13:7 The beast 1 was permitted to go to war against the saints and conquer them. 2 He was given ruling authority 3 over every tribe, people, 4 language, and nation, 13:8 and all those who live on the earth will worship the beast, 5 everyone whose name has not been written since the foundation of the world 6 in the book of life belonging to the Lamb who was killed. 7
1 tn Grk “and it was given to him to go to war.” Here the passive construction has been simplified, the referent (the beast) has been specified for clarity, and καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.
2 tc Many
3 tn For the translation “ruling authority” for ἐξουσία (exousia) see L&N 37.35.
4 tn Grk “and people,” but καί (kai) has not been translated here or before the following term since English normally uses a coordinating conjunction only between the last two elements in a series of three or more.
5 tn Grk “it”; the referent (the beast) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
6 tn The prepositional phrase “since the foundation of the world” is traditionally translated as a modifier of the immediately preceding phrase in the Greek text, “the Lamb who was killed” (so also G. B. Caird, Revelation [HNTC], 168), but it is more likely that the phrase “since the foundation of the world” modifies the verb “written” (as translated above). Confirmation of this can be found in Rev 17:8 where the phrase “written in the book of life since the foundation of the world” occurs with no ambiguity.
7 tn Or “slaughtered”; traditionally, “slain.”