14:6 Then 1 I saw another 2 angel flying directly overhead, 3 and he had 4 an eternal gospel to proclaim 5 to those who live 6 on the earth – to every nation, tribe, 7 language, and people. 14:7 He declared 8 in a loud voice: “Fear God and give him glory, because the hour of his judgment has arrived, and worship the one who made heaven and earth, the sea and the springs of water!”
14:9 A 17 third angel 18 followed the first two, 19 declaring 20 in a loud voice: “If anyone worships the beast and his image, and takes the mark on his forehead or his hand, 14:10 that person 21 will also drink of the wine of God’s anger 22 that has been mixed undiluted in the cup of his wrath, and he will be tortured with fire and sulfur 23 in front of the holy angels and in front of the Lamb. 14:11 And the smoke from their 24 torture will go up 25 forever and ever, and those who worship the beast and his image will have 26 no rest day or night, along with 27 anyone who receives the mark of his name.” 14:12 This requires 28 the steadfast endurance 29 of the saints – those who obey 30 God’s commandments and hold to 31 their faith in Jesus. 32
‘Blessed are the dead,
those who die in the Lord from this moment on!’”
14:14 Then 36 I looked, and a white cloud appeared, 37 and seated on the cloud was one like a son of man! 38 He had 39 a golden crown on his head and a sharp sickle in his hand. 14:15 Then 40 another angel came out of the temple, shouting in a loud voice to the one seated on the cloud, “Use 41 your sickle and start to reap, 42 because the time to reap has come, since the earth’s harvest is ripe!” 14:16 So 43 the one seated on the cloud swung his sickle over the earth, and the earth was reaped.
14:17 Then 44 another angel came out of the temple in heaven, and he too had a sharp sickle. 14:18 Another 45 angel, who was in charge of 46 the fire, came from the altar and called in a loud voice to the angel 47 who had the sharp sickle, “Use 48 your sharp sickle and gather 49 the clusters of grapes 50 off the vine of the earth, 51 because its grapes 52 are now ripe.” 53 14:19 So 54 the angel swung his sickle over the earth and gathered the grapes from the vineyard 55 of the earth and tossed them into the great 56 winepress of the wrath of God. 14:20 Then 57 the winepress was stomped 58 outside the city, and blood poured out of the winepress up to the height of horses’ bridles 59 for a distance of almost two hundred miles. 60
1 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence within the narrative.
2 tc Most
3 tn L&N 1.10 states, “a point or region of the sky directly above the earth – ‘high in the sky, midpoint in the sky, directly overhead, straight above in the sky.’”
4 tn Grk “having.”
5 tn Or “an eternal gospel to announce as good news.”
6 tn Grk “to those seated on the earth.”
7 tn Grk “and tribe,” but καί (kai) has not been translated here or before the following term since English normally uses a coordinating conjunction only between the last two elements in a series of three or more.
9 tn Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.
10 tc There are several different variants comprising a textual problem involving “second” (δεύτερος, deuteros). First, several
11 tn Grk “And another angel, a second.”
12 tn The words “the first” are not in the Greek text, but are implied. Direct objects were frequently omitted in Greek when clear from the context.
15 tn Or “all the Gentiles” (the same Greek word may be translated “Gentiles” or “nations”).
16 tn Grk “of the wine of the passion of the sexual immorality of her.” Here τῆς πορνείας (th" porneia") has been translated as an attributive genitive. In an ironic twist of fate, God will make Babylon drink her own mixture, but it will become the wine of his wrath in retribution for her immoral deeds (see the note on the word “wrath” in 16:19).
17 tn Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.
18 tn Grk “And another angel, a third.”
19 tn Grk “followed them.”
21 tn Grk “he himself.”
23 tn Traditionally, “brimstone.”
24 tn The Greek pronoun is plural here even though the verbs in the previous verse are singular.
26 tn The present tense ἔχουσιν (ecousin) has been translated as a futuristic present to keep the English tense consistent with the previous verb (see note on “will go up” earlier in this verse).
27 tn Grk “and.”
28 tn Grk “Here is.”
29 tn Or “the perseverance.”
30 tn Grk “who keep.”
31 tn The words “hold to” are implied as a repetition of the participle translated “keep” (οἱ τηροῦντες, Joi throunte").
32 tn Grk “faith of Jesus.” The construction may mean either “faith in Jesus” or “faithful to Jesus.” Either translation implies that ᾿Ιησοῦ (Ihsou) is to be taken as an objective genitive; the difference is more lexical than grammatical because πίστις (pistis) can mean either “faith” or “faithfulness.”
33 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence within the narrative.
34 tn Or “from their trouble” (L&N 22.7).
35 tn Grk “their deeds will follow with them.”
36 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence within the narrative.
37 tn Grk “and behold, a white cloud.”
38 tn This phrase constitutes an allusion to Dan 7:13. Concerning υἱὸς τοῦ ἀνθρώπου (Juio" tou anqrwpou), BDAG 1026 s.v. υἱός 2.d.γ says: “ὁ υἱὸς τοῦ ἀνθρώπου lit. ‘the son of the man’…‘the human being, the human one, the man’…On Israelite thought contemporary w. Jesus and alleged knowledge of a heavenly being looked upon as a ‘Son of Man’ or ‘Man’, who exercises Messianic functions such as judging the world (metaph., pictorial passages in En 46-48; 4 Esdr 13:3, 51f)…Outside the gospels: Ac 7:56…Rv 1:13; 14:14 (both after Da 7:13…).” The term “son” here in this expression is anarthrous and as such lacks specificity. Some commentators and translations take the expression as an allusion to Daniel 7:13 and not to “the son of man” found in gospel traditions (e.g., Mark 8:31; 9:12; cf. D. E. Aune, Revelation [WBC], 2:800-801; cf. also NIV). Other commentators and versions, however, take the phrase “son of man” as definite, involving allusions to Dan 7:13 and “the son of man” gospel traditions (see G. K. Beale, Revelation [NIGTC], 771-72; NRSV).
39 tn Grk “like a son of man, having.” In the Greek text this is a continuation of the previous sentence.
40 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the vision.
41 tn Grk “Send out.”
42 tn The aorist θέρισον (qerison) has been translated ingressively.
43 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “so” to indicate the implied result of the angel’s directions.
44 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence within the narrative.
45 tn Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.
46 tn Grk “who had authority over.” This appears to be the angel who tended the fire on the altar.
48 tn Grk “Send.”
49 tn On this term BDAG 1018 s.v. τρυγάω states: “‘gather in’ ripe fruit, esp. harvest (grapes) w. acc. of the fruit (POslo. 21, 13 [71 ad]; Jos., Ant. 4, 227) Lk 6:44; Rv 14:18 (in imagery, as in the foll. places)…W. acc. of that which bears the fruit gather the fruit of the vine…or the vineyard (s. ἄμπελος a) Rv 14:19.”
50 tn On this term BDAG 181 s.v. βότρυς states, “bunch of grapes Rv 14:18…The word is also found in the Phrygian Papias of Hierapolis, in a passage in which he speaks of the enormous size of the grapes in the new aeon (in the Lat. transl. in Irenaeus 5, 33, 2f.): dena millia botruum Papias (1:2). On this see Stephan. Byz. s.v. Εὐκαρπία: Metrophanes says that in the district of Εὐκαρπία in Phrygia Minor the grapes were said to be so large that one bunch of them caused a wagon to break down in the middle.”
51 tn The genitive τῆς γῆς (ths ghs), taken symbolically, could be considered a genitive of apposition.
52 tn Or perhaps, “its bunches of grapes” (a different Greek word from the previous clause). L&N 3.38 states, “the fruit of grapevines (see 3.27) – ‘grape, bunch of grapes.’ τρύγησον τοὺς βότρυας τῆς ἀμπέλου τῆς γῆς, ὅτι ἤκμασαν αἱ σταφυλαὶ αὐτῆς ‘cut the grapes from the vineyard of the earth because its grapes are ripe’ Re 14:18. Some scholars have contended that βότρυς means primarily a bunch of grapes, while σταφυλή designates individual grapes. In Re 14:18 this difference might seem plausible, but there is scarcely any evidence for such a distinction, since both words may signify grapes as well as bunches of grapes.”
54 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “so” to indicate the implied result of the angel’s directions.
55 tn Or “vine.” BDAG 54 s.v. ἄμπελος a states, “τρυγᾶν τοὺς βότρυας τῆς ἀ. τῆς γῆς to harvest the grapes fr. the vine of the earth (i.e. fr. the earth, symbol. repr. as a grapevine) Rv 14:18f; but ἀ may be taking on the meaning of ἀμπελών, as oft. in pap., possibly PHib. 70b, 2 [III bc].” The latter alternative has been followed in the translation (ἀμπελών = “vineyard”).
56 tn Although the gender of μέγαν (megan, masc.) does not match the gender of ληνόν (lhnon, fem.) it has been taken to modify that word (as do most English translations).
57 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the vision.
59 tn L&N 6.7 states, “In Re 14:20 the reference to a bit and bridle is merely an indication of measurement, that is to say, the height of the bit and bridle from the ground, and one may reinterpret this measurement as ‘about a meter and a half’ or ‘about five feet.’”
60 tn Grk “1,600 stades.” A stade was a measure of length about 607 ft (185 m). Thus the distance here would be 184 mi or 296 km.