9:3 When my enemies turn back,
they trip and are defeated 1 before you.
you destroyed their cities; 3
all memory of the enemies has perished. 4
Then 6 my foes will rejoice because I am upended.
for you are my place of refuge.
31:8 You do not deliver me over to the power of the enemy;
you enable me to stand 8 in a wide open place.
he thinks of ways to defame me, 11
and when he leaves he slanders me. 12
41:10 As for you, O Lord, have mercy on me and raise me up,
so I can pay them back!” 13
“Why do you ignore 19 me?
Why must I walk around mourning 20
because my enemies oppress me?”
as they say to me all day long, “Where is your God?” 22
and angrily attack me.
For the music director; a psalm of David.
64:2 Hide me from the plots of evil men,
from the crowd of evildoers. 32
and all the damage the enemy has done to the temple! 34
they set up their battle flags. 37
a violent oppressor will not be able to humiliate him. 40
89:23 I will crush his enemies before him;
I will strike down those who hate him.
106:11 The water covered their enemies;
not even one of them survived. 44
They smash me into the ground. 47
like those who have been dead for ages.
143:9 Rescue me from my enemies, O Lord!
I run to you for protection. 53
1 tn Or “perish”; or “die.” The imperfect verbal forms in this line either emphasize what typically happens or describe vividly the aftermath of a recent battle in which the
2 tn Heb “the enemy – they have come to an end [in] ruins permanently.” The singular form אוֹיֵב (’oyev, “enemy”) is collective. It is placed at the beginning of the verse to heighten the contrast with יְהוָה (yÿhvah, “the
3 tn Heb “you uprooted cities.”
4 tn Heb “it has perished, their remembrance, they.” The independent pronoun at the end of the line is in apposition to the preceding pronominal suffix and lends emphasis (see IBHS 299 §16.3.4). The referent of the masculine pronoun is the nations/enemies (cf. v. 5), not the cities (the Hebrew noun עָרִים [’arim, “cities”] is grammatically feminine). This has been specified in the present translation for clarity; many modern translations retain the pronoun “them,” resulting in ambiguity (cf. NRSV “their cities you have rooted out; the very memory of them has perished”).
5 tn Heb “or else.”
6 tn Heb “or else.”
7 tn Heb “bring me out.” The translation assumes that the imperfect verbal form expresses the psalmist’s confidence about the future. Another option is to take the form as expressing a prayer, “free me.”
8 tn Heb “you cause my feet to stand.”
9 tn Heb “to see.”
10 tn Heb “he speaks deceitfully.”
11 tn Heb “his heart gathers sin to itself.”
12 tn Heb “he goes outside and speaks.”
13 tn The cohortative with prefixed vav (ו) here indicates purpose or result (“Then I will repay them”) after the preceding imperatives.
14 sn By this. Having recalled his former lament and petition, the psalmist returns to the confident mood of vv. 1-3. The basis for his confidence may be a divine oracle of deliverance, assuring him that God would intervene and vindicate him. The demonstrative pronoun “this” may refer to such an oracle, which is assumed here, though its contents are not included. See P. C. Craigie, Psalms 1-50 (WBC), 319, 321.
15 tn Or “will.” One may translate the imperfect verbal form as descriptive (present, cf. NIV) or as anticipatory (future, cf. NEB).
16 tn Heb “shout.”
17 tn The cohortative form indicates the psalmist’s resolve.
19 tn Or “forget.”
21 tc Heb “with a shattering in my bones my enemies taunt me.” A few medieval Hebrew
23 tn Heb “because of [the] voice of [the] enemy.”
24 tn The singular forms “enemy” and “wicked” are collective or representative, as the plural verb forms in the second half of the verse indicate.
25 tn Heb “from before the pressure of the wicked.” Some suggest the meaning “screech” (note the parallel “voice”; cf. NEB “shrill clamour”; NRSV “clamor”) for the rare noun עָקָה (’aqah, “pressure”).
26 tn Heb “wickedness,” but here the term refers to the destructive effects of their wicked acts.
27 tc The verb form in the MT appears to be a Hiphil imperfect from the root מוֹט (mot, “to sway”), but the Hiphil occurs only here and in the Kethib (consonantal text) of Ps 140:10, where the form יַמְטֵר (yamter, “let him rain down”) should probably be read. Here in Ps 55:3 it is preferable to read יַמְטִירוּ (yamtiru, “they rain down”). It is odd for “rain down” to be used with an abstract object like “wickedness,” but in Job 20:23 God “rains down” anger (unless one emends the text there; see BHS).
28 sn Psalm 64. The psalmist asks God to protect him from his dangerous enemies and then confidently affirms that God will destroy his enemies and demonstrate his justice in the sight of all observers.
29 tn Heb “my voice.”
30 tn The imperfect verbal form is used here to express the psalmist’s request.
31 tn Heb “from the terror of [the] enemy.” “Terror” is used here metonymically for the enemy’s attacks that produce fear because they threaten the psalmist’s life.
32 tn Heb “workers of wickedness.”
33 tn Heb “lift up your steps to,” which may mean “run, hurry.”
34 tn Heb “everything [the] enemy has damaged in the holy place.”
35 tn This verb is often used of a lion’s roar, so the psalmist may be comparing the enemy to a raging, devouring lion.
36 tn Heb “your meeting place.”
38 tn Heb “an enemy will not exact tribute.” The imperfect is understood in a modal sense, indicating capability or potential.
39 tn The translation understands the Hiphil of נָשַׁא (nasha’) in the sense of “act as a creditor.” This may allude to the practice of a conqueror forcing his subjects to pay tribute in exchange for “protection.” Another option is to take the verb from a homonymic verbal root meaning “to deceive,” “to trick.” Still another option is to emend the form to יִשָּׂא (yisa’), a Qal imperfect from נָאַשׂ (na’as, “rise up”) and to translate “an enemy will not rise up against him” (see M. Dahood, Psalms [AB], 2:317).
40 tn Heb “and a son of violence will not oppress him.” The imperfect is understood in a modal sense, indicating capability or potential. The reference to a “son of violence” echoes the language of God’s promise to David in 2 Sam 7:10 (see also 1 Chr 17:9).
41 tn Heb “hand.”
42 tn Or “redeemed.”
43 tn Heb “hand.”
44 tn Heb “remained.”
45 tn Or “for.”
47 tn Heb “he crushes on the ground my life.”
48 tn Or “sit.”
50 tn The words “in prayer” are supplied in the translation to clarify that the psalmist is referring to a posture of prayer.
52 tc Heb “my soul like a faint land for you.” A verb (perhaps “thirsts”) is implied (see Ps 63:1). The translation assumes an emendation of the preposition -כְּ (kÿ, “like”) to -בְּ (bÿ, “in,” see Ps 63:1; cf. NEB “athirst for thee in a thirsty land”). If the MT is retained, one might translate, “my soul thirsts for you, as a parched land does for water/rain” (cf. NIV, NRSV).
53 tn Heb “to you I cover,” which makes no sense. The translation assumes an emendation to נַסְתִּי (nastiy, “I flee,” a Qal perfect, first singular form from נוּס, nos). Confusion of kaf (כ) and nun (נ) is attested elsewhere (see P. K. McCarter, Textual Criticism [GBS], 48). The collocation of נוּס (“flee”) with אֶל (’el, “to”) is well-attested.