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Revelation 13:15-17

13:15 The second beast 1  was empowered 2  to give life 3  to the image of the first beast 4  so that it could speak, and could cause all those who did not worship the image of the beast to be killed. 13:16 He also caused 5  everyone (small and great, rich and poor, free and slave 6 ) to obtain a mark on their right hand or on their forehead. 13:17 Thus no one was allowed to buy 7  or sell things 8  unless he bore 9  the mark of the beast – that is, his name or his number. 10 

1 tn Grk “it”; the referent (the second beast) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

2 tn Grk “it was given [permitted] to it [the second beast].”

3 tn Grk “breath,” but in context the point is that the image of the first beast is made to come to life and speak.

4 tn Grk “of the beast”; the word “first” has been supplied to specify the referent.

5 tn Or “forced”; Grk “makes” (ποιεῖ, poiei).

6 tn See the note on the word “servants” in 1:1.

7 tn Grk “and that no one be able to buy or sell.” Because of the length and complexity of the Greek sentence, a new sentence was started here in the translation. Although the ἵνα (Jina) is left untranslated, the English conjunction “thus” is used to indicate that this is a result clause.

8 tn The word “things” is not in the Greek text, but is implied. Direct objects were frequently omitted in Greek when clear from the context. In the context of buying and selling, food could be primarily in view, but the more general “things” was used in the translation because the context is not specific.

9 tn Grk “except the one who had.”

10 tn Grk “his name or the number of his name.”

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