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Revelation 14:8-14

Context

14:8 A 1  second 2  angel 3  followed the first, 4  declaring: 5  “Fallen, fallen is Babylon the great city! 6  She made all the nations 7  drink of the wine of her immoral passion.” 8 

14:9 A 9  third angel 10  followed the first two, 11  declaring 12  in a loud voice: “If anyone worships the beast and his image, and takes the mark on his forehead or his hand, 14:10 that person 13  will also drink of the wine of God’s anger 14  that has been mixed undiluted in the cup of his wrath, and he will be tortured with fire and sulfur 15  in front of the holy angels and in front of the Lamb. 14:11 And the smoke from their 16  torture will go up 17  forever and ever, and those who worship the beast and his image will have 18  no rest day or night, along with 19  anyone who receives the mark of his name.” 14:12 This requires 20  the steadfast endurance 21  of the saints – those who obey 22  God’s commandments and hold to 23  their faith in Jesus. 24 

14:13 Then 25  I heard a voice from heaven say, “Write this:

‘Blessed are the dead,

those who die in the Lord from this moment on!’”

“Yes,” says the Spirit, “so they can rest from their hard work, 26  because their deeds will follow them.” 27 

14:14 Then 28  I looked, and a white cloud appeared, 29  and seated on the cloud was one like a son of man! 30  He had 31  a golden crown on his head and a sharp sickle in his hand.

1 tn Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.

2 tc There are several different variants comprising a textual problem involving “second” (δεύτερος, deuteros). First, several mss (A 1 2329 ÏK) read “another, a second angel” (ἄλλος δεύτερος ἄγγελος, allo" deutero" angelo"). Second, other mss (Ì47 א* 1006 1841 1854 pc) read just “another, a second” (ἄλλος δεύτερος). Third, the reading “another angel” (ἄλλος ἄγγελος) is supported by a few Greek mss and some versional evidence (69 pc ar vg). Fourth, several mss (א2 [C reads δεύτερον instead of δεύτερος] 051 1611 2053 2344 ÏA) support the reading “another, a second angel” (ἄλλος ἄγγελος δεύτερος). The reading that most likely gave rise to the others is the fourth. The first reading attempts to smooth out the grammar by placing the adjective in front of the noun. The second reading may have dropped out the “angel” on the basis of its similarity to “another” (ἄλλος). The third reading either intentionally or accidentally left out the word “second.” In any event, this is weakly attested and should not be given much consideration. (If, however, this reading had had good support, with “second” floating, and with “third” in the text in 14:9, one could possibly see δεύτερος as a motivated reading. But without sufficient support for the third reading, the one thing that is most certain is that δεύτερος was part of the original text here.) It is difficult to account for the rise of the other readings if “second” is not original. And the undisputed use of “third” (τρίτος, tritos) in 14:9 may be another indicator that the adjective “second” was in the original text. Finally, the fourth reading is the more difficult and therefore, in this case, to be accepted as the progenitor of the others.

3 tn Grk “And another angel, a second.”

4 tn The words “the first” are not in the Greek text, but are implied. Direct objects were frequently omitted in Greek when clear from the context.

5 tn For the translation of λέγω (legw) as “declare,” see BDAG 590 s.v. 2.e.

6 sn The fall of Babylon the great city is described in detail in Rev 18:2-24.

7 tn Or “all the Gentiles” (the same Greek word may be translated “Gentiles” or “nations”).

8 tn Grk “of the wine of the passion of the sexual immorality of her.” Here τῆς πορνείας (th" porneia") has been translated as an attributive genitive. In an ironic twist of fate, God will make Babylon drink her own mixture, but it will become the wine of his wrath in retribution for her immoral deeds (see the note on the word “wrath” in 16:19).

9 tn Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.

10 tn Grk “And another angel, a third.”

11 tn Grk “followed them.”

12 tn For the translation of λέγω (legw) as “declare,” see BDAG 590 s.v. 2.e.

13 tn Grk “he himself.”

14 tn The Greek word for “anger” here is θυμός (qumos), a wordplay on the “passion” (θυμός) of the personified city of Babylon in 14:8.

15 tn Traditionally, “brimstone.”

16 tn The Greek pronoun is plural here even though the verbs in the previous verse are singular.

17 tn The present tense ἀναβαίνει (anabainei) has been translated as a futuristic present (ExSyn 535-36). This is also consistent with the future passive βασανισθήσεται (basanisqhsetai) in v. 10.

18 tn The present tense ἔχουσιν (ecousin) has been translated as a futuristic present to keep the English tense consistent with the previous verb (see note on “will go up” earlier in this verse).

19 tn Grk “and.”

20 tn Grk “Here is.”

21 tn Or “the perseverance.”

22 tn Grk “who keep.”

23 tn The words “hold to” are implied as a repetition of the participle translated “keep” (οἱ τηροῦντες, Joi throunte").

24 tn Grk “faith of Jesus.” The construction may mean either “faith in Jesus” or “faithful to Jesus.” Either translation implies that ᾿Ιησοῦ (Ihsou) is to be taken as an objective genitive; the difference is more lexical than grammatical because πίστις (pistis) can mean either “faith” or “faithfulness.”

25 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence within the narrative.

26 tn Or “from their trouble” (L&N 22.7).

27 tn Grk “their deeds will follow with them.”

28 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence within the narrative.

29 tn Grk “and behold, a white cloud.”

30 tn This phrase constitutes an allusion to Dan 7:13. Concerning υἱὸς τοῦ ἀνθρώπου (Juio" tou anqrwpou), BDAG 1026 s.v. υἱός 2.d.γ says: “ὁ υἱὸς τοῦ ἀνθρώπου lit. ‘the son of the man’…‘the human being, the human one, the man’…On Israelite thought contemporary w. Jesus and alleged knowledge of a heavenly being looked upon as a ‘Son of Man’ or ‘Man’, who exercises Messianic functions such as judging the world (metaph., pictorial passages in En 46-48; 4 Esdr 13:3, 51f)…Outside the gospels: Ac 7:56Rv 1:13; 14:14 (both after Da 7:13…).” The term “son” here in this expression is anarthrous and as such lacks specificity. Some commentators and translations take the expression as an allusion to Daniel 7:13 and not to “the son of man” found in gospel traditions (e.g., Mark 8:31; 9:12; cf. D. E. Aune, Revelation [WBC], 2:800-801; cf. also NIV). Other commentators and versions, however, take the phrase “son of man” as definite, involving allusions to Dan 7:13 and “the son of man” gospel traditions (see G. K. Beale, Revelation [NIGTC], 771-72; NRSV).

31 tn Grk “like a son of man, having.” In the Greek text this is a continuation of the previous sentence.



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