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Revelation 13:11-15

Context

13:11 Then 1  I saw another beast 2  coming up from the earth. He 3  had two horns like a lamb, 4  but 5  was speaking like a dragon. 13:12 He 6  exercised all the ruling authority 7  of the first beast on his behalf, 8  and made the earth and those who inhabit it worship the first beast, the one whose lethal wound had been healed. 13:13 He 9  performed momentous signs, even making fire come down from heaven in front of people 10  13:14 and, by the signs he was permitted to perform on behalf of the beast, he deceived those who live on the earth. He told 11  those who live on the earth to make an image to the beast who had been wounded by the sword, but still lived. 13:15 The second beast 12  was empowered 13  to give life 14  to the image of the first beast 15  so that it could speak, and could cause all those who did not worship the image of the beast to be killed.

1 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence within the narrative.

2 sn This second beast is identified in Rev 16:13 as “the false prophet.”

3 tn Grk “and it had,” a continuation of the preceding sentence. On the use of the pronoun “he” to refer to the second beast, see the note on the word “It” in 13:1.

4 tn Or perhaps, “like a ram.” Here L&N 4.25 states, “In the one context in the NT, namely, Re 13:11, in which ἀρνίον refers literally to a sheep, it is used in a phrase referring to the horns of an ἀρνίον. In such a context the reference is undoubtedly to a ‘ram,’ that is to say, the adult male of sheep.” In spite of this most translations render the word “lamb” here to maintain the connection between this false lamb and the true Lamb of the Book of Revelation, Jesus Christ.

5 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “but” to indicate the contrast present in this context.

6 tn Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.

7 tn For the translation “ruling authority” for ἐξουσία (exousia) see L&N 37.35.

8 tn For this meaning see BDAG 342 s.v. ἐνώπιον 4.b, “by the authority of, on behalf of Rv 13:12, 14; 19:20.”

9 tn Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.

10 tn This is a generic use of ἄνθρωπος (anqrwpo"), referring to both men and women.

11 tn Grk “earth, telling.” This is a continuation of the previous sentence in Greek.

sn He told followed by an infinitive (“to make an image…”) is sufficiently ambiguous in Greek that it could be taken as “he ordered” (so NIV) or “he persuaded” (so REB).

12 tn Grk “it”; the referent (the second beast) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

13 tn Grk “it was given [permitted] to it [the second beast].”

14 tn Grk “breath,” but in context the point is that the image of the first beast is made to come to life and speak.

15 tn Grk “of the beast”; the word “first” has been supplied to specify the referent.



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