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Psalms 36:8-9

Context

36:8 They are filled with food from your house,

and you allow them to drink from the river of your delicacies.

36:9 For you are the one who gives

and sustains life. 1 

Psalms 46:4

Context

46:4 The river’s channels bring joy to the city of God, 2 

the special, holy dwelling place of 3  the sovereign One. 4 

Revelation 22:1-2

Context

22:1 Then 5  the angel 6  showed me the river of the water of life – water as clear as crystal – pouring out 7  from the throne of God and of the Lamb, 22:2 flowing down the middle of the city’s 8  main street. 9  On each side 10  of the river is the tree of life producing twelve kinds 11  of fruit, yielding its fruit every month of the year. 12  Its leaves are for the healing of the nations.

1 tn Heb “for with you is the fountain of life, in your light we see light.” Water (note “fountain”) and light are here metaphors for life.

2 tn Heb “A river, its channels cause the city of God to be glad.”

sn The city of God is Jerusalem (see Pss 48:1-2; 87:2-3). The river’s “channels” are probably irrigation ditches vital to growing crops. Some relate the imagery to the “waters of Shiloah” (see Isa 8:6), which flowed from the Gihon spring to the pool of Siloam. In Isa 8:6-8 these waters are contrasted with the flood waters symbolizing Assyria. Even if this is the reality behind the imagery, the picture of a river flowing through Jerusalem is idealized and exaggerated. The river and irrigation ditches symbolize the peace and prosperity that the Lord provides for Jerusalem, in contrast to the havoc produced by the turbulent waters (symbolic of the nations) outside the city. Some see here an adaptation of Canaanite (or, more specifically, Jebusite) mythical traditions of rivers/springs flowing from the high god El’s dwelling place. The Songs of Zion do utilize such imagery at times (see Ps 48:2). The image of a river flowing through Zion may have inspired prophetic visions of an eschatological river flowing from the temple (see Ezek 47:1-12; Joel 3:18).

3 tn Heb “the holy [place] of the dwelling places of.” The adjective “holy” is used here in a substantival manner and placed in construct with the following noun (see GKC 428 §132.c). Origen’s transliterated text assumes the reading קֹדֶשׁ (qodesh, “holiness; holy place”), while the LXX assumes a Piel verbal form קִדֵּשׁ (qidesh, “makes holy”) and takes the following form as “his dwelling place.” The plural form מִשְׁכְּנֵי (mishkÿney, “dwelling places of”) is probably a plural of degree, emphasizing the special character of this dwelling place. See GKC 397 §124.b. The form stands as an appositional genitive in relation to the preceding construct noun.

4 tn Heb “Most High.” This divine title (עֶלְיוֹן, ’elyon) pictures God as the exalted ruler of the universe who vindicates the innocent and judges the wicked. See especially Pss 7:17; 9:2; 18:13; 21:7; 47:2.

5 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence within the narrative.

6 tn Grk “he”; the referent (the angel mentioned in 21:9, 15) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

7 tn Grk “proceeding.” Water is more naturally thought to pour out or flow out in English idiom.

8 tn Grk “its”; the referent (the city, the new Jerusalem) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

9 tn The Greek word πλατεῖα (plateia) refers to a major (broad) street (L&N 1.103).

10 tn Grk “From here and from there.”

11 tn Or “twelve crops” (one for each month of the year).

12 tn The words “of the year” are implied.



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