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Psalms 18:46-50

Context

18:46 The Lord is alive! 1 

My protector 2  is praiseworthy! 3 

The God who delivers me 4  is exalted as king! 5 

18:47 The one true God 6  completely vindicates me; 7 

he makes nations submit to me. 8 

18:48 He delivers me 9  from my enemies;

you snatch me away 10  from those who attack me; 11 

you rescue me from violent men.

18:49 So I will give you thanks before the nations, 12  O Lord!

I will sing praises to you! 13 

18:50 He 14  gives his chosen king magnificent victories; 15 

he is faithful 16  to his chosen ruler, 17 

to David and his descendants 18  forever.” 19 

1 tn Elsewhere the construction חַי־יְהוָה (khay-yÿhvah) is used exclusively as an oath formula, “as surely as the Lord lives,” but this is not the case here, for no oath follows. Here the statement is an affirmation of the Lord’s active presence and intervention. In contrast to pagan deities, he demonstrates he is the living God by rescuing and empowering the psalmist.

2 tn Heb “my rocky cliff,” which is a metaphor for protection. See similar phrases in vv. 2, 31.

3 tn Or “blessed [i.e., praised] be.”

4 tn Heb “the God of my deliverance.” 2 Sam 22:48 reads, “the God of the rocky cliff of my deliverance.”

5 tn The words “as king” are supplied in the translation for clarification. Elsewhere in the psalms the verb רוּם (rum, “be exalted”), when used of God, refers to his exalted position as king (Pss 99:2; 113:4; 138:6) and/or his self-revelation as king through his mighty deeds of deliverance (Pss 21:13; 46:10; 57:5, 11).

6 tn Heb “the God.” See v. 32.

7 tn Heb “is the one who grants vengeance to me.” The plural form of the noun indicates degree here, suggesting complete vengeance or vindication.

sn Completely vindicates me. In the ancient Near East military victory was sometimes viewed as a sign that one’s God had judged in favor of the victor, avenging and/or vindicating him. See, for example, Judg 11:27, 32-33, 36.

8 tn Heb “he subdues nations beneath me.” On the meaning of the verb דָּבַר (davar, “subdue,” a homonym of דָּבַר, davar, “speak”), see HALOT 209-10 s.v. I דבר. See also Ps 47:3 and 2 Chr 22:10. 2 Sam 22:48 reads “and [is the one who] brings down nations beneath me.”

9 tn Heb “[the one who] delivers me.” 2 Sam 22:49 reads “and [the one who] brings me out.”

10 tn Heb “lifts me up.” In light of the preceding and following references to deliverance, the verb רום probably here refers to being rescued from danger (see Ps 9:13). However, it could mean “exalt, elevate” here, indicating that the Lord has given the psalmist victory over his enemies and forced them to acknowledge the psalmist’s superiority (cf. NIV, NRSV).

11 tn Heb “from those who rise against me.”

12 sn I will give you thanks before the nations. This probably alludes to the fact that the psalmist will praise the Lord in the presence of the defeated nations when they, as his subjects, bring their tribute payments. Ideally the Davidic king was to testify to the nations of God’s greatness. See J. H. Eaton, Kingship and the Psalms (SBT), 182-85.

13 tn Heb “to your name.” God’s “name” refers metonymically to his divine characteristics as suggested by his name, in this case “Lord,” the primary name of Israel’s covenant God which suggests his active presence with his people (see Exod 3:12-15).

14 tn Or “the one who.”

15 tn Heb “magnifies the victories of his king.” “His king” refers to the psalmist, the Davidic king whom God has chosen to rule Israel.

16 tn Heb “[the one who] does loyalty.”

17 tn Heb “his anointed [one],” i.e., the psalmist/Davidic king. See Ps 2:2.

18 tn Or “offspring”; Heb “seed.”

19 sn If David is the author of the psalm (see the superscription), then he here anticipates that God will continue to demonstrate loyalty to his descendants who succeed him. If the author is a later Davidic king, then he views the divine favor he has experienced as the outworking of God’s faithful promises to David his ancestor.



TIP #08: Use the Strong Number links to learn about the original Hebrew and Greek text. [ALL]
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