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Revelation 13:3-4

Context
13:3 One of the beast’s 1  heads appeared to have been killed, 2  but the lethal wound had been healed. 3  And the whole world followed 4  the beast in amazement; 13:4 they worshiped the dragon because he had given ruling authority 5  to the beast, and they worshiped the beast too, saying: “Who is like the beast?” and “Who is able to make war against him?” 6 

Revelation 13:8-9

Context
13:8 and all those who live on the earth will worship the beast, 7  everyone whose name has not been written since the foundation of the world 8  in the book of life belonging to the Lamb who was killed. 9  13:9 If anyone has an ear, he had better listen!

1 tn Grk “one of its heads”; the referent (the beast) has been specified in the translation for clarity. Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.

2 tn Grk “killed to death,” an expression emphatic in its redundancy. The phrase behind this translation is ὡς ἐσφαγμένον (Jw" ejsfagmenon). The particle ὡς is used in Greek generally for comparison, and in Revelation it is used often to describe the appearance of what the author saw. In this instance, the appearance of the beast’s head did not match reality, because the next phrase shows that in fact it did not die. This text does not affirm that the beast died and was resurrected, but some draw this conclusion because of the only other use of the phrase, which refers to Jesus in 5:6.

3 tn The phrase τοῦ θανάτου (tou qanatou) can be translated as an attributive genitive (“deathly wound”) or an objective genitive (the wound which caused death) and the final αὐτοῦ (autou) is either possessive or reference/respect.

4 tn On the phrase “the whole world followed the beast in amazement,” BDAG 445 s.v. θαυμάζω 2 states, “wonder, be amazedRv 17:8. In pregnant constr. ἐθαυμάσθη ὅλη ἡ γῆ ὀπίσω τ. θηρίου the whole world followed the beast, full of wonder 13:3 (here wonder becomes worship: cp. Ael. Aristid. 13 p. 290 D.; 39 p. 747 of Dionysus and Heracles, οἳ ὑφ᾿ ἡμῶν ἐθαυμάσθησαν. Sir 7:29; Jos., Ant. 3, 65. – The act. is also found in this sense: Cebes 2, 3 θ. τινά = ‘admire’ or ‘venerate’ someone; Epict. 1, 17, 19 θ. τὸν θεόν).”

5 tn For the translation “ruling authority” for ἐξουσία (exousia) see L&N 37.35.

6 tn On the use of the masculine pronoun to refer to the beast, see the note on the word “It” in 13:1.

7 tn Grk “it”; the referent (the beast) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

8 tn The prepositional phrase “since the foundation of the world” is traditionally translated as a modifier of the immediately preceding phrase in the Greek text, “the Lamb who was killed” (so also G. B. Caird, Revelation [HNTC], 168), but it is more likely that the phrase “since the foundation of the world” modifies the verb “written” (as translated above). Confirmation of this can be found in Rev 17:8 where the phrase “written in the book of life since the foundation of the world” occurs with no ambiguity.

9 tn Or “slaughtered”; traditionally, “slain.”



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