A prayer of David.
For I am oppressed and needy.
O my God, deliver your servant, who trusts in you!
for I cry out to you all day long!
for to you, O Lord, I pray! 6
and show great faithfulness to all who cry out to you.
86:6 O Lord, hear my prayer!
Pay attention to my plea for mercy!
86:7 In my time of trouble I cry out to you,
for you will answer me.
86:8 None can compare to you among the gods, O Lord!
Your exploits are incomparable! 9
86:9 All the nations, whom you created,
will come and worship you, 10 O Lord.
They will honor your name.
86:10 For you are great and do amazing things.
You alone are God.
Then I will obey your commands. 12
Make me wholeheartedly committed to you! 13
86:12 O Lord, my God, I will give you thanks with my whole heart!
I will honor your name continually! 14
86:15 But you, O Lord, are a compassionate and merciful God.
86:16 Turn toward me and have mercy on me!
Give your servant your strength!
Deliver your slave! 23
Then those who hate me will see it and be ashamed, 25
for you, O Lord, will help me and comfort me. 26
A psalm of David.
101:1 I will sing about loyalty and justice!
To you, O Lord, I will sing praises!
When will you come to me?
I will conduct my business with integrity in the midst of my palace. 29
I hate doing evil; 31
I will have no part of it. 32
I will not permit 34 evil.
101:5 I will destroy anyone who slanders his neighbor in secret.
I will not tolerate anyone who has a cocky demeanor and an arrogant attitude. 35
and allow them to live with me. 37
Those who walk in the way of integrity will attend me. 38
Liars will not be welcome in my presence. 40
101:8 Each morning I will destroy all the wicked people in the land,
and remove all evildoers from the city of the Lord.
103:1 Praise the Lord, O my soul!
With all that is within me, praise 42 his holy name!
103:2 Praise the Lord, O my soul!
Do not forget all his kind deeds! 43
103:3 He is the one who forgives all your sins,
who heals all your diseases, 44
who crowns you with his loyal love and compassion,
so your youth is renewed like an eagle’s. 48
103:6 The Lord does what is fair,
and executes justice for all the oppressed. 49
his deeds to the Israelites.
103:8 The Lord is compassionate and merciful;
103:9 He does not always accuse,
and does not stay angry. 53
he does not repay us as our misdeeds deserve. 55
103:11 For as the skies are high above the earth,
so he removes the guilt of our rebellious actions 60 from us.
so the Lord has compassion on his faithful followers. 62
Like a flower in the field it flourishes,
and one can no longer even spot the place where it once grew.
and is faithful to their descendants, 69
103:18 to those who keep his covenant,
who are careful to obey his commands. 70
103:19 The Lord has established his throne in heaven;
his kingdom extends over everything. 71
103:20 Praise the Lord, you angels of his,
you powerful warriors who carry out his decrees
and obey his orders! 72
you servants of his who carry out his desires! 74
in all the regions 76 of his kingdom!
Praise the Lord, O my soul!
A song, a psalm of David.
I will sing and praise you with my whole heart. 79
108:2 Awake, O stringed instrument and harp!
I will wake up at dawn! 80
108:3 I will give you thanks before the nations, O Lord!
I will sing praises to you before foreigners! 81
and your faithfulness reaches the clouds.
May your splendor cover the whole earth! 84
so that the ones you love may be safe. 86
“I will triumph! I will parcel out Shechem,
the valley of Succoth I will measure off. 88
108:8 Gilead belongs to me,
as does Manasseh! 89
Ephraim is my helmet, 90
Judah my royal scepter. 91
I will make Edom serve me. 93
I will shout in triumph over Philistia.”
108:10 Who will lead me into the fortified city?
Who will bring me to Edom? 94
108:11 Have you not rejected us, O God?
O God, you do not go into battle with our armies.
108:12 Give us help against the enemy,
for any help men might offer is futile. 95
he will trample down 97 our enemies.
For the music director, a psalm of David.
109:2 For they say cruel and deceptive things to me;
they lie to me. 100
they attack me for no reason.
but I continue to pray. 103
and hate for love.
May an accuser stand 107 at his right side!
Then his prayer will be regarded as sinful.
May another take his job! 111
and his wife a widow!
asking for handouts as they leave their ruined home! 114
May strangers loot his property! 116
May no one have compassion 118 on his fatherless children!
May the memory of them be wiped out by the time the next generation arrives! 121
May his mother’s sin not be forgotten! 123
and cut off the memory of his children 125 from the earth!
he harassed the oppressed and needy,
and killed the disheartened. 127
He had no desire to bless anyone, so he has experienced no blessings. 130
so curses poured into his stomach like water
and seeped into his bones like oil. 132
or a belt 134 one wears continually!
109:21 O sovereign Lord,
intervene on my behalf for the sake of your reputation! 138
Because your loyal love is good, deliver me!
109:22 For I am oppressed and needy,
and my heart beats violently within me. 139
I am shaken off like a locust.
I have turned into skin and bones. 142
When they see me, they shake their heads. 144
109:26 Help me, O Lord my God!
Because you are faithful to me, deliver me! 145
and that you, Lord, have accomplished it.
When they attack, they will be humiliated, 149
but your servant will rejoice.
and draped in humiliation as if it were a robe.
in the middle of a crowd 152 I will praise him,
109:31 because he stands at the right hand of the needy,
to deliver him from those who threaten 153 his life.
A psalm of David.
Rule in the midst of your enemies!
he fills the valleys with corpses; 178
he shatters their heads over the vast battlefield. 179
110:7 From the stream along the road he drinks;
then he lifts up his head. 180
A song of ascents, 182 by David.
“We will go to the Lord’s temple.”
inside your gates, O Jerusalem.
to accommodate an assembly. 186
the tribes of the Lord,
where it is required that Israel
give thanks to the name of the Lord. 189
on the thrones of the house of David. 192
May those who love her prosper! 194
122:7 May there be peace inside your defenses,
122:8 For the sake of my brothers and my neighbors
I will say, “May there be peace in you!”
122:9 For the sake of the temple of the Lord our God
I will pray for you to prosper. 197
A song of ascents, 199 by David.
124:1 “If the Lord had not been on our side” –
let Israel say this! –
124:2 if the Lord had not been on our side,
when men attacked us, 200
124:3 they would have swallowed us alive,
when their anger raged against us.
124:4 The water would have overpowered us;
124:5 The raging water
would have overwhelmed us. 204
for 206 he did not hand us over as prey to their teeth.
The snare broke, and we escaped.
the Creator 209 of heaven and earth.
A song of ascents, 211 by David.
131:1 O Lord, my heart is not proud,
nor do I have a haughty look. 212
I do not have great aspirations,
or concern myself with things that are beyond me. 213
like a young child carried by its mother; 216
I am content like the young child I carry. 217
131:3 O Israel, hope in the Lord
now and forevermore!
138:1 I will give you thanks with all my heart;
before the heavenly assembly 219 I will sing praises to you.
138:2 I will bow down toward your holy temple,
and give thanks to your name,
because of your loyal love and faithfulness,
for you have exalted your promise above the entire sky. 220
You made me bold and energized me. 222
when they hear the words you speak. 224
for the Lord’s splendor is magnificent. 226
138:6 Though the Lord is exalted, he takes note of the lowly,
and recognizes the proud from far away.
You oppose my angry enemies, 228
and your right hand delivers me.
O Lord, your loyal love endures.
Do not abandon those whom you have made! 230
For the music director, a psalm of David.
139:2 You know when I sit down and when I get up;
even from far away you understand my motives.
you are aware of everything I do. 234
without you, O Lord, being thoroughly aware of it. 236
139:5 You squeeze me in from behind and in front;
you place your hand on me.
139:6 Your knowledge is beyond my comprehension;
it is so far beyond me, I am unable to fathom it. 237
139:7 Where can I go to escape your spirit?
Where can I flee to escape your presence? 238
If I were to sprawl out in Sheol, there you would be. 240
and settle down on the other side 243 of the sea,
139:10 even there your hand would guide me,
your right hand would grab hold of me.
and the light will turn to night all around me,” 245
and the night is as bright as 247 day;
darkness and light are the same to you. 248
you wove me together 251 in my mother’s womb.
You knew me thoroughly; 253
139:15 my bones were not hidden from you,
when 254 I was made in secret
and sewed together in the depths of the earth. 255
All the days ordained for me
were recorded in your scroll
before one of them came into existence. 257
How vast is their sum total! 259
139:18 If I tried to count them,
they would outnumber the grains of sand.
Even if I finished counting them,
I would still have to contend with you. 260
Get away from me, you violent men! 262
your enemies lie. 266
139:21 O Lord, do I not hate those who hate you,
and despise those who oppose you? 267
they have become my enemies!
Test me, and know my concerns! 270
and lead me in the reliable ancient path! 272
For the music director; a psalm of David.
Protect me from violent men, 275
All day long they stir up conflict. 277
Protect me from violent men,
who plan to knock me over. 282
140:5 Proud men hide a snare for me;
evil men 283 spread a net by the path;
they set traps for me. (Selah)
140:6 I say to the Lord, “You are my God.”
O Lord, pay attention to my plea for mercy!
you shield 285 my head in the day of battle.
140:9 As for the heads of those who surround me –
may the harm done by 289 their lips overwhelm them!
May he throw them into the fire!
From bottomless pits they will not escape. 291
calamity will hunt down a violent man and strike him down. 294
and vindicates the poor. 296
140:13 Certainly the godly will give thanks to your name;
the morally upright will live in your presence.
A psalm of David.
141:1 O Lord, I cry out to you. Come quickly to me!
Pay attention to me when I cry out to you!
141:2 May you accept my prayer like incense,
my uplifted hands like the evening offering! 298
141:3 O Lord, place a guard on my mouth!
or participate in sinful activities
with men who behave wickedly. 302
I will not eat their delicacies. 303
141:5 May the godly strike me in love and correct me!
Indeed, my prayer is a witness against their evil deeds. 306
They 308 will listen to my words, for they are pleasant.
so our bones are scattered at the mouth of Sheol.
In you I take shelter.
Do not expose me to danger! 311
141:9 Protect me from the snare they have laid for me,
and the traps the evildoers have set. 312
while I escape. 315
to the Lord I plead for mercy. 320
142:2 I pour out my lament before him;
I tell him about 321 my troubles.
you watch my footsteps. 323
In the path where I walk
they have hidden a trap for me.
142:4 Look to the right and see!
No one cares about me. 324
I have nowhere to run; 325
no one is concerned about my life. 326
142:5 I cry out to you, O Lord;
I say, “You are my shelter,
my security 327 in the land of the living.”
142:6 Listen to my cry for help,
for I am in serious trouble! 328
Rescue me from those who chase me,
for they are stronger than I am.
that I may give thanks to your name.
Because of me the godly will assemble, 330
for you will vindicate me. 331
A psalm of David.
143:1 O Lord, hear my prayer!
Pay attention to my plea for help!
Because of your faithfulness and justice, answer me!
for no one alive is innocent before you. 334
They smash me into the ground. 337
like those who have been dead for ages.
I am absolutely shocked. 341
I meditate on all you have done;
I reflect on your accomplishments. 343
143:7 Answer me quickly, Lord!
My strength is fading. 347
Do not reject me, 348
for I trust in you.
Show me the way I should go, 352
because I long for you. 353
143:9 Rescue me from my enemies, O Lord!
I run to you for protection. 354
for you are my God.
May your kind presence 356
Because of your justice, rescue me from trouble! 361
for I am your servant.
the one who trains my hands for battle, 368
and my fingers for war,
my refuge 370 and my deliverer,
my shield and the one in whom I take shelter,
who makes nations submit to me. 371
their days like a shadow that disappears. 376
Touch the mountains and make them smolder! 379
144:6 Hurl lightning bolts and scatter them!
Shoot your arrows and rout them! 380
Grab me and rescue me from the surging water, 382
from the power of foreigners, 383
144:8 who speak lies,
and make false promises. 384
144:9 O God, I will sing a new song to you!
Accompanied by a ten-stringed instrument, I will sing praises to you,
and rescued David his servant from a deadly 386 sword.
who speak lies,
and make false promises. 388
that quickly grow to full size. 390
Our daughters will be like corner pillars, 391
carved like those in a palace. 392
providing all kinds of food. 394
Our sheep will multiply by the thousands
No one will break through our walls,
no one will be taken captive,
and there will be no terrified cries in our city squares. 398
How blessed are the people whose God is the Lord!
A psalm of praise, by David.
145:1 I will extol you, my God, O king!
I will praise your name continually! 401
145:2 Every day I will praise you!
I will praise your name continually! 402
145:3 The Lord is great and certainly worthy of praise!
No one can fathom his greatness! 403
145:4 One generation will praise your deeds to another,
and tell about your mighty acts! 404
145:5 I will focus on your honor and majestic splendor,
and your amazing deeds! 405
I will declare your great deeds!
and sing about your justice. 408
145:8 The Lord is merciful and compassionate;
145:9 The Lord is good to all,
and has compassion on all he has made. 411
145:10 All he has made will give thanks to the Lord.
Your loyal followers will praise you.
145:11 They will proclaim the splendor of your kingdom;
they will tell about your power,
and the majestic splendor of your kingdom.
and your dominion endures through all generations.
and lifts up all who are bent over. 415
and you provide them with food on a regular basis. 417
145:16 You open your hand,
and fill every living thing with the food they desire. 418
and exhibits love in all he does. 420
145:18 The Lord is near all who cry out to him,
all who cry out to him sincerely. 421
he hears their cry for help and delivers them.
145:20 The Lord protects those who love him,
but he destroys all the wicked.
Let all who live 425 praise his holy name forever!
2 tn Heb “turn your ear.”
3 tn Heb “my life.”
4 tn Or “show me favor.”
5 tn Heb “the soul of your servant.”
6 tn Heb “I lift up my soul.”
7 tn Or “for.”
8 tn Heb “good.”
9 tn Heb “and there are none like your acts.”
10 tn Or “bow down before you.”
13 tn Heb “Bind my heart to the fearing of your name.” The verb translated “bind” occurs only here in the Piel stem. It appears twice in the Qal, meaning “be joined” in both cases (Gen 49:6; Isa 14:20). To “fear” God’s name means to have a healthy respect for him which in turn motivates one to obey his commands (see Pss 61:5; 102:15).
14 tn Or “forever.”
15 tn Heb “for your loyal love [is] great over me.”
16 tn Or “for he will have delivered my life.” The verb form indicates a future perfect here.
17 tn Or “lower Sheol.”
18 tn Heb “rise up against me.”
19 tn Or “assembly.”
21 tn Heb “slow to anger.”
22 tn Heb “and great of loyal love and faithfulness.”
sn The psalmist’s confession of faith in this verse echoes Exod 34:6.
23 tn Heb “the son of your female servant.” The phrase “son of a female servant” (see also Ps 116:16) is used of a son born to a secondary wife or concubine (Exod 23:12). In some cases the child’s father is the master of the house (see Gen 21:10, 13; Judg 9:18). The use of the expression here certainly does not imply that the
25 tn After the imperative in the preceding line (“work”), the prefixed verb forms with prefixed vav (ו) conjunctive indicate purpose or result.
26 tn The perfect verbal forms are understood here as dramatic/rhetorical, expressing the psalmist’s certitude that such a sign from the
28 tn Heb “take notice of.”
29 tn Heb “I will walk about in the integrity of my heart in the midst of my house.”
30 tn Heb “I will not set before my eyes a thing of worthlessness.”
31 tn Heb “the doing of swerving [deeds] I hate.” The Hebrew term סֵטִים (setim) is probably an alternate spelling of שֵׂטִים (setim), which appears in many medieval Hebrew
32 tn Heb “it [i.e., the doing of evil deeds] does not cling to me.”
33 tn Heb “a perverse heart will turn aside from me.” The adjective עִקֵּשׁ (’iqqesh) has the basic nuance “twisted; crooked” and by extension refers to someone or something that is morally perverse (see Ps 18:26). It appears frequently in the Book of Proverbs, where it is used of evil people (22:5), speech (8:8; 19:1), thoughts (11:20; 17:20), and life styles (2:15; 28:6).
34 tn Heb “know.” The king will not willingly allow perverse individuals to remain in his royal court.
35 tn Heb “[one who has] pride of eyes and wideness [i.e., arrogance] of heart, him I will not endure.”
36 tn Heb “my eyes [are] on the faithful of the land.”
37 tn The Hebrew text simply reads, “in order to live with me.”
38 tn Heb “one who walks in the way of integrity, he will minister to me.”
39 tn Heb “he will not live in the midst of my house, one who does deceit.”
40 tn Heb “one who speaks lies will not be established before my eyes.”
42 tn The verb “praise” is understood by ellipsis in the second line (see the preceding line).
45 tn Or “redeems.”
47 tc Heb “who satisfies with the good of your ornaments.” The text as it stands makes little, if any, sense. The translation assumes an emendation of עֶדְיֵךְ (’ed’ekh, “your ornaments”) to עֹדֵכִי (’odekhiy, “your duration; your continuance”) that is, “your life” (see L. C. Allen, Psalms 101-150 [WBC], 18).
48 sn The expression your youth is renewed like an eagle’s may allude to the phenomenon of molting, whereby the eagle grows new feathers.
49 tn Heb “the
50 tn Heb “made known his ways.” God’s “ways” in this context are his protective and salvific acts in fulfillment of his promise (see also Deut 32:4; Pss 18:30; 67:2; 77:13 [note vv. 11-12, 14]; 138:5; 145:17).
53 tn The Hebrew verb נָטַר (natar) is usually taken to mean “to keep; to guard,” with “anger” being understood by ellipsis. The idiom “to guard anger” is then understood to mean “to remain angry” (see Lev 19:18; Jer 3:5, 12; Nah 1:2). However, it is possible that this is a homonymic root meaning “to be angry” (see HALOT 695 s.v. נטר).
54 tn Heb “not according to our sins does he do to us.”
55 tn Heb “and not according to our misdeeds does he repay us.”
57 tn Heb “those who fear him.”
58 tn Heb “sunrise.”
59 tn Or “sunset.”
60 tn The Hebrew term פֶּשַׁע (pesha’, rebellious act”) is here used metonymically for the guilt such actions produce.
61 tn Or “sons,” but the Hebrew term sometimes refers to children in general.
62 tn Heb “those who fear him.”
63 tn Heb “our form.”
64 tn Heb “remembers.”
65 tn Heb “we [are] clay.”
66 tn Heb “[as for] mankind, like grass [are] his days.” The Hebrew noun אֱנוֹשׁ (’enosh) is used here generically of human beings. What is said is true of all mankind.
67 tn Heb “[the] wind.” The word “hot” is supplied in the translation for clarification.
68 tn Heb “but the loyal love of the
69 tn Heb “and his righteousness to sons of sons.”
70 tn Heb “to those who remember his precepts to do them.”
71 tn Heb “his kingdom rules over all.”
72 tn Heb “[you] mighty ones of strength, doers of his word, by listening to the voice of his word.”
73 tn Heb “all his hosts.”
74 tn Heb “his attendants, doers of his desire.”
75 tn Heb “all his works,” which includes mankind.
76 tn Heb “places.”
78 tn Or perhaps “confident”; Heb “my heart is steadfast.” The “heart” is viewed here as the seat of the psalmist’s volition and/or emotions.
79 tn Heb “also my glory,” but this makes little sense in the context. Some view the term כָּבוֹד (“glory”) here as a metonymy for man’s inner being (see BDB 459 s.v. II כָּבוֹד 5), but it is preferable to emend the form to כְּבֵדִי (kÿvodiy, “my liver”). Like the heart, the liver is viewed as the seat of one’s emotions. See also Pss 16:9; 30:12; 57:9; as well as H. W. Wolff, Anthropology of the Old Testament, 64, and M. Dahood, Psalms (AB), 3:93. For an Ugaritic example of the heart/liver as the source of joy, see G. R. Driver, Canaanite Myths and Legends, 47-48: “her [Anat’s] liver swelled with laughter, her heart was filled with joy, the liver of Anat with triumph.”
80 tn BDB 1007 s.v. שַׁחַר takes “dawn” as an adverbial accusative, though others understand it as a personified direct object. “Dawn” is used metaphorically for the time of deliverance and vindication the psalmist anticipates. When salvation “dawns,” the psalmist will “wake up” in praise.
81 tn Or “the peoples.”
82 tn Heb “for great upon the sky [or “heavens”] [is] your loyal love.”
83 tn Or “be exalted.”
84 tn Heb “over all the earth [be] your splendor.” Though no verb appears, the tone of the statement is a prayer or wish. (Note the imperative form in the preceding line.)
85 tn Heb “right hand.”
86 tn Or “may be rescued.” The lines are actually reversed in the Hebrew text: “So that the ones you love may be rescued, deliver by your power and answer me.”
87 tn Heb “in his holy place.”
88 sn Shechem stands for the territory west of the Jordan River; the valley of Succoth represents the region east of the Jordan.
89 tn Gilead was located east of the Jordan River. Half of the tribe of Manasseh lived east of the Jordan in the region of Bashan.
90 tn Heb “the protection of my head.”
sn Ephraim, one of Joseph’s sons, was one of two major tribes located west of the Jordan River. By comparing Ephraim to a helmet, the Lord suggests that the Ephraimites played a primary role in the defense of his land.
91 sn Judah, like Ephraim, was the other major tribe west of the Jordan River. The Davidic king, symbolized here by the royal scepter, came from this tribe.
93 tn Heb “over Edom I will throw my sandal.” The point of the metaphor is not entirely clear. Some interpret this as idiomatic for “taking possession of.” Others translate עַל (’al) as “to” and understand this as referring to a master throwing his dirty sandal to a servant so that the latter might dust it off.
94 sn The psalmist speaks again and acknowledges his need for help in battle. He hopes God will volunteer, based on the affirmation of sovereignty over Edom in v. 9, but he is also aware that God has seemingly rejected the nation of Israel (v. 11).
95 tn Heb “and futile [is] the deliverance of man.”
99 tn Heb “do not be deaf.”
100 tn Heb “for a mouth of evil and a mouth of deceit against me they open, they speak with me [with] a tongue of falsehood.”
101 tn Heb “and [with] words of hatred they surround me.”
102 tn Heb “in place of my love they oppose me.”
103 tn Heb “and I, prayer.”
104 tn Heb “and they set upon me evil in place of good.”
105 sn In vv. 6-19 the psalmist calls on God to judge his enemies severely. Some attribute this curse-list to the psalmist’s enemies rather than the psalmist. In this case one should paraphrase v. 6: “They say about me, ‘Appoint an evil man, etc.’” Those supporting this line of interpretation point out that vv. 2-5 and 20 refer to the enemies’ attack on the psalmist being a verbal one. Furthermore in vv. 1-5, 20 the psalmist speaks of his enemies in the plural, while vv. 6-19 refer to an individual. This use of the singular in vv. 6-19 could be readily explained if this is the psalmist’s enemies’ curse on him. However, it is much more natural to understand vv. 6-19 as the psalmist’s prayer against his enemies. There is no introductory quotation formula in v. 6 to indicate that the psalmist is quoting anyone, and the statement “may the
106 tn Heb “appoint against him an evil [man].”
107 tn The prefixed verbal form is taken as a jussive here (note the imperative in the preceding line).
109 tn Heb “he will go out [as] a criminal” (that is, guilty).
111 tn The Hebrew noun פְּקֻדָּה (pÿquddah) can mean “charge” or “office,” though BDB 824 s.v. suggests that here it refers to his possessions.
112 tn Or “sons.”
113 tn Or “sons.”
114 tn Heb “and roaming, may his children roam and beg, and seek from their ruins.” Some, following the LXX, emend the term וְדָרְשׁוּ (vÿdoreshu, “and seek”) to יְגֹרְשׁוּ (yÿgoreshu; a Pual jussive, “may they be driven away” [see Job 30:5; cf. NIV, NRSV]), but דָּרַשׁ (darash) nicely parallels שִׁאֵלוּ (shi’elu, “and beg”) in the preceding line.
116 tn Heb “the product of his labor.”
117 tn Heb “may there not be for him one who extends loyal love.”
119 tn Or “offspring.”
121 tn Heb “in another generation may their name be wiped out.”
122 tn Or “fathers’ sins.”
123 tn Heb “not be wiped out.”
sn According to ancient Israelite theology and its doctrine of corporate solidarity and responsibility, children could be and often were punished for the sins of their parents. For a discussion of this issue see J. Kaminsky, Corporate Responsibility in the Hebrew Bible (JSOTSup). (Kaminsky, however, does not deal with Ps 109.)
126 tn Heb “he did not remember to do loyal love.”
127 tn Heb “and he chased an oppressed and needy man, and one timid of heart to put [him] to death.”
128 sn A curse in OT times consists of a formal appeal to God to bring judgment down upon another. Curses were sometimes justified (such as the one spoken by the psalmist here in vv. 6-19), but when they were not, the one pronouncing the curse was in danger of bringing the anticipated judgment down upon himself.
129 tn Heb “and he loved a curse and it came [upon] him.” A reference to the evil man experiencing a curse seems premature here, for the psalmist is asking God to bring judgment on his enemies. For this reason some (cf. NIV, NRSV) prefer to repoint the vav (ו) on “it came” as conjunctive and translate the verb as a jussive of prayer (“may it come upon him!”). The prefixed form with vav consecutive in the next line is emended in the same way and translated, “may it be far from him.” However, the psalmist may be indicating that the evil man’s lifestyle has already begun to yield its destructive fruit.
130 tn Heb “and he did not delight in a blessing and it is far from him.”
131 tn Heb “he put on a curse as [if it were] his garment.”
132 tn Heb “and it came like water into his inner being, and like oil into his bones.” This may refer to this individual’s appetite for cursing. For him cursing was as refreshing as drinking water or massaging oneself with oil. Another option is that the destructive effects of a curse are in view. In this case a destructive curse invades his very being, like water or oil. Some who interpret the verse this way prefer to repoint the vav (ו) on “it came” to a conjunctive vav and interpret the prefixed verb as a jussive, “may it come!”
133 tn Heb “may it be for him like a garment one puts on.”
135 tn Heb “[may] this [be] the repayment to my accusers from the
136 tn Or “against.”
137 tn The Hebrew term נֶפֶשׁ (nefesh, “being; soul”) with a pronominal suffix is often equivalent to a pronoun, especially in poetry (see BDB 660 s.v. נֶפֶשׁ 4.a).
138 tn Heb “but you,
139 tc The verb in the Hebrew text (חָלַל, khalal) appears to be a Qal form from the root חלל meaning “pierced; wounded.” However, the Qal of this root is otherwise unattested. The translation assumes an emendation to יָחִיל (yakhil), a Qal imperfect from חוּל (khul, “tremble”) or to חֹלַל (kholal), a polal perfect from חוּל (khul). See Ps 55:4, which reads לִבִּי יָחִיל בְּקִרְבִּי (libbiy yakhil bÿqirbbiy, “my heart trembles [i.e., “beats violently”] within me”).
141 tn Heb “my knees stagger from fasting.”
142 tn Heb “and my flesh is lean away from fatness [i.e., “lean so as not to be fat”].”
143 tn Heb “as for me, I am a reproach to them.”
145 tn Heb “deliver me according to your faithfulness.”
146 tn After the preceding imperative, the prefixed verbal form with vav (ו) conjunctive indicates purpose or result.
147 tn Heb “that your hand [is] this.”
148 tn Another option is to translate the imperfect as a prayer/request (“may you bless”).
149 tn The verbal sequence is perfect + prefixed form with vav (ו) consecutive. Since the psalmist seems to be anticipating the demise of his enemies, he may be using these forms rhetorically to describe the enemies’ defeat as if it were already accomplished. Some emend the text to קָמוּ יֵבֹשׁוּ (qamu yevoshu, “may those who attack me be humiliated”). See L. C. Allen, Psalms 101-150 (WBC), 75.
150 tn Heb “clothed.” Another option is to translate the prefixed verbal forms in this line and the next as jussives (“may my accusers be covered with shame”).
151 tn Heb “I will thank the
152 tn Heb “many.”
153 tn Heb “judge.”
154 sn Psalm 110. In this royal psalm the psalmist announces God’s oracle to the Davidic king. The first part of the oracle appears in v. 1, the second in v. 4. In vv. 2-3 the psalmist addresses the king, while in vv. 5-7 he appears to address God.
155 tn The word נְאֻם (nÿ’um) is used frequently in the OT of a formal divine announcement through a prophet.
156 sn My lord. In the psalm’s original context the speaker is an unidentified prophetic voice in the royal court. In the course of time the psalm is applied to each successive king in the dynasty and ultimately to the ideal Davidic king. NT references to the psalm understand David to be speaking about his “lord,” the Messiah. (See Matt 22:43-45; Mark 12:36-37; Luke 20:42-44; Acts 2:34-35).
157 tn To sit at the “right hand” of the king was an honor (see 1 Kgs 2:19). In Ugaritic myth (CTA 4 v. 108-10) the artisan god Kothar-and Khasis is described as sitting at the right hand of the storm god Baal. See G. R. Driver, Canaanite Myths and Legends, 61-62.
sn The Lord’s invitation to the Davidic king to sit down at his right hand reflects the king’s position as the Lord’s vice-regent.
159 tn Since the
160 tn The prefixed verbal form is understood here as descriptive-dramatic or as generalizing, though it could be taken as future.
161 tn Heb “your strong scepter,” symbolic of the king’s royal authority and dominion.
162 tn Heb “your people, free will offerings.” Perhaps the people, in their willingness to volunteer, are compared metaphorically to freewill offerings. Following the LXX, some revocalize the text and read “with you is nobility.”
163 tn Heb “in the day of your power.”
164 tc Heb “in splendor of holiness.” The plural construct form הַדְרֵי (hadrey, from הָדַר, hadar, “splendor”) occurs only here; it may indicate degree or perhaps refer by metonymy to garments (see Pss 29:2 and 96:9, where the phrase הַדְרַת קֹדֶשׁ [hadrat qodesh] refers to “holy attire”). If one retains the reading of the MT, this phrase should probably be taken with the preceding line. However, because of the subsequent references to “dawn” and to “dew,” it is better to emend the text to הַרְרֵי קֹדֶשׁ (harrey qodesh, “mountains of holiness”), a reading found in many medieval Hebrew
165 tn Heb “from the womb of dawn.” The Hebrew noun רֶחֶם (rekhem, “womb”) is probably used here metonymically for “birth.” The form מִשְׁחָר (mishkhar) occurs only here and should be emended to שַׁחַר (shakhar, “dawn”) with the mem (מ) being understood as dittographic (note the final mem [ם] on the preceding word). The phrase “womb [i.e., “birth”] of dawn” refers to sunrise.
166 sn The point of the metaphor is not entirely clear. The dew may symbolize the king’s youthful vitality or, more likely (note the parallelism), may refer to his army of strong, youthful warriors.
167 tn Heb “to you [is].”
168 tn Or “swears, vows.”
169 tn Or “will not change his mind.” The negated Niphal imperfect of נָחַם (nakham) is a way of marking an announcement as an irrevocable decree. See 1 Sam 15:29; Ezek 24:14, as well as R. B. Chisholm, “Does God ‘Change His Mind’?” BSac 152 (1995): 387-99.
170 sn You are an eternal priest. The Davidic king exercised a non-Levitical priestly role. The king superintended Judah’s cultic ritual, had authority over the Levites, and sometimes led in formal worship. David himself instructed the Levites to bring the ark of the covenant to Jerusalem (1 Chr 15:11-15), joined the procession, offered sacrifices, wore a priestly ephod, and blessed the people (2 Sam 6:12-19). At the dedication of the temple Solomon led the ceremony, offering sacrifices and praying on behalf of the people (1 Kgs 8).
171 tn The phrase עַל־דִּבְרָתִי (’al-divratiy) is a variant of עַל־דִּבְרָת (’al-divrat; the final yod [י] being an archaic genitival ending), which in turn is a variant of עַל דָּבַר (’al davar). Both phrases can mean “concerning” or “because of,” but neither of these nuances fits the use of עַל־דִּבְרָתִי in Ps 110:4. Here the phrase probably carries the sense “according to the manner of.” See L. C. Allen, Psalms 101-150 (WBC), 81.
172 sn The Davidic king’s priestly role is analogous to that of Melchizedek, who was both “king of Salem” (i.e., Jerusalem) and a “priest of God Most High” in the time of Abraham (Gen 14:18-20). Like Melchizedek, the Davidic king was a royal priest, distinct from the Aaronic line (see Heb 7). The analogy focuses on the king’s priestly role; the language need not imply that Melchizedek himself was “an eternal priest.”
173 tn As pointed in the Hebrew text, this title refers to God (many medieval Hebrew
174 tn The perfect verbal forms in vv. 5-6 are understood here as descriptive-dramatic or as generalizing. Another option is to take them as rhetorical. In this case the psalmist describes anticipated events as if they had already taken place.
175 tn Heb “in the day of his anger.”
177 tn Or “among.”
178 tn Heb “he fills [with] corpses,” but one expects a double accusative here. The translation assumes an emendation to גְוִיּוֹת גֵאָיוֹת(בִּ) מִלֵּא or מִלֵּא גֵאָיוֹת גְּוִיוֹת (for a similar construction see Ezek 32:5). In the former case גֵאָיוֹת(ge’ayot) has accidentally dropped from the text due to homoioteleuton; in the latter case it has dropped out due to homoioarcton.
179 tn Heb “he strikes [the verb is מָחַץ (makhats), translated “strikes down” in v. 5] head[s] over a great land.” The Hebrew term רַבָּה (rabbah, “great”) is here used of distance or spatial measurement (see 1 Sam 26:13).
180 tn Here the expression “lifts up the head” refers to the renewed physical strength and emotional vigor (see Ps 3:3) provided by the refreshing water. For another example of a victorious warrior being energized by water in the aftermath of battle, see Judg 15:18-19 (see also 1 Sam 30:11-12, where the setting is different, however).
182 sn The precise significance of this title, which appears in Pss 120-134, is unclear. Perhaps worshipers recited these psalms when they ascended the road to Jerusalem to celebrate annual religious festivals. For a discussion of their background see L. C. Allen, Psalms 101-150 (WBC), 219-21.
183 tn Heb “in the ones saying to me.” After the verb שָׂמַח (samakh), the preposition בְּ (bet) usually introduces the reason for joy.
184 tn Or “were.”
186 tc Heb “Jerusalem, which is built like a city which is joined to her together.” The meaning of the Hebrew text is unclear. Many regard this as a description of the compact way in which the city was designed or constructed. The translation assumes an emendation of the verb חֻבְּרָה (khubbÿrah, “is joined”) to a noun חֶבְרָה (khevrah, “association; company”). The text then reads literally, “Jerusalem, which is built like a city which has a company together.” This in turn can be taken as a reference to Jerusalem’s role as a city where people congregated for religious festivals and other civic occasions (see vv. 4-5).
187 tn Or “went up.”
188 tn Heb “which is where the tribes go up.”
189 tn Heb “[it is] a statute for Israel to give thanks to the name of the
190 tn Or “for.”
191 tn Or “sat.”
192 tn Heb “Indeed, there they sit [on] thrones for judgment, [on] thrones [belonging] to the house of David.”
193 tn Heb “ask [for].”
194 tn Or “be secure.”
195 tn or “security.”
196 tn The psalmist uses second feminine singular pronominal forms to address personified Jerusalem.
197 tn Heb “I will seek good for you.” The psalmist will seek Jerusalem’s “good” through prayer.
199 sn The precise significance of this title, which appears in Pss 120-134, is unclear. Perhaps worshipers recited these psalms when they ascended the road to Jerusalem to celebrate annual religious festivals. For a discussion of their background see L. C. Allen, Psalms 101-150 (WBC), 219-21.
200 tn Heb “rose up against us.”
201 tn Or “stream.”
202 tn Heb “would have passed over.”
203 tn Heb “our being.” The Hebrew term נֶפֶשׁ (nefesh) with a pronominal suffix is often equivalent to a pronoun, especially in poetry (see BDB 660 s.v. נֶפֶשׁ 4.a).
204 tn Heb “then they would have passed over our being, the raging waters.”
205 tn Heb “blessed [be] the
206 tn Heb “[the one] who.”
207 tn Heb “our life escaped.”
208 tn Heb “our help [is] in the name of the
209 tn Or “Maker.”
211 sn The precise significance of this title, which appears in Pss 120-134, is unclear. Perhaps worshipers recited these psalms when they ascended the road to Jerusalem to celebrate annual religious festivals. For a discussion of their background see L. C. Allen, Psalms 101-150 (WBC), 219-21.
212 tn Heb “and my eyes are not lifted up.”
213 tn Heb “I do not walk in great things, and in things too marvelous for me.”
214 tn Or “but.”
215 tn Heb “I make level and make quiet my soul.”
216 tn Heb “like a weaned [one] upon his mother.”
217 tn Heb “like the weaned [one] upon me, my soul.”
219 tn The referent of the Hebrew term אֱלֹהִים (’elohim) is unclear. It refers either to the angelic assembly (see Gen 3:5; Ps 8:5) or to the pagan gods (see Pss 82:1, 6; 86:8; 97:7), in which case the psalmist’s praise takes on a polemical tone.
220 tc The MT reads, “for you have made great over all your name your word.” If retained, this must mean that God's mighty intervention, in fulfillment of his word of promise, surpassed anything he had done prior to this. However, the statement is odd and several emendations have been proposed. Some read, “for you have exalted over everything your name and your word,” while others suggest, “for you have exalted over all the heavens your name and your word.” The translation assumes an emendation of “your name” to “your heavens” (a construction that appears in Pss 8:3 and 144:5). The point is that God has been faithful to his promise and the reliability of that promise is apparent to all. For a fuller discussion of these options, see L. C. Allen, Psalms 101-150 (WBC), 244.
221 tn Heb “in the day.”
222 tn Heb “you made me bold in my soul [with] strength.”
223 tn The prefixed verbal forms here and in the following verse are understood as jussives, for the psalmist appears to be calling upon the kings to praise God. Another option is to take them as imperfects and translate, “the kings of the earth will give thanks…and will sing.” In this case the psalmist anticipates a universal response to his thanksgiving song.
224 tn Heb “the words of your mouth.”
225 tn Heb “ways.”
226 tn Heb “great.”
227 tn Or “distress.”
228 tn Heb “against the anger of my enemies you extend your hand.”
229 tn Heb “avenges on my behalf.” For the meaning “to avenge” for the verb גָּמַר (gamar), see HALOT 197-98 s.v. גמר.
230 tn Heb “the works of your hands.” Many medieval Hebrew
232 tn The statement is understood as generalizing – the psalmist describes what God typically does.
233 tn Heb “my traveling and my lying down you measure.” The verb זָרָה (zarah, “to measure”) is probably here a denominative from זָרָת (zarat, “a span; a measure”), though some derive it from זָרָה (zarat, “to winnow; to sift”; see BDB 279-80 s.v. זָרָה).
234 tn Heb “all my ways.”
235 tn Or “for.”
236 tn Heb “look, O
237 tn Heb “too amazing [is this] knowledge for me, it is elevated, I cannot attain to it.”
238 tn Heb “Where can I go from your spirit, and where from your face can I flee?” God’s “spirit” may refer here (1) to his presence (note the parallel term, “your face,” and see Ps 104:29-30, where God’s “face” is his presence and his “spirit” is the life-giving breath he imparts) or (2) to his personal Spirit (see Ps 51:10).
239 tn The Hebrew verb סָלַק (salaq, “to ascend”) occurs only here in the OT, but the word is well-attested in Aramaic literature from different time periods and displays a wide semantic range (see DNWSI 2:788-90).
240 tn Heb “look, you.”
241 tn Heb “rise up.”
242 sn On the wings of the dawn. This personification of the “dawn” may find its roots in mythological traditions about the god Shachar, whose birth is described in an Ugaritic myth (see G. R. Driver, Canaanite Myths and Legends, 126) and who is mentioned in Isa 14:12 as the father of Helel.
243 tn Heb “at the end.”
244 tn The Hebrew verb שׁוּף (shuf), which means “to crush; to wound,” in Gen 3:15 and Job 9:17, is problematic here. For a discussion of attempts to relate the verb to Arabic roots, see L. C. Allen, Psalms 101-150 (WBC), 251. Many emend the form to יְשׂוּכֵּנִי (yesukkeniy), from the root שׂכך (“to cover,” an alternate form of סכך), a reading assumed in the present translation.
245 tn Heb “and night, light, around me.”
246 tn The words “to see” are supplied in the translation for clarification and for stylistic reasons.
247 tn Heb “shines like.”
248 tn Heb “like darkness, like light.”
249 tn Or “for.”
250 tn Heb “my kidneys.” The kidneys were sometimes viewed as the seat of one’s emotions and moral character (cf. Pss 7:9; 26:2). A number of translations, recognizing that “kidneys” does not communicate this idea to the modern reader, have generalized the concept: “inmost being” (NAB, NIV); “inward parts” (NASB, NRSV); “the delicate, inner parts of my body” (NLT). In the last instance, the focus is almost entirely on the physical body rather than the emotions or moral character. The present translation, by using a hendiadys (one concept expressed through two terms), links the concepts of emotion (heart) and moral character (mind).
252 tc Heb “because awesome things, I am distinct, amazing [are] your works.” The text as it stands is syntactically problematic and makes little, if any, sense. The Niphal of פָּלָה (pala’) occurs elsewhere only in Exod 33:16. Many take the form from פָלָא (pala’; see GKC 216 §75.qq), which in the Niphal perfect means “to be amazing” (see 2 Sam 1:26; Ps 118:23; Prov 30:18). Some, following the LXX and some other ancient witnesses, also prefer to emend the verb from first to second person, “you are amazing” (see L. C. Allen, Psalms 101-150 [WBC], 249, 251). The present translation assumes the text conflates two variants: נפלאים, the otherwise unattested masculine plural participle of פָלָא, and נִפְלָאוֹת (nifla’ot), the usual (feminine) plural form of the Niphal participle. The latter has been changed to a verb by later scribes in an attempt to accommodate it syntactically. The original text likely read, נוראות נפלאותים מעשׂיך (“your works [are] awesome [and] amazing”).
253 tc Heb “and my being knows very much.” Better parallelism is achieved (see v. 15a) if one emends יֹדַעַת (yoda’at), a Qal active participle, feminine singular form, to יָדַעְתָּ (yada’ta), a Qal perfect second masculine singular perfect. See L. C. Allen, Psalms 101-150 (WBC), 252.
254 tc The Hebrew term אֲשֶׁר (’asher, “which”) should probably be emended to כֲּאַשֶׁר (ka’asher, “when”). The kaf (כ) may have been lost by haplography (note the kaf at the end of the preceding form).
255 sn The phrase depths of the earth may be metaphorical (euphemistic) or it may reflect a prescientific belief about the origins of the embryo deep beneath the earth’s surface (see H. W. Wolff, Anthropology of the Old Testament, 96-97). Job 1:21 also closely associates the mother’s womb with the earth.
256 tn Heb “Your eyes saw my shapeless form.” The Hebrew noun גֹּלֶם (golem) occurs only here in the OT. In later Hebrew the word refers to “a lump, a shapeless or lifeless substance,” and to “unfinished matter, a vessel wanting finishing” (Jastrow 222 s.v. גּוֹלֶם). The translation employs the dynamic rendering “when I was inside the womb” to clarify that the speaker was still in his mother’s womb at the time he was “seen” by God.
257 tn Heb “and on your scroll all of them were written, [the] days [which] were formed, and [there was] not one among them.” This “scroll” may be the “scroll of life” mentioned in Ps 69:28 (see the note on the word “living” there).
258 tn Heb “and to me how precious are your thoughts, O God.” The Hebrew verb יָקַר (yaqar) probably has the sense of “difficult [to comprehend]” here (see HALOT 432 s.v. יקר qal.1 and note the use of Aramaic יַקִּר in Dan 2:11). Elsewhere in the immediate context the psalmist expresses his amazement at the extent of God’s knowledge about him (see vv. 1-6, 17b-18).
259 tn Heb “how vast are their heads.” Here the Hebrew word “head” is used of the “sum total” of God’s knowledge of the psalmist.
260 tc Heb “I awake and I [am] still with you.” A reference to the psalmist awaking from sleep makes little, if any, sense contextually. For this reason some propose an emendation to הֲקִצּוֹתִי (haqitsoti), a Hiphil perfect form from an otherwise unattested verb קָצַץ (qatsats) understood as a denominative of קֵץ (qets, “end”). See L. C. Allen, Psalms 101-150 (WBC), 252-53.
262 tn Heb “men of bloodshed.”
263 tn Heb “who.”
264 tc Heb “they speak [of] you.” The suffixed form of the verb אָמַר (’amar, “to speak”) is peculiar. The translation assumes an emendation to יַמְרֻךָ (yamrukha), a Hiphil form from מָרָה (marah, “to rebel”; see Ps 78:40).
265 tn Heb “by deceit.”
266 tc Heb “lifted up for emptiness, your cities.” The Hebrew text as it stands makes no sense. The form נָשֻׂא (nasu’; a Qal passive participle) should be emended to נָשְׂאוּ (nosÿu; a Qal perfect, third common plural, “[they] lift up”). Many emend עָרֶיךָ (’arekha, “your cities”) to עָלֶיךָ (’alekha, “against you”), but it is preferable to understand the noun as an Aramaism and translate “your enemies” (see Dan 4:16 and L. C. Allen, Psalms 101-150 [WBC], 253).
267 tc Heb “who raise themselves up against you.” The form וּבִתְקוֹמְמֶיךָ (uvitqomÿmekha) should be emended to וּבְמִתְקוֹמְמֶיךָ (uvÿmitqomÿmekha), a Hitpolel participle (the prefixed mem [מ] of the participle is accidentally omitted in the MT, though a few medieval Hebrew
268 tn Heb “[with] completeness of hatred I hate them.”
269 tn Heb “and know my heart.”
271 tn Many understand the Hebrew term עֹצֶב (’otsev) as a noun meaning “pain,” and translate the phrase דֶּרֶךְ עֹצֶב (derekh ’otsev) as “of pain,” but this makes little sense here. (Some interpret it to refer to actions which bring pain to others.) It is preferable to take עֹצֶב as “idol” (see HALOT 865 s.v. I עֹצֶב) and understand “way of an idol” to refer to idolatrous actions or tendency. See L. C. Allen, Psalms 101-150 (WBC), 253.
272 tn Heb “in the path of antiquity.” This probably refers to the moral path prescribed by the
276 tn Heb “they devise wicked [plans] in [their] mind.”
277 tc Heb “they attack [for] war.” Some revocalize the verb (which is a Qal imperfect from גּוּר, gur, “to attack”) as יְגָרוּ (yÿgaru), a Piel imperfect from גָרָה (garah, “stir up strife”). This is followed in the present translation.
278 tn Heb “they sharpen their tongue like a serpent.” Ps 64:3 reads, “they sharpen their tongues like sword.” Perhaps Ps 140:3 uses a mixed metaphor, the point being that “they sharpen their tongues [like a sword],” as it were, so that when they speak, their words wound like a serpent’s bite. Another option is that the language refers to the pointed or forked nature of a serpent’s tongue, which is viewed metaphorically as “sharpened.”
279 tn The Hebrew term is used only here in the OT.
280 tn Heb “under.”
281 tn Heb “hands.”
282 tn Heb “to push down my steps.”
283 tn Heb “and ropes,” but many prefer to revocalize the noun as a participle (חֹבְלִים, khovÿlim) from the verb חָבַל (khaval, “act corruptly”).
284 tn Heb “the strength of my deliverance.”
285 tn Heb “cover.”
286 tn Heb “do not grant the desires of the wicked.”
288 tn Heb “his plot do not promote, they rise up.” The translation understands the final verb as being an unmarked temporal clause. Another option is to revocalize the verb as a Hiphil and take the verb with the next verse, “those who surround me lift up [their] head,” which could refer to their proud attitude as they anticipate victory (see Ps 27:6).
289 tn Heb “harm of their lips.” The genitive here indicates the source or agent of the harm.
290 tn The verb form in the Kethib (consonantal Hebrew text) appears to be a Hiphil imperfect from the root מוּט (mut, “to sway”), but the Hiphil occurs only here and in Ps 55:3, where it is preferable to read יַמְטִירוּ (yamtiru, “they rain down”). In Ps 140:10 the form יַמְטֵר (yamter, “let him rain down”) should probably be read.
291 tn Heb “into bottomless pits, they will not arise.” The translation assumes that the preposition -בְּ (bet) has the nuance “from” here. Another option is to connect the line with what precedes, take the final clause as an asyndetic relative clause, and translate, “into bottomless pits [from which] they cannot arise.” The Hebrew noun מַהֲמֹרָה (mahamorah, “bottomless pit”) occurs only here in the OT.
292 tn Heb “a man of a tongue.”
293 tn Heb “be established in.”
294 tn Heb “for blows.” The Hebrew noun מַדְחֵפֹה (madkhefoh, “blow”) occurs only here in the OT.
295 tc The translation follows the Qere and many medieval Hebrew
296 tn Heb “and the just cause of the poor.”
298 tn Heb “may my prayer be established [like] incense before you, the uplifting of my hands [like] an evening offering.”
299 tn Heb “door.” The Hebrew word occurs only here in the OT.
300 sn My mouth…my lips. The psalmist asks God to protect him from speaking inappropriately or sinfully.
301 tn Heb “do not turn my heart toward an evil thing.”
302 tn Heb “to act sinfully in practices in wickedness with men, doers of evil.”
303 sn Their delicacies. This probably refers to the enjoyment that a sinful lifestyle appears to offer.
304 tn The form יָנִי (yaniy) appears to be derived from the verbal root נוּא (nu’). Another option is to emend the form to יְנָא (yÿna’), a Piel from נָאָה (na’ah), and translate “may choice oil not adorn my head” (see L. C. Allen, Psalms 101-150 [WBC], 271). In this case, choice oil, like delicacies in v. 4, symbolize the pleasures of sin.
305 sn May my head not refuse choice oil. The psalmist compares the constructive criticism of the godly (see the previous line) to having refreshing olive oil poured over one’s head.
306 tc Heb “for still, and my prayer [is] against their evil deeds.” The syntax of the Hebrew text is difficult; the sequence -כִּי־עוֹד וּ (kiy-’od u-, “for still and”) occurs only here. The translation assumes an emendation to כִּי עֵד תְפלָּתִי (“indeed a witness [is] my prayer”). The psalmist’s lament about the evil actions of sinful men (see v. 4) testifies against the wicked in the divine court.
307 tn Heb “they are thrown down by the hands of a cliff, their judges.” The syntax of the Hebrew text is difficult and the meaning uncertain. The perfect verbal form is understood as rhetorical; the psalmist describes the anticipated downfall of the wicked as if it had already occurred. “Their judges” could be taken as the subject of the verb, but this makes little, if any, sense. The translation assumes the judges are the agents and that the wicked, mentioned earlier in the psalm, are the subjects of the verb.
308 tn It is unclear how this statement relates to the preceding sentence. Perhaps the judges are the referent of the pronominal subject (“they”) of the verb “will listen,” and “my words” are the referent of the pronominal subject (“they”) of the phrase “are pleasant.” The psalmist may be affirming here his confidence that he will be vindicated when he presents his case before the judges, while the wicked will be punished.
309 tn Heb “like splitting and breaking open in the earth.” The meaning of the statement and the point of the comparison are not entirely clear. Perhaps the psalmist is suggesting that he and other godly individuals are as good as dead; their bones are scattered about like dirt that is dug up and tossed aside.
310 tn Heb “my eyes [are] toward you.”
311 tn Heb “do not lay bare my life.” Only here is the Piel form of the verb collocated with the term נֶפֶשׁ (nefesh, “life”). In Isa 53:12 the Lord’s servant “lays bare (the Hiphil form of the verb is used) his life to death.”
312 tn Heb “and the traps of the doers of evil.”
313 tn The prefixed verbal form is understood as a jussive of prayer. Another option is to translate, “the wicked will fall.”
314 tn Heb “his.”
315 tn Heb “at the same [that] I, until I pass by.” Another option is to take יַחַד (yakhad) with the preceding line, “let the wicked fall together into their own nets.”
317 tn The meaning of the Hebrew term מַשְׂכִּיל (maskil) is uncertain. The word is derived from a verb meaning “to be prudent; to be wise.” Various options are: “a contemplative song,” “a song imparting moral wisdom,” or “a skillful [i.e., well-written] song.” The term occurs in the superscriptions of Pss 32, 42, 44, 45, 52-55, 74, 78, 88, 89, and 142, as well as in Ps 47:7.
318 sn According to the superscription, David wrote this psalm while in “the cave.” This probably refers to either the incident recorded in 1 Sam 22:1 or to the one recorded in 1 Sam 24:3. See the superscription of Ps 57.
319 tn Heb “[with] my voice to the
320 tn Heb “[with] my voice to the
321 tn Heb “my trouble before him I declare.”
322 tn Heb “my spirit grows faint.”
323 tn Heb “you know my path.”
324 tn Heb “there is no one who recognizes me.”
325 tn Heb “ a place of refuge perishes from me.”
326 tn Heb “there is no one who seeks for the sake of my life.”
327 tn Heb “my portion.” The psalmist compares the
328 tn Heb “for I am very low.”
329 tn Heb “bring out my life.”
330 tn Or “gather around.”
331 tn The Hebrew idiom גָּמַל עַל (gamal ’al) means “to repay,” here in a positive sense.
333 tn Heb “do not enter into judgment with.”
334 tn Heb “for no one living is innocent before you.”
335 tn Or “for.”
337 tn Heb “he crushes on the ground my life.”
338 tn Or “sit.”
340 tn Heb “my spirit grows faint.”
342 tn Or “ancient times”; Heb “days from before.”
343 tn Heb “the work of your hands.”
344 tn The words “in prayer” are supplied in the translation to clarify that the psalmist is referring to a posture of prayer.
346 tc Heb “my soul like a faint land for you.” A verb (perhaps “thirsts”) is implied (see Ps 63:1). The translation assumes an emendation of the preposition -כְּ (kÿ, “like”) to -בְּ (bÿ, “in,” see Ps 63:1; cf. NEB “athirst for thee in a thirsty land”). If the MT is retained, one might translate, “my soul thirsts for you, as a parched land does for water/rain” (cf. NIV, NRSV).
347 tn Heb “my spirit is failing.”
349 tn Heb “I will be equal with.”
351 tn Heb “cause me to hear in the morning your loyal love.” Here “loyal love” probably stands metonymically for an oracle of assurance promising God’s intervention as an expression of his loyal love.
sn The morning is sometimes viewed as the time of divine intervention (see Pss 30:5; 59:16; 90:14).
353 tn Heb “for to you I lift up my life.” The Hebrew expression נָאָשׂ נֶפֶשׁ (na’as nefesh, “to lift up [one’s] life”) means “to desire; to long for” (see Deut 24:15; Prov 19:18; Jer 22:27; 44:14; Hos 4:8, as well as H. W. Wolff, Anthropology of the Old Testament, 16).
354 tn Heb “to you I cover,” which makes no sense. The translation assumes an emendation to נַסְתִּי (nastiy, “I flee,” a Qal perfect, first singular form from נוּס, nos). Confusion of kaf (כ) and nun (נ) is attested elsewhere (see P. K. McCarter, Textual Criticism [GBS], 48). The collocation of נוּס (“flee”) with אֶל (’el, “to”) is well-attested.
359 tn Heb “name,” which here stands metonymically for God’s reputation.
361 tn Heb “by your justice bring out my life from trouble.”
362 tn Heb “in [or “by”] your faithfulness.”
363 tn The perfect with vav (ו) consecutive carries on the mood of the preceding imperfect.
364 tn Heb “all the enemies of my life.”
365 sn Psalm 144. The psalmist expresses his confidence in God, asks for a mighty display of divine intervention in an upcoming battle, and anticipates God’s rich blessings on the nation in the aftermath of military victory.
367 tn Heb “blessed [be] the
368 sn The one who trains my hands for battle. The psalmist attributes his skill with weapons to divine enablement (see Ps 18:34). Egyptian reliefs picture gods teaching the king how to shoot a bow. See O. Keel, The Symbolism of the Biblical World, 265.
370 tn Or “my elevated place.”
371 tn Heb “the one who subdues nations beneath me.”
373 tn Heb “and the son of man.” The phrase “son of man” is used here in a collective sense and refers to human beings. For other uses of the phrase in a collective or representative manner, see Num 23:19; Ps 146:3; Isa 51:12.
375 tn Heb “man,” or “mankind.”
377 tn The Hebrew verb נָטָה (natah) can carry the sense “to [cause to] bend; to [cause to] bow down.” For example, Gen 49:15 pictures Issachar as a donkey that “bends” its shoulder or back under a burden. Here the
379 tn Heb “so they might smolder.” The prefixed verbal form with vav (ו) conjunctive indicates purpose after the preceding imperative.
380 sn Arrows and lightning bolts are associated in other texts (see Pss 18:14; 77:17-18; Zech 9:14), as well as in ancient Near Eastern art (see R. B. Chisholm, “An Exegetical and Theological study of Psalm 18/2 Samuel 22” [Th.D. diss., Dallas Theological Seminary, 1983], 187).
381 tn Heb “stretch out your hands.”
383 tn Heb “from the hand of the sons of foreignness.”
384 tn Heb “who [with] their mouth speak falsehood, and their right hand is a right hand of falsehood.” The reference to the “right hand” is probably a metonymy for an oath. When making an oath, one would raise the hand as a solemn gesture. See Exod 6:8; Num 14:30; Deut 32:40. The figure thus represents the making of false oaths (false promises).
385 tn Heb “grants deliverance to.”
386 tn Heb “harmful.”
387 tn Heb “from the hand of the sons of foreignness.”
389 tn Some consider אֲשֶׁר (’asher) problematic, but here it probably indicates the anticipated consequence of the preceding request. (For other examples of אֲשֶׁר indicating purpose/result, see BDB 83 s.v. and HALOT 99 s.v.) If the psalmist – who appears to be a Davidic king preparing to fight a battle (see vv. 10-11) – is victorious, the whole nation will be spared invasion and defeat (see v. 14) and can flourish. Some prefer to emend the form to אַשְׁרֵי (“how blessed [are our sons]”). A suffixed noun sometimes follows אַשְׁרֵי (’ashrey; see 1 Kgs 10:8; Prov 20:7), but the presence of a comparative element (see “like plants”) after the suffixed noun makes the proposed reading too awkward syntactically.
390 tn Heb “grown up in their youth.” The translation assumes that “grown up” modifies “plants” (just as “carved” modifies “corner pillars” in the second half of the verse). Another option is to take “grown up” as a predicate in relation to “our sons,” in which case one might translate, “they will be strapping youths.”
392 tn Heb “carved [in] the pattern of a palace.”
393 tn The Hebrew noun occurs only here.
394 tn Heb “from kind to kind.” Some prefer to emend the text to מָזוֹן עַל מָזוֹן (mazon ’al mazon, “food upon food”).
395 tn Heb “they are innumerable.”
397 tn Heb “weighted down.” This probably refers (1) to the cattle having the produce from the harvest placed on their backs to be transported to the storehouses (see BDB 687 s.v. סָבַל). Other options are (2) to take this as reference to the cattle being pregnant (see HALOT 741 s.v. סבל pu) or (3) to their being well-fed or fattened (see L. C. Allen, Psalms 101-150 [WBC], 288).
398 tn Heb “there [will be] no breach, and there [will be] no going out, and there [will be] no crying out in our broad places.”
399 tn Heb “[O] the happiness of the people who [it is] such to them.”
401 tn Or, hyperbolically, “forever.”
402 tn Or, hyperbolically, “forever.”
403 tn Heb “and concerning his greatness there is no searching.”
404 tn The prefixed verbal forms in v. 4 are understood as imperfects, indicating how the psalmist expects his audience to respond to his praise. Another option is to take the forms as jussives, indicating the psalmist’s wish, “may one generation praise…and tell about.”
405 tn Heb “the splendor of the glory of your majesty, and the matters of your amazing deeds I will ponder.”
406 tn The prefixed verbal form is understood as an imperfect, indicating how the psalmist expects his audience to respond to his praise. Another option is to take the forms as a jussive, indicating the psalmist’s wish, “may they proclaim.”
407 tn Heb “the fame of the greatness of your goodness.”
408 tn The prefixed verbal forms in v. 7 are understood as imperfects, indicating how the psalmist expects his audience to respond to his praise. Another option is to take the forms as jussives, indicating the psalmist’s wish, “may they talk…and sing.”
411 tn Heb “and his compassion is over all his works.”
412 tn Heb “the sons of man.”
413 tn Heb “a kingdom of all ages.”
414 tc Psalm 145 is an acrostic psalm, with each successive verse beginning with a successive letter of the Hebrew alphabet. However, in the traditional Hebrew (Masoretic) text of Psalm 145 there is no verse beginning with the letter nun. One would expect such a verse to appear as the fourteenth verse, between the mem (מ) and samek (ס) verses. Several ancient witnesses, including one medieval Hebrew manuscript, the Qumran scroll from cave 11, the LXX, and the Syriac, supply the missing nun (נ) verse, which reads as follows: “The Lord is reliable in all his words, and faithful in all his deeds.” One might paraphrase this as follows: “The Lord’s words are always reliable; his actions are always faithful.” Scholars are divided as to the originality of this verse. L. C. Allen argues for its inclusion on the basis of structural considerations (Psalms 101-150 [WBC], 294-95), but there is no apparent explanation for why, if original, it would have been accidentally omitted. The psalm may be a partial acrostic, as in Pss 25 and 34 (see M. Dahood, Psalms [AB], 3:335). The glaring omission of the nun line would have invited a later redactor to add such a line.
416 tn Heb “the eyes of all wait for you.”
418 tn Heb “[with what they] desire.”
419 tn Heb “in all his ways.”
420 tn Heb “and [is] loving in all his deeds.”
421 tn Heb “in truth.”
422 tn In this context “desire” refers to the followers’ desire to be delivered from wicked enemies.
423 tn Heb “the desire of those who fear him, he does.”
424 tn Heb “the praise of the
425 tn Heb “all flesh.”