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Revelation 13:7-8

Context
13:7 The beast 1  was permitted to go to war against the saints and conquer them. 2  He was given ruling authority 3  over every tribe, people, 4  language, and nation, 13:8 and all those who live on the earth will worship the beast, 5  everyone whose name has not been written since the foundation of the world 6  in the book of life belonging to the Lamb who was killed. 7 

Revelation 13:14

Context
13:14 and, by the signs he was permitted to perform on behalf of the beast, he deceived those who live on the earth. He told 8  those who live on the earth to make an image to the beast who had been wounded by the sword, but still lived.

1 tn Grk “and it was given to him to go to war.” Here the passive construction has been simplified, the referent (the beast) has been specified for clarity, and καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.

2 tc Many mss omit the phrase “it was given to make war with the saints and to overcome them” (Ì47 A C 2053 ÏA sa). It is, however, found in Ì115vid א 051 1006 (1611) 1841 (1854) 2329 2344 2351 (ÏK) lat syph,(h) bo. Although the ms evidence is somewhat in favor of the shorter reading, the support of Ì115 (a recently-discovered ms) for the longer reading balances things out. Normally, the shorter reading should be given preference. However, in an instance in which homoioteleuton could play a role, caution must be exercised. In this passage, accidental omission is quite likely. That this could have happened seems apparent from the two occurrences of the identical phrase “and it was given to him” (καὶ ἐδόθη αὐτῷ, kai edoqh autw) in v. 7. The scribe’s eye skipped over the first καὶ ἐδόθη αὐτῷ and went to the second, hence creating an accidental omission of eleven words.

3 tn For the translation “ruling authority” for ἐξουσία (exousia) see L&N 37.35.

4 tn Grk “and people,” but καί (kai) has not been translated here or before the following term since English normally uses a coordinating conjunction only between the last two elements in a series of three or more.

5 tn Grk “it”; the referent (the beast) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

6 tn The prepositional phrase “since the foundation of the world” is traditionally translated as a modifier of the immediately preceding phrase in the Greek text, “the Lamb who was killed” (so also G. B. Caird, Revelation [HNTC], 168), but it is more likely that the phrase “since the foundation of the world” modifies the verb “written” (as translated above). Confirmation of this can be found in Rev 17:8 where the phrase “written in the book of life since the foundation of the world” occurs with no ambiguity.

7 tn Or “slaughtered”; traditionally, “slain.”

8 tn Grk “earth, telling.” This is a continuation of the previous sentence in Greek.

sn He told followed by an infinitive (“to make an image…”) is sufficiently ambiguous in Greek that it could be taken as “he ordered” (so NIV) or “he persuaded” (so REB).



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