been translated by the two English terms “condemnation” and “punishment.” See BDAG 567 s.v. 4.b, “mostly in an unfavorable sense, of the condemnatory verdict and sometimes the subsequent punishment itself 2 Pt 2:3; Jd 4…τὸ κ. τῆς πόρνης the condemnation and punishment of the prostitute Rv 17:1.”

12 tn Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.

13 tn Some translations consider the word μυστήριον (musthrion, “mystery”) a part of the name written (“Mystery Babylon the Great,” so KJV, NIV), but the gender of both ὄνομα (onoma, “name”) and μυστήριον are neuter, while the gender of “Babylon” is feminine. This strongly suggests that μυστήριον should be understood as an appositive to ὄνομα (“a name, i.e., a mystery”).

14 tn Grk “And.” Because this remark is somewhat resumptive in nature, “as for” is used in the translation.

15 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence within the narrative.

16 tn On ὅρμημα ({ormhma) BDAG 724 s.v. states, “violent rush, onset ὁρμήματι βληθήσεται Βαβυλών Babylon will be thrown down with violence Rv 18:21.” L&N 68.82 refers to the suddenness of the force or violence.

17 sn Thrown down is a play on both the words and the action. The angel’s action with the stone illustrates the kind of sudden violent force with which the city will be overthrown.



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