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Psalms 86:1-17

Context
Psalm 86 1 

A prayer of David.

86:1 Listen 2  O Lord! Answer me!

For I am oppressed and needy.

86:2 Protect me, 3  for I am loyal!

O my God, deliver your servant, who trusts in you!

86:3 Have mercy on me, 4  O Lord,

for I cry out to you all day long!

86:4 Make your servant 5  glad,

for to you, O Lord, I pray! 6 

86:5 Certainly 7  O Lord, you are kind 8  and forgiving,

and show great faithfulness to all who cry out to you.

86:6 O Lord, hear my prayer!

Pay attention to my plea for mercy!

86:7 In my time of trouble I cry out to you,

for you will answer me.

86:8 None can compare to you among the gods, O Lord!

Your exploits are incomparable! 9 

86:9 All the nations, whom you created,

will come and worship you, 10  O Lord.

They will honor your name.

86:10 For you are great and do amazing things.

You alone are God.

86:11 O Lord, teach me how you want me to live! 11 

Then I will obey your commands. 12 

Make me wholeheartedly committed to you! 13 

86:12 O Lord, my God, I will give you thanks with my whole heart!

I will honor your name continually! 14 

86:13 For you will extend your great loyal love to me, 15 

and will deliver my life 16  from the depths of Sheol. 17 

86:14 O God, arrogant men attack me; 18 

a gang 19  of ruthless men, who do not respect you, seek my life. 20 

86:15 But you, O Lord, are a compassionate and merciful God.

You are patient 21  and demonstrate great loyal love and faithfulness. 22 

86:16 Turn toward me and have mercy on me!

Give your servant your strength!

Deliver your slave! 23 

86:17 Show me evidence of your favor! 24 

Then those who hate me will see it and be ashamed, 25 

for you, O Lord, will help me and comfort me. 26 

Psalms 101:1-8

Context
Psalm 101 27 

A psalm of David.

101:1 I will sing about loyalty and justice!

To you, O Lord, I will sing praises!

101:2 I will walk in 28  the way of integrity.

When will you come to me?

I will conduct my business with integrity in the midst of my palace. 29 

101:3 I will not even consider doing what is dishonest. 30 

I hate doing evil; 31 

I will have no part of it. 32 

101:4 I will have nothing to do with a perverse person; 33 

I will not permit 34  evil.

101:5 I will destroy anyone who slanders his neighbor in secret.

I will not tolerate anyone who has a cocky demeanor and an arrogant attitude. 35 

101:6 I will favor the honest people of the land, 36 

and allow them to live with me. 37 

Those who walk in the way of integrity will attend me. 38 

101:7 Deceitful people will not live in my palace. 39 

Liars will not be welcome in my presence. 40 

101:8 Each morning I will destroy all the wicked people in the land,

and remove all evildoers from the city of the Lord.

Psalms 103:1-22

Context
Psalm 103 41 

By David.

103:1 Praise the Lord, O my soul!

With all that is within me, praise 42  his holy name!

103:2 Praise the Lord, O my soul!

Do not forget all his kind deeds! 43 

103:3 He is the one who forgives all your sins,

who heals all your diseases, 44 

103:4 who delivers 45  your life from the Pit, 46 

who crowns you with his loyal love and compassion,

103:5 who satisfies your life with good things, 47 

so your youth is renewed like an eagle’s. 48 

103:6 The Lord does what is fair,

and executes justice for all the oppressed. 49 

103:7 The Lord revealed his faithful acts 50  to Moses,

his deeds to the Israelites.

103:8 The Lord is compassionate and merciful;

he is patient 51  and demonstrates great loyal love. 52 

103:9 He does not always accuse,

and does not stay angry. 53 

103:10 He does not deal with us as our sins deserve; 54 

he does not repay us as our misdeeds deserve. 55 

103:11 For as the skies are high above the earth,

so his loyal love towers 56  over his faithful followers. 57 

103:12 As far as the eastern horizon 58  is from the west, 59 

so he removes the guilt of our rebellious actions 60  from us.

103:13 As a father has compassion on his children, 61 

so the Lord has compassion on his faithful followers. 62 

103:14 For he knows what we are made of; 63 

he realizes 64  we are made of clay. 65 

103:15 A person’s life is like grass. 66 

Like a flower in the field it flourishes,

103:16 but when the hot wind 67  blows by, it disappears,

and one can no longer even spot the place where it once grew.

103:17 But the Lord continually shows loyal love to his faithful followers, 68 

and is faithful to their descendants, 69 

103:18 to those who keep his covenant,

who are careful to obey his commands. 70 

103:19 The Lord has established his throne in heaven;

his kingdom extends over everything. 71 

103:20 Praise the Lord, you angels of his,

you powerful warriors who carry out his decrees

and obey his orders! 72 

103:21 Praise the Lord, all you warriors of his, 73 

you servants of his who carry out his desires! 74 

103:22 Praise the Lord, all that he has made, 75 

in all the regions 76  of his kingdom!

Praise the Lord, O my soul!

Psalms 108:1--110:7

Context
Psalm 108 77 

A song, a psalm of David.

108:1 I am determined, 78  O God!

I will sing and praise you with my whole heart. 79 

108:2 Awake, O stringed instrument and harp!

I will wake up at dawn! 80 

108:3 I will give you thanks before the nations, O Lord!

I will sing praises to you before foreigners! 81 

108:4 For your loyal love extends beyond the sky, 82 

and your faithfulness reaches the clouds.

108:5 Rise up 83  above the sky, O God!

May your splendor cover the whole earth! 84 

108:6 Deliver by your power 85  and answer me,

so that the ones you love may be safe. 86 

108:7 God has spoken in his sanctuary: 87 

“I will triumph! I will parcel out Shechem,

the valley of Succoth I will measure off. 88 

108:8 Gilead belongs to me,

as does Manasseh! 89 

Ephraim is my helmet, 90 

Judah my royal scepter. 91 

108:9 Moab is my wash basin. 92 

I will make Edom serve me. 93 

I will shout in triumph over Philistia.”

108:10 Who will lead me into the fortified city?

Who will bring me to Edom? 94 

108:11 Have you not rejected us, O God?

O God, you do not go into battle with our armies.

108:12 Give us help against the enemy,

for any help men might offer is futile. 95 

108:13 By God’s power we will conquer; 96 

he will trample down 97  our enemies.

Psalm 109 98 

For the music director, a psalm of David.

109:1 O God whom I praise, do not ignore me! 99 

109:2 For they say cruel and deceptive things to me;

they lie to me. 100 

109:3 They surround me and say hateful things; 101 

they attack me for no reason.

109:4 They repay my love with accusations, 102 

but I continue to pray. 103 

109:5 They repay me evil for good, 104 

and hate for love.

109:6 105 Appoint an evil man to testify against him! 106 

May an accuser stand 107  at his right side!

109:7 When he is judged, he will be found 108  guilty! 109 

Then his prayer will be regarded as sinful.

109:8 May his days be few! 110 

May another take his job! 111 

109:9 May his children 112  be fatherless,

and his wife a widow!

109:10 May his children 113  roam around begging,

asking for handouts as they leave their ruined home! 114 

109:11 May the creditor seize 115  all he owns!

May strangers loot his property! 116 

109:12 May no one show him kindness! 117 

May no one have compassion 118  on his fatherless children!

109:13 May his descendants 119  be cut off! 120 

May the memory of them be wiped out by the time the next generation arrives! 121 

109:14 May his ancestors’ 122  sins be remembered by the Lord!

May his mother’s sin not be forgotten! 123 

109:15 May the Lord be constantly aware of them, 124 

and cut off the memory of his children 125  from the earth!

109:16 For he never bothered to show kindness; 126 

he harassed the oppressed and needy,

and killed the disheartened. 127 

109:17 He loved to curse 128  others, so those curses have come upon him. 129 

He had no desire to bless anyone, so he has experienced no blessings. 130 

109:18 He made cursing a way of life, 131 

so curses poured into his stomach like water

and seeped into his bones like oil. 132 

109:19 May a curse attach itself to him, like a garment one puts on, 133 

or a belt 134  one wears continually!

109:20 May the Lord repay my accusers in this way, 135 

those who say evil things about 136  me! 137 

109:21 O sovereign Lord,

intervene on my behalf for the sake of your reputation! 138 

Because your loyal love is good, deliver me!

109:22 For I am oppressed and needy,

and my heart beats violently within me. 139 

109:23 I am fading away like a shadow at the end of the day; 140 

I am shaken off like a locust.

109:24 I am so starved my knees shake; 141 

I have turned into skin and bones. 142 

109:25 I am disdained by them. 143 

When they see me, they shake their heads. 144 

109:26 Help me, O Lord my God!

Because you are faithful to me, deliver me! 145 

109:27 Then they will realize 146  this is your work, 147 

and that you, Lord, have accomplished it.

109:28 They curse, but you will bless. 148 

When they attack, they will be humiliated, 149 

but your servant will rejoice.

109:29 My accusers will be covered 150  with shame,

and draped in humiliation as if it were a robe.

109:30 I will thank the Lord profusely, 151 

in the middle of a crowd 152  I will praise him,

109:31 because he stands at the right hand of the needy,

to deliver him from those who threaten 153  his life.

Psalm 110 154 

A psalm of David.

110:1 Here is the Lord’s proclamation 155  to my lord: 156 

“Sit down at my right hand 157  until I make your enemies your footstool!” 158 

110:2 The Lord 159  extends 160  your dominion 161  from Zion.

Rule in the midst of your enemies!

110:3 Your people willingly follow you 162  when you go into battle. 163 

On the holy hills 164  at sunrise 165  the dew of your youth 166  belongs to you. 167 

110:4 The Lord makes this promise on oath 168  and will not revoke it: 169 

“You are an eternal priest 170  after the pattern of 171  Melchizedek.” 172 

110:5 O sovereign Lord, 173  at your right hand

he strikes down 174  kings in the day he unleashes his anger. 175 

110:6 He executes judgment 176  against 177  the nations;

he fills the valleys with corpses; 178 

he shatters their heads over the vast battlefield. 179 

110:7 From the stream along the road he drinks;

then he lifts up his head. 180 

Psalms 122:1-9

Context
Psalm 122 181 

A song of ascents, 182  by David.

122:1 I was glad because 183  they said to me,

“We will go to the Lord’s temple.”

122:2 Our feet are 184  standing

inside your gates, O Jerusalem.

122:3 Jerusalem 185  is a city designed

to accommodate an assembly. 186 

122:4 The tribes go up 187  there, 188 

the tribes of the Lord,

where it is required that Israel

give thanks to the name of the Lord. 189 

122:5 Indeed, 190  the leaders sit 191  there on thrones and make legal decisions,

on the thrones of the house of David. 192 

122:6 Pray 193  for the peace of Jerusalem!

May those who love her prosper! 194 

122:7 May there be peace inside your defenses,

and prosperity 195  inside your fortresses! 196 

122:8 For the sake of my brothers and my neighbors

I will say, “May there be peace in you!”

122:9 For the sake of the temple of the Lord our God

I will pray for you to prosper. 197 

Psalms 124:1-8

Context
Psalm 124 198 

A song of ascents, 199  by David.

124:1 “If the Lord had not been on our side” –

let Israel say this! –

124:2 if the Lord had not been on our side,

when men attacked us, 200 

124:3 they would have swallowed us alive,

when their anger raged against us.

124:4 The water would have overpowered us;

the current 201  would have overwhelmed 202  us. 203 

124:5 The raging water

would have overwhelmed us. 204 

124:6 The Lord deserves praise, 205 

for 206  he did not hand us over as prey to their teeth.

124:7 We escaped with our lives, 207  like a bird from a hunter’s snare.

The snare broke, and we escaped.

124:8 Our deliverer is the Lord, 208 

the Creator 209  of heaven and earth.

Psalms 131:1-3

Context
Psalm 131 210 

A song of ascents, 211  by David.

131:1 O Lord, my heart is not proud,

nor do I have a haughty look. 212 

I do not have great aspirations,

or concern myself with things that are beyond me. 213 

131:2 Indeed 214  I am composed and quiet, 215 

like a young child carried by its mother; 216 

I am content like the young child I carry. 217 

131:3 O Israel, hope in the Lord

now and forevermore!

Psalms 138:1--145:21

Context
Psalm 138 218 

By David.

138:1 I will give you thanks with all my heart;

before the heavenly assembly 219  I will sing praises to you.

138:2 I will bow down toward your holy temple,

and give thanks to your name,

because of your loyal love and faithfulness,

for you have exalted your promise above the entire sky. 220 

138:3 When 221  I cried out for help, you answered me.

You made me bold and energized me. 222 

138:4 Let all the kings of the earth give thanks 223  to you, O Lord,

when they hear the words you speak. 224 

138:5 Let them sing about the Lord’s deeds, 225 

for the Lord’s splendor is magnificent. 226 

138:6 Though the Lord is exalted, he takes note of the lowly,

and recognizes the proud from far away.

138:7 Even when I must walk in the midst of danger, 227  you revive me.

You oppose my angry enemies, 228 

and your right hand delivers me.

138:8 The Lord avenges me. 229 

O Lord, your loyal love endures.

Do not abandon those whom you have made! 230 

Psalm 139 231 

For the music director, a psalm of David.

139:1 O Lord, you examine me 232  and know.

139:2 You know when I sit down and when I get up;

even from far away you understand my motives.

139:3 You carefully observe me when I travel or when I lie down to rest; 233 

you are aware of everything I do. 234 

139:4 Certainly 235  my tongue does not frame a word

without you, O Lord, being thoroughly aware of it. 236 

139:5 You squeeze me in from behind and in front;

you place your hand on me.

139:6 Your knowledge is beyond my comprehension;

it is so far beyond me, I am unable to fathom it. 237 

139:7 Where can I go to escape your spirit?

Where can I flee to escape your presence? 238 

139:8 If I were to ascend 239  to heaven, you would be there.

If I were to sprawl out in Sheol, there you would be. 240 

139:9 If I were to fly away 241  on the wings of the dawn, 242 

and settle down on the other side 243  of the sea,

139:10 even there your hand would guide me,

your right hand would grab hold of me.

139:11 If I were to say, “Certainly the darkness will cover me, 244 

and the light will turn to night all around me,” 245 

139:12 even the darkness is not too dark for you to see, 246 

and the night is as bright as 247  day;

darkness and light are the same to you. 248 

139:13 Certainly 249  you made my mind and heart; 250 

you wove me together 251  in my mother’s womb.

139:14 I will give you thanks because your deeds are awesome and amazing. 252 

You knew me thoroughly; 253 

139:15 my bones were not hidden from you,

when 254  I was made in secret

and sewed together in the depths of the earth. 255 

139:16 Your eyes saw me when I was inside the womb. 256 

All the days ordained for me

were recorded in your scroll

before one of them came into existence. 257 

139:17 How difficult it is for me to fathom your thoughts about me, O God! 258 

How vast is their sum total! 259 

139:18 If I tried to count them,

they would outnumber the grains of sand.

Even if I finished counting them,

I would still have to contend with you. 260 

139:19 If only 261  you would kill the wicked, O God!

Get away from me, you violent men! 262 

139:20 They 263  rebel against you 264  and act deceitfully; 265 

your enemies lie. 266 

139:21 O Lord, do I not hate those who hate you,

and despise those who oppose you? 267 

139:22 I absolutely hate them, 268 

they have become my enemies!

139:23 Examine me, and probe my thoughts! 269 

Test me, and know my concerns! 270 

139:24 See if there is any idolatrous tendency 271  in me,

and lead me in the reliable ancient path! 272 

Psalm 140 273 

For the music director; a psalm of David.

140:1 O Lord, rescue me from wicked men! 274 

Protect me from violent men, 275 

140:2 who plan ways to harm me. 276 

All day long they stir up conflict. 277 

140:3 Their tongues wound like a serpent; 278 

a viper’s 279  venom is behind 280  their lips. (Selah)

140:4 O Lord, shelter me from the power 281  of the wicked!

Protect me from violent men,

who plan to knock me over. 282 

140:5 Proud men hide a snare for me;

evil men 283  spread a net by the path;

they set traps for me. (Selah)

140:6 I say to the Lord, “You are my God.”

O Lord, pay attention to my plea for mercy!

140:7 O sovereign Lord, my strong deliverer, 284 

you shield 285  my head in the day of battle.

140:8 O Lord, do not let the wicked have their way! 286 

Do not allow their 287  plan to succeed when they attack! 288  (Selah)

140:9 As for the heads of those who surround me –

may the harm done by 289  their lips overwhelm them!

140:10 May he rain down 290  fiery coals upon them!

May he throw them into the fire!

From bottomless pits they will not escape. 291 

140:11 A slanderer 292  will not endure on 293  the earth;

calamity will hunt down a violent man and strike him down. 294 

140:12 I know 295  that the Lord defends the cause of the oppressed

and vindicates the poor. 296 

140:13 Certainly the godly will give thanks to your name;

the morally upright will live in your presence.

Psalm 141 297 

A psalm of David.

141:1 O Lord, I cry out to you. Come quickly to me!

Pay attention to me when I cry out to you!

141:2 May you accept my prayer like incense,

my uplifted hands like the evening offering! 298 

141:3 O Lord, place a guard on my mouth!

Protect the opening 299  of my lips! 300 

141:4 Do not let me have evil desires, 301 

or participate in sinful activities

with men who behave wickedly. 302 

I will not eat their delicacies. 303 

141:5 May the godly strike me in love and correct me!

May my head not refuse 304  choice oil! 305 

Indeed, my prayer is a witness against their evil deeds. 306 

141:6 They will be thrown down the side of a cliff by their judges. 307 

They 308  will listen to my words, for they are pleasant.

141:7 As when one plows and breaks up the soil, 309 

so our bones are scattered at the mouth of Sheol.

141:8 Surely I am looking to you, 310  O sovereign Lord.

In you I take shelter.

Do not expose me to danger! 311 

141:9 Protect me from the snare they have laid for me,

and the traps the evildoers have set. 312 

141:10 Let the wicked fall 313  into their 314  own nets,

while I escape. 315 

Psalm 142 316 

A well-written song 317  by David, when he was in the cave; 318  a prayer.

142:1 To the Lord I cry out; 319 

to the Lord I plead for mercy. 320 

142:2 I pour out my lament before him;

I tell him about 321  my troubles.

142:3 Even when my strength leaves me, 322 

you watch my footsteps. 323 

In the path where I walk

they have hidden a trap for me.

142:4 Look to the right and see!

No one cares about me. 324 

I have nowhere to run; 325 

no one is concerned about my life. 326 

142:5 I cry out to you, O Lord;

I say, “You are my shelter,

my security 327  in the land of the living.”

142:6 Listen to my cry for help,

for I am in serious trouble! 328 

Rescue me from those who chase me,

for they are stronger than I am.

142:7 Free me 329  from prison,

that I may give thanks to your name.

Because of me the godly will assemble, 330 

for you will vindicate me. 331 

Psalm 143 332 

A psalm of David.

143:1 O Lord, hear my prayer!

Pay attention to my plea for help!

Because of your faithfulness and justice, answer me!

143:2 Do not sit in judgment on 333  your servant,

for no one alive is innocent before you. 334 

143:3 Certainly 335  my enemies 336  chase me.

They smash me into the ground. 337 

They force me to live 338  in dark regions, 339 

like those who have been dead for ages.

143:4 My strength leaves me; 340 

I am absolutely shocked. 341 

143:5 I recall the old days; 342 

I meditate on all you have done;

I reflect on your accomplishments. 343 

143:6 I spread my hands out to you in prayer; 344 

my soul thirsts for you in a parched 345  land. 346 

143:7 Answer me quickly, Lord!

My strength is fading. 347 

Do not reject me, 348 

or I will join 349  those descending into the grave. 350 

143:8 May I hear about your loyal love in the morning, 351 

for I trust in you.

Show me the way I should go, 352 

because I long for you. 353 

143:9 Rescue me from my enemies, O Lord!

I run to you for protection. 354 

143:10 Teach me to do what pleases you, 355 

for you are my God.

May your kind presence 356 

lead me 357  into a level land. 358 

143:11 O Lord, for the sake of your reputation, 359  revive me! 360 

Because of your justice, rescue me from trouble! 361 

143:12 As a demonstration of your loyal love, 362  destroy my enemies!

Annihilate 363  all who threaten my life, 364 

for I am your servant.

Psalm 144 365 

By David.

144:1 The Lord, my protector, 366  deserves praise 367 

the one who trains my hands for battle, 368 

and my fingers for war,

144:2 who loves me 369  and is my stronghold,

my refuge 370  and my deliverer,

my shield and the one in whom I take shelter,

who makes nations submit to me. 371 

144:3 O Lord, of what importance is the human race, 372  that you should notice them?

Of what importance is mankind, 373  that you should be concerned about them? 374 

144:4 People 375  are like a vapor,

their days like a shadow that disappears. 376 

144:5 O Lord, make the sky sink 377  and come down! 378 

Touch the mountains and make them smolder! 379 

144:6 Hurl lightning bolts and scatter them!

Shoot your arrows and rout them! 380 

144:7 Reach down 381  from above!

Grab me and rescue me from the surging water, 382 

from the power of foreigners, 383 

144:8 who speak lies,

and make false promises. 384 

144:9 O God, I will sing a new song to you!

Accompanied by a ten-stringed instrument, I will sing praises to you,

144:10 the one who delivers 385  kings,

and rescued David his servant from a deadly 386  sword.

144:11 Grab me and rescue me from the power of foreigners, 387 

who speak lies,

and make false promises. 388 

144:12 Then 389  our sons will be like plants,

that quickly grow to full size. 390 

Our daughters will be like corner pillars, 391 

carved like those in a palace. 392 

144:13 Our storehouses 393  will be full,

providing all kinds of food. 394 

Our sheep will multiply by the thousands

and fill 395  our pastures. 396 

144:14 Our cattle will be weighted down with produce. 397 

No one will break through our walls,

no one will be taken captive,

and there will be no terrified cries in our city squares. 398 

144:15 How blessed are the people who experience these things! 399 

How blessed are the people whose God is the Lord!

Psalm 145 400 

A psalm of praise, by David.

145:1 I will extol you, my God, O king!

I will praise your name continually! 401 

145:2 Every day I will praise you!

I will praise your name continually! 402 

145:3 The Lord is great and certainly worthy of praise!

No one can fathom his greatness! 403 

145:4 One generation will praise your deeds to another,

and tell about your mighty acts! 404 

145:5 I will focus on your honor and majestic splendor,

and your amazing deeds! 405 

145:6 They will proclaim 406  the power of your awesome acts!

I will declare your great deeds!

145:7 They will talk about the fame of your great kindness, 407 

and sing about your justice. 408 

145:8 The Lord is merciful and compassionate;

he is patient 409  and demonstrates great loyal love. 410 

145:9 The Lord is good to all,

and has compassion on all he has made. 411 

145:10 All he has made will give thanks to the Lord.

Your loyal followers will praise you.

145:11 They will proclaim the splendor of your kingdom;

they will tell about your power,

145:12 so that mankind 412  might acknowledge your mighty acts,

and the majestic splendor of your kingdom.

145:13 Your kingdom is an eternal kingdom, 413 

and your dominion endures through all generations.

145:14 414 The Lord supports all who fall,

and lifts up all who are bent over. 415 

145:15 Everything looks to you in anticipation, 416 

and you provide them with food on a regular basis. 417 

145:16 You open your hand,

and fill every living thing with the food they desire. 418 

145:17 The Lord is just in all his actions, 419 

and exhibits love in all he does. 420 

145:18 The Lord is near all who cry out to him,

all who cry out to him sincerely. 421 

145:19 He satisfies the desire 422  of his loyal followers; 423 

he hears their cry for help and delivers them.

145:20 The Lord protects those who love him,

but he destroys all the wicked.

145:21 My mouth will praise the Lord. 424 

Let all who live 425  praise his holy name forever!

1 sn Psalm 86. The psalmist appeals to God’s mercy as he asks for deliverance from his enemies.

2 tn Heb “turn your ear.”

3 tn Heb “my life.”

4 tn Or “show me favor.”

5 tn Heb “the soul of your servant.”

6 tn Heb “I lift up my soul.”

7 tn Or “for.”

8 tn Heb “good.”

9 tn Heb “and there are none like your acts.”

10 tn Or “bow down before you.”

11 tn Heb “teach me your way.” The Lord’s “way” refers here to the moral principles he expects the psalmist to follow. See Pss 25:4; 27:11.

12 tn Heb “I will walk in your truth.” The Lord’s commandments are referred to as “truth” here because they are a trustworthy and accurate expression of the divine will. See Ps 25:5.

13 tn Heb “Bind my heart to the fearing of your name.” The verb translated “bind” occurs only here in the Piel stem. It appears twice in the Qal, meaning “be joined” in both cases (Gen 49:6; Isa 14:20). To “fear” God’s name means to have a healthy respect for him which in turn motivates one to obey his commands (see Pss 61:5; 102:15).

14 tn Or “forever.”

15 tn Heb “for your loyal love [is] great over me.”

16 tn Or “for he will have delivered my life.” The verb form indicates a future perfect here.

17 tn Or “lower Sheol.”

18 tn Heb “rise up against me.”

19 tn Or “assembly.”

20 tn Heb “seek my life and do not set you before them.” See Ps 54:3.

21 tn Heb “slow to anger.”

22 tn Heb “and great of loyal love and faithfulness.”

sn The psalmist’s confession of faith in this verse echoes Exod 34:6.

23 tn Heb “the son of your female servant.” The phrase “son of a female servant” (see also Ps 116:16) is used of a son born to a secondary wife or concubine (Exod 23:12). In some cases the child’s father is the master of the house (see Gen 21:10, 13; Judg 9:18). The use of the expression here certainly does not imply that the Lord has such a secondary wife or concubine! It is used metaphorically and idiomatically to emphasize the psalmist’s humility before the Lord and his status as the Lord’s servant.

24 tn Heb “Work with me a sign for good.” The expression “work a sign” also occurs in Judg 6:17.

25 tn After the imperative in the preceding line (“work”), the prefixed verb forms with prefixed vav (ו) conjunctive indicate purpose or result.

26 tn The perfect verbal forms are understood here as dramatic/rhetorical, expressing the psalmist’s certitude that such a sign from the Lord will be followed by his intervention. Another option is to understand the forms as future perfects (“for you, O Lord, will have helped me and comforted me”).

27 sn Psalm 101. The psalmist, who appears to be a king, promises to promote justice in his land and vows to rid his royal court of evildoers.

28 tn Heb “take notice of.”

29 tn Heb “I will walk about in the integrity of my heart in the midst of my house.”

30 tn Heb “I will not set before my eyes a thing of worthlessness.”

31 tn Heb “the doing of swerving [deeds] I hate.” The Hebrew term סֵטִים (setim) is probably an alternate spelling of שֵׂטִים (setim), which appears in many medieval Hebrew mss. The form appears to be derived from a verbal root שׂוּט (sut, “to fall away; to swerve”; see Ps 40:4).

32 tn Heb “it [i.e., the doing of evil deeds] does not cling to me.”

33 tn Heb “a perverse heart will turn aside from me.” The adjective עִקֵּשׁ (’iqqesh) has the basic nuance “twisted; crooked” and by extension refers to someone or something that is morally perverse (see Ps 18:26). It appears frequently in the Book of Proverbs, where it is used of evil people (22:5), speech (8:8; 19:1), thoughts (11:20; 17:20), and life styles (2:15; 28:6).

34 tn Heb “know.” The king will not willingly allow perverse individuals to remain in his royal court.

35 tn Heb “[one who has] pride of eyes and wideness [i.e., arrogance] of heart, him I will not endure.”

36 tn Heb “my eyes [are] on the faithful of the land.”

37 tn The Hebrew text simply reads, “in order to live with me.”

38 tn Heb “one who walks in the way of integrity, he will minister to me.”

39 tn Heb “he will not live in the midst of my house, one who does deceit.”

40 tn Heb “one who speaks lies will not be established before my eyes.”

41 sn Psalm 103. The psalmist praises God for his mercy and willingness to forgive his people.

42 tn The verb “praise” is understood by ellipsis in the second line (see the preceding line).

43 tn Or “his benefits” (see 2 Chr 32:25, where the noun is also used of kind deeds performed by the Lord).

44 tn This relatively rare noun refers to deadly diseases (see Deut 29:22; Jer 14:18; 16:4; 2 Chr 21:19).

45 tn Or “redeems.”

46 tn The Hebrew term שַׁחַת (shakhat, “pit”) is often used as a title for Sheol (see Pss 16:10; 30:9; 49:9; 55:24.

47 tc Heb “who satisfies with the good of your ornaments.” The text as it stands makes little, if any, sense. The translation assumes an emendation of עֶדְיֵךְ (’edekh, “your ornaments”) to עֹדֵכִי (’odekhiy, “your duration; your continuance”) that is, “your life” (see L. C. Allen, Psalms 101-150 [WBC], 18).

48 sn The expression your youth is renewed like an eagle’s may allude to the phenomenon of molting, whereby the eagle grows new feathers.

49 tn Heb “the Lord does fairness, and [acts of] justice for all the oppressed.”

50 tn Heb “made known his ways.” God’s “ways” in this context are his protective and salvific acts in fulfillment of his promise (see also Deut 32:4; Pss 18:30; 67:2; 77:13 [note vv. 11-12, 14]; 138:5; 145:17).

51 tn Heb “slow to anger” (see Ps 86:15).

52 tn Heb “and great of loyal love” (see Ps 86:15).

53 tn The Hebrew verb נָטַר (natar) is usually taken to mean “to keep; to guard,” with “anger” being understood by ellipsis. The idiom “to guard anger” is then understood to mean “to remain angry” (see Lev 19:18; Jer 3:5, 12; Nah 1:2). However, it is possible that this is a homonymic root meaning “to be angry” (see HALOT 695 s.v. נטר).

54 tn Heb “not according to our sins does he do to us.”

55 tn Heb “and not according to our misdeeds does he repay us.”

56 tn For this sense of the verb גָבַר (gavar), see L. C. Allen, Psalms 101-150 (WBC), 17, 19.

57 tn Heb “those who fear him.”

58 tn Heb “sunrise.”

59 tn Or “sunset.”

60 tn The Hebrew term פֶּשַׁע (pesha’, rebellious act”) is here used metonymically for the guilt such actions produce.

61 tn Or “sons,” but the Hebrew term sometimes refers to children in general.

62 tn Heb “those who fear him.”

63 tn Heb “our form.”

64 tn Heb “remembers.”

65 tn Heb “we [are] clay.”

66 tn Heb “[as for] mankind, like grass [are] his days.” The Hebrew noun אֱנוֹשׁ (’enosh) is used here generically of human beings. What is said is true of all mankind.

67 tn Heb “[the] wind.” The word “hot” is supplied in the translation for clarification.

68 tn Heb “but the loyal love of the Lord [is] from everlasting to everlasting over those who fear him.”

69 tn Heb “and his righteousness to sons of sons.”

70 tn Heb “to those who remember his precepts to do them.”

71 tn Heb “his kingdom rules over all.”

72 tn Heb “[you] mighty ones of strength, doers of his word, by listening to the voice of his word.”

73 tn Heb “all his hosts.”

74 tn Heb “his attendants, doers of his desire.”

75 tn Heb “all his works,” which includes mankind.

76 tn Heb “places.”

77 sn Psalm 108. With some minor variations, this psalm is a composite of Ps 57:7-11 (see vv. 1-5) and Ps 60:5-12 (see vv. 6-13).

78 tn Or perhaps “confident”; Heb “my heart is steadfast.” The “heart” is viewed here as the seat of the psalmist’s volition and/or emotions.

79 tn Heb “also my glory,” but this makes little sense in the context. Some view the term כָּבוֹד (“glory”) here as a metonymy for man’s inner being (see BDB 459 s.v. II כָּבוֹד 5), but it is preferable to emend the form to כְּבֵדִי (kÿvodiy, “my liver”). Like the heart, the liver is viewed as the seat of one’s emotions. See also Pss 16:9; 30:12; 57:9; as well as H. W. Wolff, Anthropology of the Old Testament, 64, and M. Dahood, Psalms (AB), 3:93. For an Ugaritic example of the heart/liver as the source of joy, see G. R. Driver, Canaanite Myths and Legends, 47-48: “her [Anat’s] liver swelled with laughter, her heart was filled with joy, the liver of Anat with triumph.”

80 tn BDB 1007 s.v. שַׁחַר takes “dawn” as an adverbial accusative, though others understand it as a personified direct object. “Dawn” is used metaphorically for the time of deliverance and vindication the psalmist anticipates. When salvation “dawns,” the psalmist will “wake up” in praise.

81 tn Or “the peoples.”

82 tn Heb “for great upon the sky [or “heavens”] [is] your loyal love.”

83 tn Or “be exalted.”

84 tn Heb “over all the earth [be] your splendor.” Though no verb appears, the tone of the statement is a prayer or wish. (Note the imperative form in the preceding line.)

85 tn Heb “right hand.”

86 tn Or “may be rescued.” The lines are actually reversed in the Hebrew text: “So that the ones you love may be rescued, deliver by your power and answer me.”

87 tn Heb “in his holy place.”

88 sn Shechem stands for the territory west of the Jordan River; the valley of Succoth represents the region east of the Jordan.

89 tn Gilead was located east of the Jordan River. Half of the tribe of Manasseh lived east of the Jordan in the region of Bashan.

90 tn Heb “the protection of my head.”

sn Ephraim, one of Joseph’s sons, was one of two major tribes located west of the Jordan River. By comparing Ephraim to a helmet, the Lord suggests that the Ephraimites played a primary role in the defense of his land.

91 sn Judah, like Ephraim, was the other major tribe west of the Jordan River. The Davidic king, symbolized here by the royal scepter, came from this tribe.

92 sn The metaphor of the wash basin, used to rinse one’s hands and feet, suggests that Moab, in contrast to Israel’s elevated position (vv. 7-8), would be reduced to the status of a servant.

93 tn Heb “over Edom I will throw my sandal.” The point of the metaphor is not entirely clear. Some interpret this as idiomatic for “taking possession of.” Others translate עַל (’al) as “to” and understand this as referring to a master throwing his dirty sandal to a servant so that the latter might dust it off.

94 sn The psalmist speaks again and acknowledges his need for help in battle. He hopes God will volunteer, based on the affirmation of sovereignty over Edom in v. 9, but he is also aware that God has seemingly rejected the nation of Israel (v. 11).

95 tn Heb “and futile [is] the deliverance of man.”

96 tn Heb “in God we will accomplish strength.” The statement refers here to military success (see Num 24:18; 1 Sam 14:48; Pss 60:12; 118:16-16).

97 sn On the expression trample down our enemies see Ps 44:5.

98 sn Psalm 109. Appealing to God’s justice, the psalmist asks God to vindicate him and to bring severe judgment down upon his enemies.

99 tn Heb “do not be deaf.”

100 tn Heb “for a mouth of evil and a mouth of deceit against me they open, they speak with me [with] a tongue of falsehood.”

101 tn Heb “and [with] words of hatred they surround me.”

102 tn Heb “in place of my love they oppose me.”

103 tn Heb “and I, prayer.”

104 tn Heb “and they set upon me evil in place of good.”

105 sn In vv. 6-19 the psalmist calls on God to judge his enemies severely. Some attribute this curse-list to the psalmist’s enemies rather than the psalmist. In this case one should paraphrase v. 6: “They say about me, ‘Appoint an evil man, etc.’” Those supporting this line of interpretation point out that vv. 2-5 and 20 refer to the enemies’ attack on the psalmist being a verbal one. Furthermore in vv. 1-5, 20 the psalmist speaks of his enemies in the plural, while vv. 6-19 refer to an individual. This use of the singular in vv. 6-19 could be readily explained if this is the psalmist’s enemies’ curse on him. However, it is much more natural to understand vv. 6-19 as the psalmist’s prayer against his enemies. There is no introductory quotation formula in v. 6 to indicate that the psalmist is quoting anyone, and the statement “may the Lord repay my accusers in this way” in v. 20 most naturally appears to be a fitting conclusion to the prayer in vv. 6-19. But what about the use of the singular in vv. 6-19? Often in the psalms the psalmist will describe his enemies as a group, but then speak of them as an individual as well, as if viewing his adversaries collectively as one powerful foe. See, for example, Ps 7, where the psalmist uses both the plural (vv. 1, 6) and the singular (vv. 2, 4-5) in referring to enemies. Perhaps by using the singular in such cases, the psalmist wants to single out each enemy for individual attention, or perhaps he has one especially hostile enemy in mind who epitomizes the opposition of the whole group. This may well be the case in Ps 109. Perhaps we should understand the singular throughout vv. 6-19 in the sense of “each and every one.” For a lengthy and well-reasoned defense of the opposite view – that vv. 6-19 are a quotation of what the enemies said about the psalmist – see L. C. Allen, Psalms 101-150 (WBC), 72-73.

106 tn Heb “appoint against him an evil [man].”

107 tn The prefixed verbal form is taken as a jussive here (note the imperative in the preceding line).

108 tn The prefixed verbal form could be taken as a jussive, but the use of the imperfect form in the following line suggests that v. 7 anticipates the outcome of the accusation envisioned in v. 6.

109 tn Heb “he will go out [as] a criminal” (that is, guilty).

110 tn The prefixed verbal forms (except those with vav [ו] consecutive) in vv. 8-20 are taken as jussives of prayer. Note the distinct jussive forms used in vv. 12-13, 15, 19.

111 tn The Hebrew noun פְּקֻדָּה (pÿquddah) can mean “charge” or “office,” though BDB 824 s.v. suggests that here it refers to his possessions.

112 tn Or “sons.”

113 tn Or “sons.”

114 tn Heb “and roaming, may his children roam and beg, and seek from their ruins.” Some, following the LXX, emend the term וְדָרְשׁוּ (vÿdoreshu, “and seek”) to יְגֹרְשׁוּ (yÿgoreshu; a Pual jussive, “may they be driven away” [see Job 30:5; cf. NIV, NRSV]), but דָּרַשׁ (darash) nicely parallels שִׁאֵלוּ (shielu, “and beg”) in the preceding line.

115 tn Heb “lay snares for” (see Ps 38:12).

116 tn Heb “the product of his labor.”

117 tn Heb “may there not be for him one who extends loyal love.”

118 tn Perhaps this refers to being generous (see Ps 37:21).

119 tn Or “offspring.”

120 sn On the expression cut off see Ps 37:28.

121 tn Heb “in another generation may their name be wiped out.”

122 tn Or “fathers’ sins.”

123 tn Heb “not be wiped out.”

sn According to ancient Israelite theology and its doctrine of corporate solidarity and responsibility, children could be and often were punished for the sins of their parents. For a discussion of this issue see J. Kaminsky, Corporate Responsibility in the Hebrew Bible (JSOTSup). (Kaminsky, however, does not deal with Ps 109.)

124 tn Heb “may they [that is, the sins mentioned in v. 14] be before the Lord continually.”

125 tn Heb “their memory.” The plural pronominal suffix probably refers back to the children mentioned in v. 13, and for clarity this has been specified in the translation.

126 tn Heb “he did not remember to do loyal love.”

127 tn Heb “and he chased an oppressed and needy man, and one timid of heart to put [him] to death.”

128 sn A curse in OT times consists of a formal appeal to God to bring judgment down upon another. Curses were sometimes justified (such as the one spoken by the psalmist here in vv. 6-19), but when they were not, the one pronouncing the curse was in danger of bringing the anticipated judgment down upon himself.

129 tn Heb “and he loved a curse and it came [upon] him.” A reference to the evil man experiencing a curse seems premature here, for the psalmist is asking God to bring judgment on his enemies. For this reason some (cf. NIV, NRSV) prefer to repoint the vav (ו) on “it came” as conjunctive and translate the verb as a jussive of prayer (“may it come upon him!”). The prefixed form with vav consecutive in the next line is emended in the same way and translated, “may it be far from him.” However, the psalmist may be indicating that the evil man’s lifestyle has already begun to yield its destructive fruit.

130 tn Heb “and he did not delight in a blessing and it is far from him.”

131 tn Heb “he put on a curse as [if it were] his garment.”

132 tn Heb “and it came like water into his inner being, and like oil into his bones.” This may refer to this individual’s appetite for cursing. For him cursing was as refreshing as drinking water or massaging oneself with oil. Another option is that the destructive effects of a curse are in view. In this case a destructive curse invades his very being, like water or oil. Some who interpret the verse this way prefer to repoint the vav (ו) on “it came” to a conjunctive vav and interpret the prefixed verb as a jussive, “may it come!”

133 tn Heb “may it be for him like a garment one puts on.”

134 tn The Hebrew noun מֵזַח (mezakh, “belt; waistband”) occurs only here in the OT. The form apparently occurs in Isa 23:10 as well, but an emendation is necessary there.

135 tn Heb “[may] this [be] the repayment to my accusers from the Lord.”

136 tn Or “against.”

137 tn The Hebrew term נֶפֶשׁ (nefesh, “being; soul”) with a pronominal suffix is often equivalent to a pronoun, especially in poetry (see BDB 660 s.v. נֶפֶשׁ 4.a).

138 tn Heb “but you, Lord, Master, do with me for the sake of your name.” Here “name” stands metonymically for God’s reputation.

139 tc The verb in the Hebrew text (חָלַל, khalal) appears to be a Qal form from the root חלל meaning “pierced; wounded.” However, the Qal of this root is otherwise unattested. The translation assumes an emendation to יָחִיל (yakhil), a Qal imperfect from חוּל (khul, “tremble”) or to חֹלַל (kholal), a polal perfect from חוּל (khul). See Ps 55:4, which reads לִבִּי יָחִיל בְּקִרְבִּי (libbiy yakhil bÿqirbbiy, “my heart trembles [i.e., “beats violently”] within me”).

140 tn Heb “like a shadow when it is extended I go.” He is like a late afternoon shadow made by the descending sun that will soon be swallowed up by complete darkness. See Ps 102:11.

141 tn Heb “my knees stagger from fasting.”

142 tn Heb “and my flesh is lean away from fatness [i.e., “lean so as not to be fat”].”

143 tn Heb “as for me, I am a reproach to them.”

144 sn They shake their heads. Apparently shaking the head was a taunting gesture. See also Job 16:4; Ps 22:7; Lam 2:15.

145 tn Heb “deliver me according to your faithfulness.”

146 tn After the preceding imperative, the prefixed verbal form with vav (ו) conjunctive indicates purpose or result.

147 tn Heb “that your hand [is] this.”

148 tn Another option is to translate the imperfect as a prayer/request (“may you bless”).

149 tn The verbal sequence is perfect + prefixed form with vav (ו) consecutive. Since the psalmist seems to be anticipating the demise of his enemies, he may be using these forms rhetorically to describe the enemies’ defeat as if it were already accomplished. Some emend the text to קָמוּ יֵבֹשׁוּ (qamu yevoshu, “may those who attack me be humiliated”). See L. C. Allen, Psalms 101-150 (WBC), 75.

150 tn Heb “clothed.” Another option is to translate the prefixed verbal forms in this line and the next as jussives (“may my accusers be covered with shame”).

151 tn Heb “I will thank the Lord very much with my mouth.”

152 tn Heb “many.”

153 tn Heb “judge.”

154 sn Psalm 110. In this royal psalm the psalmist announces God’s oracle to the Davidic king. The first part of the oracle appears in v. 1, the second in v. 4. In vv. 2-3 the psalmist addresses the king, while in vv. 5-7 he appears to address God.

155 tn The word נְאֻם (nÿum) is used frequently in the OT of a formal divine announcement through a prophet.

156 sn My lord. In the psalm’s original context the speaker is an unidentified prophetic voice in the royal court. In the course of time the psalm is applied to each successive king in the dynasty and ultimately to the ideal Davidic king. NT references to the psalm understand David to be speaking about his “lord,” the Messiah. (See Matt 22:43-45; Mark 12:36-37; Luke 20:42-44; Acts 2:34-35).

157 tn To sit at the “right hand” of the king was an honor (see 1 Kgs 2:19). In Ugaritic myth (CTA 4 v. 108-10) the artisan god Kothar-and Khasis is described as sitting at the right hand of the storm god Baal. See G. R. Driver, Canaanite Myths and Legends, 61-62.

sn The Lord’s invitation to the Davidic king to sit down at his right hand reflects the king’s position as the Lord’s vice-regent.

158 sn When the Lord made his covenant with David, he promised to subdue the king’s enemies (see 2 Sam 7:9-11; Ps 89:22-23).

159 tn Since the Lord is mentioned in the third person (note the use of the first person in v. 1), it is likely that these are the psalmist’s words to the king, not a continuation of the oracle per se.

160 tn The prefixed verbal form is understood here as descriptive-dramatic or as generalizing, though it could be taken as future.

161 tn Heb “your strong scepter,” symbolic of the king’s royal authority and dominion.

162 tn Heb “your people, free will offerings.” Perhaps the people, in their willingness to volunteer, are compared metaphorically to freewill offerings. Following the LXX, some revocalize the text and read “with you is nobility.”

163 tn Heb “in the day of your power.”

164 tc Heb “in splendor of holiness.” The plural construct form הַדְרֵי (hadrey, from הָדַר, hadar, “splendor”) occurs only here; it may indicate degree or perhaps refer by metonymy to garments (see Pss 29:2 and 96:9, where the phrase הַדְרַת קֹדֶשׁ [hadrat qodesh] refers to “holy attire”). If one retains the reading of the MT, this phrase should probably be taken with the preceding line. However, because of the subsequent references to “dawn” and to “dew,” it is better to emend the text to הַרְרֵי קֹדֶשׁ (harrey qodesh, “mountains of holiness”), a reading found in many medieval Hebrew mss and in some other ancient witnesses (see Joel 2:2; Ps 133:3, as well as L. C. Allen, Psalms 101-150 [WBC], 80). The “mountains of holiness” are probably the hills surrounding Zion (see Ps 87:1; 125:2; 133:3).

165 tn Heb “from the womb of dawn.” The Hebrew noun רֶחֶם (rekhem, “womb”) is probably used here metonymically for “birth.” The form מִשְׁחָר (mishkhar) occurs only here and should be emended to שַׁחַר (shakhar, “dawn”) with the mem (מ) being understood as dittographic (note the final mem [ם] on the preceding word). The phrase “womb [i.e., “birth”] of dawn” refers to sunrise.

166 sn The point of the metaphor is not entirely clear. The dew may symbolize the king’s youthful vitality or, more likely (note the parallelism), may refer to his army of strong, youthful warriors.

167 tn Heb “to you [is].”

168 tn Or “swears, vows.”

169 tn Or “will not change his mind.” The negated Niphal imperfect of נָחַם (nakham) is a way of marking an announcement as an irrevocable decree. See 1 Sam 15:29; Ezek 24:14, as well as R. B. Chisholm, “Does God ‘Change His Mind’?” BSac 152 (1995): 387-99.

170 sn You are an eternal priest. The Davidic king exercised a non-Levitical priestly role. The king superintended Judah’s cultic ritual, had authority over the Levites, and sometimes led in formal worship. David himself instructed the Levites to bring the ark of the covenant to Jerusalem (1 Chr 15:11-15), joined the procession, offered sacrifices, wore a priestly ephod, and blessed the people (2 Sam 6:12-19). At the dedication of the temple Solomon led the ceremony, offering sacrifices and praying on behalf of the people (1 Kgs 8).

171 tn The phrase עַל־דִּבְרָתִי (’al-divratiy) is a variant of עַל־דִּבְרָת (’al-divrat; the final yod [י] being an archaic genitival ending), which in turn is a variant of עַל דָּבַר (’al davar). Both phrases can mean “concerning” or “because of,” but neither of these nuances fits the use of עַל־דִּבְרָתִי in Ps 110:4. Here the phrase probably carries the sense “according to the manner of.” See L. C. Allen, Psalms 101-150 (WBC), 81.

172 sn The Davidic king’s priestly role is analogous to that of Melchizedek, who was both “king of Salem” (i.e., Jerusalem) and a “priest of God Most High” in the time of Abraham (Gen 14:18-20). Like Melchizedek, the Davidic king was a royal priest, distinct from the Aaronic line (see Heb 7). The analogy focuses on the king’s priestly role; the language need not imply that Melchizedek himself was “an eternal priest.”

173 tn As pointed in the Hebrew text, this title refers to God (many medieval Hebrew mss read יְהוָה, yehveh, “Lord” here). The present translation assumes that the psalmist here addresses the Lord as he celebrates what the king is able to accomplish while positioned at God’s “right hand.” According to this view the king is the subject of the third person verb forms in vv. 5b-7. (2) Another option is to understand the king as the addressee (as in vv. 2-3). In this case “the Lord” is the subject of the third person verbs throughout vv. 5-7 and is depicted as a warrior in a very anthropomorphic manner. In this case the Lord is pictured as being at the psalmist’s right hand (just the opposite of v. 1). See Pss 16:8; 121:5. (3) A third option is to revocalize אֲדֹנָי (’adonay, “Lord”) as אֲדֹנִי (’adoniy, “my lord”; see v. 1). In this case one may translate, “My lord, at his [God’s] right hand, strikes down.” In this case the king is the subject of the third person verbs in vv. 5b-7.

174 tn The perfect verbal forms in vv. 5-6 are understood here as descriptive-dramatic or as generalizing. Another option is to take them as rhetorical. In this case the psalmist describes anticipated events as if they had already taken place.

175 tn Heb “in the day of his anger.”

176 tn The imperfect verbal forms in vv. 6-7 are understood here as descriptive-dramatic or as generalizing, though they could be taken as future.

177 tn Or “among.”

178 tn Heb “he fills [with] corpses,” but one expects a double accusative here. The translation assumes an emendation to גְוִיּוֹת גֵאָיוֹת(בִּ) מִלֵּא or מִלֵּא גֵאָיוֹת גְּוִיוֹת (for a similar construction see Ezek 32:5). In the former case גֵאָיוֹת(geayot) has accidentally dropped from the text due to homoioteleuton; in the latter case it has dropped out due to homoioarcton.

179 tn Heb “he strikes [the verb is מָחַץ (makhats), translated “strikes down” in v. 5] head[s] over a great land.” The Hebrew term רַבָּה (rabbah, “great”) is here used of distance or spatial measurement (see 1 Sam 26:13).

180 tn Here the expression “lifts up the head” refers to the renewed physical strength and emotional vigor (see Ps 3:3) provided by the refreshing water. For another example of a victorious warrior being energized by water in the aftermath of battle, see Judg 15:18-19 (see also 1 Sam 30:11-12, where the setting is different, however).

181 sn Psalm 122. The psalmist expresses his love for Jerusalem and promises to pray for the city’s security.

182 sn The precise significance of this title, which appears in Pss 120-134, is unclear. Perhaps worshipers recited these psalms when they ascended the road to Jerusalem to celebrate annual religious festivals. For a discussion of their background see L. C. Allen, Psalms 101-150 (WBC), 219-21.

183 tn Heb “in the ones saying to me.” After the verb שָׂמַח (samakh), the preposition בְּ (bet) usually introduces the reason for joy.

184 tn Or “were.”

185 map For location see Map5 B1; Map6 F3; Map7 E2; Map8 F2; Map10 B3; JP1 F4; JP2 F4; JP3 F4; JP4 F4.

186 tc Heb “Jerusalem, which is built like a city which is joined to her together.” The meaning of the Hebrew text is unclear. Many regard this as a description of the compact way in which the city was designed or constructed. The translation assumes an emendation of the verb חֻבְּרָה (khubbÿrah, “is joined”) to a noun חֶבְרָה (khevrah, “association; company”). The text then reads literally, “Jerusalem, which is built like a city which has a company together.” This in turn can be taken as a reference to Jerusalem’s role as a city where people congregated for religious festivals and other civic occasions (see vv. 4-5).

187 tn Or “went up.”

188 tn Heb “which is where the tribes go up.”

189 tn Heb “[it is] a statute for Israel to give thanks to the name of the Lord.”

190 tn Or “for.”

191 tn Or “sat.”

192 tn Heb “Indeed, there they sit [on] thrones for judgment, [on] thrones [belonging] to the house of David.”

193 tn Heb “ask [for].”

194 tn Or “be secure.”

195 tn or “security.”

196 tn The psalmist uses second feminine singular pronominal forms to address personified Jerusalem.

197 tn Heb “I will seek good for you.” The psalmist will seek Jerusalem’s “good” through prayer.

198 sn Psalm 124. Israel acknowledges that the Lord delivered them from certain disaster.

199 sn The precise significance of this title, which appears in Pss 120-134, is unclear. Perhaps worshipers recited these psalms when they ascended the road to Jerusalem to celebrate annual religious festivals. For a discussion of their background see L. C. Allen, Psalms 101-150 (WBC), 219-21.

200 tn Heb “rose up against us.”

201 tn Or “stream.”

202 tn Heb “would have passed over.”

203 tn Heb “our being.” The Hebrew term נֶפֶשׁ (nefesh) with a pronominal suffix is often equivalent to a pronoun, especially in poetry (see BDB 660 s.v. נֶפֶשׁ 4.a).

204 tn Heb “then they would have passed over our being, the raging waters.”

205 tn Heb “blessed [be] the Lord.”

206 tn Heb “[the one] who.”

207 tn Heb “our life escaped.”

208 tn Heb “our help [is] in the name of the Lord.”

209 tn Or “Maker.”

210 sn Psalm 131. The psalmist affirms his humble dependence on the Lord and urges Israel to place its trust in God.

211 sn The precise significance of this title, which appears in Pss 120-134, is unclear. Perhaps worshipers recited these psalms when they ascended the road to Jerusalem to celebrate annual religious festivals. For a discussion of their background see L. C. Allen, Psalms 101-150 (WBC), 219-21.

212 tn Heb “and my eyes are not lifted up.”

213 tn Heb “I do not walk in great things, and in things too marvelous for me.”

214 tn Or “but.”

215 tn Heb “I make level and make quiet my soul.”

216 tn Heb “like a weaned [one] upon his mother.”

217 tn Heb “like the weaned [one] upon me, my soul.”

218 sn Psalm 138. The psalmist vows to thank the Lord for his deliverance and protection.

219 tn The referent of the Hebrew term אֱלֹהִים (’elohim) is unclear. It refers either to the angelic assembly (see Gen 3:5; Ps 8:5) or to the pagan gods (see Pss 82:1, 6; 86:8; 97:7), in which case the psalmist’s praise takes on a polemical tone.

220 tc The MT reads, “for you have made great over all your name your word.” If retained, this must mean that God's mighty intervention, in fulfillment of his word of promise, surpassed anything he had done prior to this. However, the statement is odd and several emendations have been proposed. Some read, “for you have exalted over everything your name and your word,” while others suggest, “for you have exalted over all the heavens your name and your word.” The translation assumes an emendation of “your name” to “your heavens” (a construction that appears in Pss 8:3 and 144:5). The point is that God has been faithful to his promise and the reliability of that promise is apparent to all. For a fuller discussion of these options, see L. C. Allen, Psalms 101-150 (WBC), 244.

221 tn Heb “in the day.”

222 tn Heb “you made me bold in my soul [with] strength.”

223 tn The prefixed verbal forms here and in the following verse are understood as jussives, for the psalmist appears to be calling upon the kings to praise God. Another option is to take them as imperfects and translate, “the kings of the earth will give thanks…and will sing.” In this case the psalmist anticipates a universal response to his thanksgiving song.

224 tn Heb “the words of your mouth.”

225 tn Heb “ways.”

226 tn Heb “great.”

227 tn Or “distress.”

228 tn Heb “against the anger of my enemies you extend your hand.”

229 tn Heb “avenges on my behalf.” For the meaning “to avenge” for the verb גָּמַר (gamar), see HALOT 197-98 s.v. גמר.

230 tn Heb “the works of your hands.” Many medieval Hebrew mss read the singular, “work of your hands.”

231 sn Psalm 139. The psalmist acknowledges that God, who created him, is aware of his every action and thought. He invites God to examine his motives, for he is confident they are pure.

232 tn The statement is understood as generalizing – the psalmist describes what God typically does.

233 tn Heb “my traveling and my lying down you measure.” The verb זָרָה (zarah, “to measure”) is probably here a denominative from זָרָת (zarat, “a span; a measure”), though some derive it from זָרָה (zarat, “to winnow; to sift”; see BDB 279-80 s.v. זָרָה).

234 tn Heb “all my ways.”

235 tn Or “for.”

236 tn Heb “look, O Lord, you know all of it.”

237 tn Heb “too amazing [is this] knowledge for me, it is elevated, I cannot attain to it.”

238 tn Heb “Where can I go from your spirit, and where from your face can I flee?” God’s “spirit” may refer here (1) to his presence (note the parallel term, “your face,” and see Ps 104:29-30, where God’s “face” is his presence and his “spirit” is the life-giving breath he imparts) or (2) to his personal Spirit (see Ps 51:10).

239 tn The Hebrew verb סָלַק (salaq, “to ascend”) occurs only here in the OT, but the word is well-attested in Aramaic literature from different time periods and displays a wide semantic range (see DNWSI 2:788-90).

240 tn Heb “look, you.”

241 tn Heb “rise up.”

242 sn On the wings of the dawn. This personification of the “dawn” may find its roots in mythological traditions about the god Shachar, whose birth is described in an Ugaritic myth (see G. R. Driver, Canaanite Myths and Legends, 126) and who is mentioned in Isa 14:12 as the father of Helel.

243 tn Heb “at the end.”

244 tn The Hebrew verb שׁוּף (shuf), which means “to crush; to wound,” in Gen 3:15 and Job 9:17, is problematic here. For a discussion of attempts to relate the verb to Arabic roots, see L. C. Allen, Psalms 101-150 (WBC), 251. Many emend the form to יְשׂוּכֵּנִי (yesukkeniy), from the root שׂכך (“to cover,” an alternate form of סכך), a reading assumed in the present translation.

245 tn Heb “and night, light, around me.”

246 tn The words “to see” are supplied in the translation for clarification and for stylistic reasons.

247 tn Heb “shines like.”

248 tn Heb “like darkness, like light.”

249 tn Or “for.”

250 tn Heb “my kidneys.” The kidneys were sometimes viewed as the seat of one’s emotions and moral character (cf. Pss 7:9; 26:2). A number of translations, recognizing that “kidneys” does not communicate this idea to the modern reader, have generalized the concept: “inmost being” (NAB, NIV); “inward parts” (NASB, NRSV); “the delicate, inner parts of my body” (NLT). In the last instance, the focus is almost entirely on the physical body rather than the emotions or moral character. The present translation, by using a hendiadys (one concept expressed through two terms), links the concepts of emotion (heart) and moral character (mind).

251 tn The Hebrew verb סָכַךְ (sakhakh, “to weave together”) is an alternate form of שָׂכַךְ (sakhakh, “to weave”) used in Job 10:11.

252 tc Heb “because awesome things, I am distinct, amazing [are] your works.” The text as it stands is syntactically problematic and makes little, if any, sense. The Niphal of פָּלָה (pala’) occurs elsewhere only in Exod 33:16. Many take the form from פָלָא (pala’; see GKC 216 §75.qq), which in the Niphal perfect means “to be amazing” (see 2 Sam 1:26; Ps 118:23; Prov 30:18). Some, following the LXX and some other ancient witnesses, also prefer to emend the verb from first to second person, “you are amazing” (see L. C. Allen, Psalms 101-150 [WBC], 249, 251). The present translation assumes the text conflates two variants: נפלאים, the otherwise unattested masculine plural participle of פָלָא, and נִפְלָאוֹת (niflaot), the usual (feminine) plural form of the Niphal participle. The latter has been changed to a verb by later scribes in an attempt to accommodate it syntactically. The original text likely read, נוראות נפלאותים מעשׂיך (“your works [are] awesome [and] amazing”).

253 tc Heb “and my being knows very much.” Better parallelism is achieved (see v. 15a) if one emends יֹדַעַת (yodaat), a Qal active participle, feminine singular form, to יָדַעְתָּ (yadata), a Qal perfect second masculine singular perfect. See L. C. Allen, Psalms 101-150 (WBC), 252.

254 tc The Hebrew term אֲשֶׁר (’asher, “which”) should probably be emended to כֲּאַשֶׁר (kaasher, “when”). The kaf (כ) may have been lost by haplography (note the kaf at the end of the preceding form).

255 sn The phrase depths of the earth may be metaphorical (euphemistic) or it may reflect a prescientific belief about the origins of the embryo deep beneath the earth’s surface (see H. W. Wolff, Anthropology of the Old Testament, 96-97). Job 1:21 also closely associates the mother’s womb with the earth.

256 tn Heb “Your eyes saw my shapeless form.” The Hebrew noun גֹּלֶם (golem) occurs only here in the OT. In later Hebrew the word refers to “a lump, a shapeless or lifeless substance,” and to “unfinished matter, a vessel wanting finishing” (Jastrow 222 s.v. גּוֹלֶם). The translation employs the dynamic rendering “when I was inside the womb” to clarify that the speaker was still in his mother’s womb at the time he was “seen” by God.

257 tn Heb “and on your scroll all of them were written, [the] days [which] were formed, and [there was] not one among them.” This “scroll” may be the “scroll of life” mentioned in Ps 69:28 (see the note on the word “living” there).

258 tn Heb “and to me how precious are your thoughts, O God.” The Hebrew verb יָקַר (yaqar) probably has the sense of “difficult [to comprehend]” here (see HALOT 432 s.v. יקר qal.1 and note the use of Aramaic יַקִּר in Dan 2:11). Elsewhere in the immediate context the psalmist expresses his amazement at the extent of God’s knowledge about him (see vv. 1-6, 17b-18).

259 tn Heb “how vast are their heads.” Here the Hebrew word “head” is used of the “sum total” of God’s knowledge of the psalmist.

260 tc Heb “I awake and I [am] still with you.” A reference to the psalmist awaking from sleep makes little, if any, sense contextually. For this reason some propose an emendation to הֲקִצּוֹתִי (haqitsoti), a Hiphil perfect form from an otherwise unattested verb קָצַץ (qatsats) understood as a denominative of קֵץ (qets, “end”). See L. C. Allen, Psalms 101-150 (WBC), 252-53.

261 tn The Hebrew particle אִם (’im, “if”) and following prefixed verbal form here express a wish (see Pss 81:8; 95:7, as well as GKC 321 §109.b).

262 tn Heb “men of bloodshed.”

263 tn Heb “who.”

264 tc Heb “they speak [of] you.” The suffixed form of the verb אָמַר (’amar, “to speak”) is peculiar. The translation assumes an emendation to יַמְרֻךָ (yamrukha), a Hiphil form from מָרָה (marah, “to rebel”; see Ps 78:40).

265 tn Heb “by deceit.”

266 tc Heb “lifted up for emptiness, your cities.” The Hebrew text as it stands makes no sense. The form נָשֻׂא (nasu’; a Qal passive participle) should be emended to נָשְׂאוּ (nosÿu; a Qal perfect, third common plural, “[they] lift up”). Many emend עָרֶיךָ (’arekha, “your cities”) to עָלֶיךָ (’alekha, “against you”), but it is preferable to understand the noun as an Aramaism and translate “your enemies” (see Dan 4:16 and L. C. Allen, Psalms 101-150 [WBC], 253).

267 tc Heb “who raise themselves up against you.” The form וּבִתְקוֹמְמֶיךָ (uvitqomÿmekha) should be emended to וּבְמִתְקוֹמְמֶיךָ (uvÿmitqomÿmekha), a Hitpolel participle (the prefixed mem [מ] of the participle is accidentally omitted in the MT, though a few medieval Hebrew mss have it).

268 tn Heb “[with] completeness of hatred I hate them.”

269 tn Heb “and know my heart.”

270 tn The Hebrew noun שַׂרְעַפַּי (sarapay, “concerns”) is used of “worries” in Ps 94:19.

271 tn Many understand the Hebrew term עֹצֶב (’otsev) as a noun meaning “pain,” and translate the phrase דֶּרֶךְ עֹצֶב (derekhotsev) as “of pain,” but this makes little sense here. (Some interpret it to refer to actions which bring pain to others.) It is preferable to take עֹצֶב as “idol” (see HALOT 865 s.v. I עֹצֶב) and understand “way of an idol” to refer to idolatrous actions or tendency. See L. C. Allen, Psalms 101-150 (WBC), 253.

272 tn Heb “in the path of antiquity.” This probably refers to the moral path prescribed by the Lord at the beginning of Israel’s history. See Jer 6:16; 18:15, as well as L. C. Allen, Psalms 101-150 (WBC), 253.

273 sn Psalm 140. The psalmist asks God to deliver him from his deadly enemies, calls judgment down upon them, and affirms his confidence in God’s justice.

274 tn Heb “from a wicked man.” The Hebrew uses the singular in a representative or collective sense (note the plural verbs in v. 2).

275 tn Heb “a man of violent acts.” The Hebrew uses the singular in a representative or collective sense (note the plural verbs in v. 2).

276 tn Heb “they devise wicked [plans] in [their] mind.”

277 tc Heb “they attack [for] war.” Some revocalize the verb (which is a Qal imperfect from גּוּר, gur, “to attack”) as יְגָרוּ (yÿgaru), a Piel imperfect from גָרָה (garah, “stir up strife”). This is followed in the present translation.

278 tn Heb “they sharpen their tongue like a serpent.” Ps 64:3 reads, “they sharpen their tongues like sword.” Perhaps Ps 140:3 uses a mixed metaphor, the point being that “they sharpen their tongues [like a sword],” as it were, so that when they speak, their words wound like a serpent’s bite. Another option is that the language refers to the pointed or forked nature of a serpent’s tongue, which is viewed metaphorically as “sharpened.”

279 tn The Hebrew term is used only here in the OT.

280 tn Heb “under.”

281 tn Heb “hands.”

282 tn Heb “to push down my steps.”

283 tn Heb “and ropes,” but many prefer to revocalize the noun as a participle (חֹבְלִים, khovÿlim) from the verb חָבַל (khaval, “act corruptly”).

284 tn Heb “the strength of my deliverance.”

285 tn Heb “cover.”

286 tn Heb “do not grant the desires of the wicked.”

287 tn Heb “his.” The singular is used in a representative sense (see v. 1).

288 tn Heb “his plot do not promote, they rise up.” The translation understands the final verb as being an unmarked temporal clause. Another option is to revocalize the verb as a Hiphil and take the verb with the next verse, “those who surround me lift up [their] head,” which could refer to their proud attitude as they anticipate victory (see Ps 27:6).

289 tn Heb “harm of their lips.” The genitive here indicates the source or agent of the harm.

290 tn The verb form in the Kethib (consonantal Hebrew text) appears to be a Hiphil imperfect from the root מוּט (mut, “to sway”), but the Hiphil occurs only here and in Ps 55:3, where it is preferable to read יַמְטִירוּ (yamtiru, “they rain down”). In Ps 140:10 the form יַמְטֵר (yamter, “let him rain down”) should probably be read.

291 tn Heb “into bottomless pits, they will not arise.” The translation assumes that the preposition -בְּ (bet) has the nuance “from” here. Another option is to connect the line with what precedes, take the final clause as an asyndetic relative clause, and translate, “into bottomless pits [from which] they cannot arise.” The Hebrew noun מַהֲמֹרָה (mahamorah, “bottomless pit”) occurs only here in the OT.

292 tn Heb “a man of a tongue.”

293 tn Heb “be established in.”

294 tn Heb “for blows.” The Hebrew noun מַדְחֵפֹה (madkhefoh, “blow”) occurs only here in the OT.

295 tc The translation follows the Qere and many medieval Hebrew mss in reading a first person verb form here. The Kethib reads the second person.

296 tn Heb “and the just cause of the poor.”

297 sn Psalm 141. The psalmist asks God to protect him from sin and from sinful men.

298 tn Heb “may my prayer be established [like] incense before you, the uplifting of my hands [like] an evening offering.”

299 tn Heb “door.” The Hebrew word occurs only here in the OT.

300 sn My mouth…my lips. The psalmist asks God to protect him from speaking inappropriately or sinfully.

301 tn Heb “do not turn my heart toward an evil thing.”

302 tn Heb “to act sinfully in practices in wickedness with men, doers of evil.”

303 sn Their delicacies. This probably refers to the enjoyment that a sinful lifestyle appears to offer.

304 tn The form יָנִי (yaniy) appears to be derived from the verbal root נוּא (nu’). Another option is to emend the form to יְנָא (yÿna’), a Piel from נָאָה (naah), and translate “may choice oil not adorn my head” (see L. C. Allen, Psalms 101-150 [WBC], 271). In this case, choice oil, like delicacies in v. 4, symbolize the pleasures of sin.

305 sn May my head not refuse choice oil. The psalmist compares the constructive criticism of the godly (see the previous line) to having refreshing olive oil poured over one’s head.

306 tc Heb “for still, and my prayer [is] against their evil deeds.” The syntax of the Hebrew text is difficult; the sequence -כִּי־עוֹד וּ (kiy-od u-, “for still and”) occurs only here. The translation assumes an emendation to כִּי עֵד תְפלָּתִי (“indeed a witness [is] my prayer”). The psalmist’s lament about the evil actions of sinful men (see v. 4) testifies against the wicked in the divine court.

307 tn Heb “they are thrown down by the hands of a cliff, their judges.” The syntax of the Hebrew text is difficult and the meaning uncertain. The perfect verbal form is understood as rhetorical; the psalmist describes the anticipated downfall of the wicked as if it had already occurred. “Their judges” could be taken as the subject of the verb, but this makes little, if any, sense. The translation assumes the judges are the agents and that the wicked, mentioned earlier in the psalm, are the subjects of the verb.

308 tn It is unclear how this statement relates to the preceding sentence. Perhaps the judges are the referent of the pronominal subject (“they”) of the verb “will listen,” and “my words” are the referent of the pronominal subject (“they”) of the phrase “are pleasant.” The psalmist may be affirming here his confidence that he will be vindicated when he presents his case before the judges, while the wicked will be punished.

309 tn Heb “like splitting and breaking open in the earth.” The meaning of the statement and the point of the comparison are not entirely clear. Perhaps the psalmist is suggesting that he and other godly individuals are as good as dead; their bones are scattered about like dirt that is dug up and tossed aside.

310 tn Heb “my eyes [are] toward you.”

311 tn Heb “do not lay bare my life.” Only here is the Piel form of the verb collocated with the term נֶפֶשׁ (nefesh, “life”). In Isa 53:12 the Lord’s servant “lays bare (the Hiphil form of the verb is used) his life to death.”

312 tn Heb “and the traps of the doers of evil.”

313 tn The prefixed verbal form is understood as a jussive of prayer. Another option is to translate, “the wicked will fall.”

314 tn Heb “his.”

315 tn Heb “at the same [that] I, until I pass by.” Another option is to take יַחַד (yakhad) with the preceding line, “let the wicked fall together into their own nets.”

316 sn Psalm 142. The psalmist laments his persecuted state and asks the Lord to deliver him from his enemies.

317 tn The meaning of the Hebrew term מַשְׂכִּיל (maskil) is uncertain. The word is derived from a verb meaning “to be prudent; to be wise.” Various options are: “a contemplative song,” “a song imparting moral wisdom,” or “a skillful [i.e., well-written] song.” The term occurs in the superscriptions of Pss 32, 42, 44, 45, 52-55, 74, 78, 88, 89, and 142, as well as in Ps 47:7.

318 sn According to the superscription, David wrote this psalm while in “the cave.” This probably refers to either the incident recorded in 1 Sam 22:1 or to the one recorded in 1 Sam 24:3. See the superscription of Ps 57.

319 tn Heb “[with] my voice to the Lord I cry out.”

320 tn Heb “[with] my voice to the Lord I plead for mercy.”

321 tn Heb “my trouble before him I declare.”

322 tn Heb “my spirit grows faint.”

323 tn Heb “you know my path.”

324 tn Heb “there is no one who recognizes me.”

325 tn Heb “ a place of refuge perishes from me.”

326 tn Heb “there is no one who seeks for the sake of my life.”

327 tn Heb “my portion.” The psalmist compares the Lord to landed property, which was foundational to economic stability in ancient Israel.

328 tn Heb “for I am very low.”

329 tn Heb “bring out my life.”

330 tn Or “gather around.”

331 tn The Hebrew idiom גָּמַל עַל (gamalal) means “to repay,” here in a positive sense.

332 sn Psalm 143. As in the previous psalm, the psalmist laments his persecuted state and asks the Lord to deliver him from his enemies.

333 tn Heb “do not enter into judgment with.”

334 tn Heb “for no one living is innocent before you.”

335 tn Or “for.”

336 tn Heb “an enemy.” The singular is used in a representative sense to describe a typical member of the larger group of enemies (note the plural “enemies” in vv. 9, 12).

337 tn Heb “he crushes on the ground my life.”

338 tn Or “sit.”

339 sn Dark regions refers to Sheol, which the psalmist views as a dark place located deep in the ground (see Ps 88:6).

340 tn Heb “my spirit grows faint.”

341 tn Heb “in my midst my heart is shocked.” For a similar use of the Hitpolel of שָׁמֵם (shamem), see Isa 59:16; 63:5.

342 tn Or “ancient times”; Heb “days from before.”

343 tn Heb “the work of your hands.”

344 tn The words “in prayer” are supplied in the translation to clarify that the psalmist is referring to a posture of prayer.

345 tn Heb “faint” or “weary.” See Ps 63:1.

346 tc Heb “my soul like a faint land for you.” A verb (perhaps “thirsts”) is implied (see Ps 63:1). The translation assumes an emendation of the preposition -כְּ (kÿ, “like”) to -בְּ (bÿ, “in,” see Ps 63:1; cf. NEB “athirst for thee in a thirsty land”). If the MT is retained, one might translate, “my soul thirsts for you, as a parched land does for water/rain” (cf. NIV, NRSV).

347 tn Heb “my spirit is failing.”

348 tn Heb “do not hide your face from me.” The idiom “hide the face” (1) can mean “ignore” (see Pss 10:11; 13:1; 51:9) or (2) can carry the stronger idea of “reject” (see Pss 30:7; 88:14).

349 tn Heb “I will be equal with.”

350 tn Heb “the pit.” The Hebrew noun בּוֹר (bor, “pit; cistern”) is sometimes used of the grave and/or the realm of the dead. See Ps 28:1.

351 tn Heb “cause me to hear in the morning your loyal love.” Here “loyal love” probably stands metonymically for an oracle of assurance promising God’s intervention as an expression of his loyal love.

sn The morning is sometimes viewed as the time of divine intervention (see Pss 30:5; 59:16; 90:14).

352 sn The way probably refers here to God’s moral and ethical standards and requirements (see v. 10).

353 tn Heb “for to you I lift up my life.” The Hebrew expression נָאָשׂ נֶפֶשׁ (naas nefesh, “to lift up [one’s] life”) means “to desire; to long for” (see Deut 24:15; Prov 19:18; Jer 22:27; 44:14; Hos 4:8, as well as H. W. Wolff, Anthropology of the Old Testament, 16).

354 tn Heb “to you I cover,” which makes no sense. The translation assumes an emendation to נַסְתִּי (nastiy, “I flee,” a Qal perfect, first singular form from נוּס, nos). Confusion of kaf (כ) and nun (נ) is attested elsewhere (see P. K. McCarter, Textual Criticism [GBS], 48). The collocation of נוּס (“flee”) with אֶל (’el, “to”) is well-attested.

355 tn Or “your will.” See Ps 40:8.

356 tn Heb “your good spirit.” God’s “spirit” may refer here to his presence (see the note on the word “presence” in Ps 139:7) or to his personal Spirit (see Ps 51:10).

357 tn The prefixed verbal form is taken as a jussive. Taking the statement as a prayer fits well with the petitionary tone of vv. 7-10a.

358 sn A level land (where one can walk free of obstacles) here symbolizes divine blessing and protection. See Pss 26:12 and 27:11 for similar imagery.

359 tn Heb “name,” which here stands metonymically for God’s reputation.

360 tn The imperfect verbal forms in vv. 11-12a are understood as expressing the psalmist’s desire. Note the petitionary tone of vv. 7-10a.

361 tn Heb “by your justice bring out my life from trouble.”

362 tn Heb “in [or “by”] your faithfulness.”

363 tn The perfect with vav (ו) consecutive carries on the mood of the preceding imperfect.

364 tn Heb “all the enemies of my life.”

365 sn Psalm 144. The psalmist expresses his confidence in God, asks for a mighty display of divine intervention in an upcoming battle, and anticipates God’s rich blessings on the nation in the aftermath of military victory.

366 tn Heb “my rocky summit.” The Lord is compared to a rocky summit where one can find protection from enemies. See Ps 18:2.

367 tn Heb “blessed [be] the Lord, my rocky summit.”

368 sn The one who trains my hands for battle. The psalmist attributes his skill with weapons to divine enablement (see Ps 18:34). Egyptian reliefs picture gods teaching the king how to shoot a bow. See O. Keel, The Symbolism of the Biblical World, 265.

369 tn Heb “my loyal love,” which is probably an abbreviated form of “the God of my loyal love” (see Ps 59:10, 17).

370 tn Or “my elevated place.”

371 tn Heb “the one who subdues nations beneath me.”

372 tn Heb “What is mankind?” The singular noun אֱנוֹשׁ (’enosh) is used here in a collective sense and refers to the human race. See Ps 8:5.

373 tn Heb “and the son of man.” The phrase “son of man” is used here in a collective sense and refers to human beings. For other uses of the phrase in a collective or representative manner, see Num 23:19; Ps 146:3; Isa 51:12.

374 tn Heb “take account of him.” The two imperfect verbal forms in v. 4 describe God’s characteristic activity.

375 tn Heb “man,” or “mankind.”

376 tn Heb “his days [are] like a shadow that passes away,” that is, like a late afternoon shadow made by the descending sun that will soon be swallowed up by complete darkness. See Ps 102:11.

377 tn The Hebrew verb נָטָה (natah) can carry the sense “to [cause to] bend; to [cause to] bow down.” For example, Gen 49:15 pictures Issachar as a donkey that “bends” its shoulder or back under a burden. Here the Lord causes the sky, pictured as a dome or vault, to sink down as he descends in the storm. See Ps 18:9.

378 tn Heb “so you might come down.” The prefixed verbal form with vav (ו) conjunctive indicates purpose after the preceding imperative. The same type of construction is utilized in v. 6.

379 tn Heb “so they might smolder.” The prefixed verbal form with vav (ו) conjunctive indicates purpose after the preceding imperative.

380 sn Arrows and lightning bolts are associated in other texts (see Pss 18:14; 77:17-18; Zech 9:14), as well as in ancient Near Eastern art (see R. B. Chisholm, “An Exegetical and Theological study of Psalm 18/2 Samuel 22” [Th.D. diss., Dallas Theological Seminary, 1983], 187).

381 tn Heb “stretch out your hands.”

382 tn Heb “mighty waters.” The waters of the sea symbolize the psalmist’s powerful foreign enemies, as well as the realm of death they represent (see the next line and Ps 18:16-17).

383 tn Heb “from the hand of the sons of foreignness.”

384 tn Heb “who [with] their mouth speak falsehood, and their right hand is a right hand of falsehood.” The reference to the “right hand” is probably a metonymy for an oath. When making an oath, one would raise the hand as a solemn gesture. See Exod 6:8; Num 14:30; Deut 32:40. The figure thus represents the making of false oaths (false promises).

385 tn Heb “grants deliverance to.”

386 tn Heb “harmful.”

387 tn Heb “from the hand of the sons of foreignness.”

388 tn Heb “who [with] their mouth speak falsehood, and their right hand is a right hand of falsehood.” See v. 8 where the same expression occurs.

389 tn Some consider אֲשֶׁר (’asher) problematic, but here it probably indicates the anticipated consequence of the preceding request. (For other examples of אֲשֶׁר indicating purpose/result, see BDB 83 s.v. and HALOT 99 s.v.) If the psalmist – who appears to be a Davidic king preparing to fight a battle (see vv. 10-11) – is victorious, the whole nation will be spared invasion and defeat (see v. 14) and can flourish. Some prefer to emend the form to אַשְׁרֵי (“how blessed [are our sons]”). A suffixed noun sometimes follows אַשְׁרֵי (’ashrey; see 1 Kgs 10:8; Prov 20:7), but the presence of a comparative element (see “like plants”) after the suffixed noun makes the proposed reading too awkward syntactically.

390 tn Heb “grown up in their youth.” The translation assumes that “grown up” modifies “plants” (just as “carved” modifies “corner pillars” in the second half of the verse). Another option is to take “grown up” as a predicate in relation to “our sons,” in which case one might translate, “they will be strapping youths.”

391 tn The Hebrew noun occurs only here and in Zech 9:15, where it refers to the corners of an altar.

392 tn Heb “carved [in] the pattern of a palace.”

393 tn The Hebrew noun occurs only here.

394 tn Heb “from kind to kind.” Some prefer to emend the text to מָזוֹן עַל מָזוֹן (mazonal mazon, “food upon food”).

395 tn Heb “they are innumerable.”

396 tn Heb “in outside places.” Here the term refers to pastures and fields (see Job 5:10; Prov 8:26).

397 tn Heb “weighted down.” This probably refers (1) to the cattle having the produce from the harvest placed on their backs to be transported to the storehouses (see BDB 687 s.v. סָבַל). Other options are (2) to take this as reference to the cattle being pregnant (see HALOT 741 s.v. סבל pu) or (3) to their being well-fed or fattened (see L. C. Allen, Psalms 101-150 [WBC], 288).

398 tn Heb “there [will be] no breach, and there [will be] no going out, and there [will be] no crying out in our broad places.”

399 tn Heb “[O] the happiness of the people who [it is] such to them.”

400 sn Psalm 145. The psalmist praises God because he is a just and merciful king who cares for his people.

401 tn Or, hyperbolically, “forever.”

402 tn Or, hyperbolically, “forever.”

403 tn Heb “and concerning his greatness there is no searching.”

404 tn The prefixed verbal forms in v. 4 are understood as imperfects, indicating how the psalmist expects his audience to respond to his praise. Another option is to take the forms as jussives, indicating the psalmist’s wish, “may one generation praise…and tell about.”

405 tn Heb “the splendor of the glory of your majesty, and the matters of your amazing deeds I will ponder.”

406 tn The prefixed verbal form is understood as an imperfect, indicating how the psalmist expects his audience to respond to his praise. Another option is to take the forms as a jussive, indicating the psalmist’s wish, “may they proclaim.”

407 tn Heb “the fame of the greatness of your goodness.”

408 tn The prefixed verbal forms in v. 7 are understood as imperfects, indicating how the psalmist expects his audience to respond to his praise. Another option is to take the forms as jussives, indicating the psalmist’s wish, “may they talk…and sing.”

409 tn Heb “slow to anger” (see Pss 86:15; 103:8).

410 tn Heb “and great of loyal love” (see Pss 86:15; 103:8).

411 tn Heb “and his compassion is over all his works.”

412 tn Heb “the sons of man.”

413 tn Heb “a kingdom of all ages.”

414 tc Psalm 145 is an acrostic psalm, with each successive verse beginning with a successive letter of the Hebrew alphabet. However, in the traditional Hebrew (Masoretic) text of Psalm 145 there is no verse beginning with the letter nun. One would expect such a verse to appear as the fourteenth verse, between the mem (מ) and samek (ס) verses. Several ancient witnesses, including one medieval Hebrew manuscript, the Qumran scroll from cave 11, the LXX, and the Syriac, supply the missing nun (נ) verse, which reads as follows: “The Lord is reliable in all his words, and faithful in all his deeds.” One might paraphrase this as follows: “The Lord’s words are always reliable; his actions are always faithful.” Scholars are divided as to the originality of this verse. L. C. Allen argues for its inclusion on the basis of structural considerations (Psalms 101-150 [WBC], 294-95), but there is no apparent explanation for why, if original, it would have been accidentally omitted. The psalm may be a partial acrostic, as in Pss 25 and 34 (see M. Dahood, Psalms [AB], 3:335). The glaring omission of the nun line would have invited a later redactor to add such a line.

415 tn Perhaps “discouraged” (see Ps 57:6).

416 tn Heb “the eyes of all wait for you.”

417 tn Heb “and you give to them their food in its season” (see Ps 104:27).

418 tn Heb “[with what they] desire.”

419 tn Heb “in all his ways.”

420 tn Heb “and [is] loving in all his deeds.”

421 tn Heb “in truth.”

422 tn In this context “desire” refers to the followers’ desire to be delivered from wicked enemies.

423 tn Heb “the desire of those who fear him, he does.”

424 tn Heb “the praise of the Lord my mouth will speak.”

425 tn Heb “all flesh.”



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