9:7 But the Lord 1 rules 2 forever;
he reigns in a just manner. 3
29:10 The Lord sits enthroned over the engulfing waters, 4
the Lord sits enthroned 5 as the eternal king.
55:19 God, the one who has reigned as king from long ago,
will hear and humiliate them. 6 (Selah)
They refuse to change,
and do not fear God. 7
102:12 But you, O Lord, rule forever, 8
and your reputation endures. 9
A song of ascents. 11
123:1 I look up 12 toward you,
the one enthroned 13 in heaven.
1 tn The construction vav (ו) + subject highlights the contrast between the exalted
2 tn Heb “sits” (i.e., enthroned, see v. 4). The imperfect verbal form highlights the generalization.
3 tn Heb “he establishes for justice his throne.”
4 tn The noun מַּבּוּל (mabbul, “flood”) appears only here and in Gen 6-11, where it refers to the Noahic flood. Some see a reference to that event here. The presence of the article (perhaps indicating uniqueness) and the switch to the perfect verbal form (which could be taken as describing a past situation) might support this. However, the immediate context indicates that the referent of מַּבּוּל is the “surging waters” mentioned in v. 3. The article indicates waters that are definite in the mind of the speaker and the perfect is probably descriptive in function, like “thunders” in v. 3. However, even though the historical flood is not the primary referent here, there may be a literary allusion involved. The psalmist views the threatening chaotic sea as a contemporary manifestation of the destructive waters of old.
5 tn The prefixed verbal form with vav (ו) consecutive here carries the descriptive function of the preceding perfect.
6 tc Heb “God will hear and answer them, even [the] one who sits [from] ancient times.” The prefixed verbal from with vav (ו) consecutive carries on the anticipatory force of the preceding imperfect. The verb appears to be a Qal form from עָנָה (’anah, “to answer”). If this reading is retained, the point would be that God “answered” them in judgment. The translation assumes an emendation to the Piel וַיְעַנֵּם (vay’annem; see 2 Kgs 17:20) and understands the root as עָנָה (’anah, “to afflict”; see also 1 Kgs 8:35).
7 tn Heb “[the ones] for whom there are no changes, and they do not fear God.”
8 tn Heb “sit” (i.e., sit enthroned, see Ps 9:7). The imperfect verbal form highlights the generalization.
9 tn Heb “and your remembrance [is] for a generation and a generation.”
10 sn Psalm 123. The psalmist, speaking for God’s people, acknowledges his dependence on God in the midst of a crisis.
11 sn The precise significance of this title, which appears in Pss 120-134, is unclear. Perhaps worshipers recited these psalms when they ascended the road to Jerusalem to celebrate annual religious festivals. For a discussion of their background see L. C. Allen, Psalms 101-150 (WBC), 219-21.
12 tn Heb “I lift my eyes.”
13 tn Heb “sitting.” The Hebrew verb יָשַׁב (yashav) is here used metonymically of “sitting enthroned” (see Pss 9:7; 29:10; 55:19; 102:12).