78:8 Then they will not be like their ancestors,
who were a stubborn and rebellious generation,
a generation that was not committed
and faithful to God. 1
but they retreated in the day of battle. 4
and they refused to obey 6 his law.
the amazing things he had shown them.
78:12 He did amazing things in the sight of their ancestors,
in the land of Egypt, in the region of Zoan. 8
78:13 He divided the sea and led them across it;
he made the water stand in a heap.
78:14 He led them with a cloud by day,
and with the light of a fire all night long.
78:15 He broke open rocks in the wilderness,
and gave them enough water to fill the depths of the sea. 9
78:16 He caused streams to flow from the rock,
and made the water flow like rivers.
78:17 Yet they continued to sin against him,
and rebelled against the sovereign One 10 in the desert.
by asking for food to satisfy their appetite.
“Is God really able to give us food 13 in the wilderness?
streams gushed forth.
But can he also give us food?
Will he provide meat for his people?”
A fire broke out against Jacob,
and his anger flared up 16 against Israel,
78:22 because they did not have faith in God,
and did not trust his ability to deliver them. 17
78:23 He gave a command to the clouds above,
and opened the doors in the sky.
78:24 He rained down manna for them to eat;
he gave them the grain of heaven. 18
He sent them more than enough to eat. 20
78:26 He brought the east wind through the sky,
and by his strength led forth the south wind.
78:27 He rained down meat on them like dust,
birds as numerous as the sand on the seashores. 21
78:28 He caused them to fall right in the middle of their camp,
all around their homes.
he gave them what they desired.
their food was still in their mouths,
78:31 when the anger of God flared up against them.
He killed some of the strongest of them;
he brought the young men of Israel to their knees.
78:32 Despite all this, they continued to sin,
and did not trust him to do amazing things. 24
and filled with terror. 26
they turned back and longed for God.
and that the sovereign God was their deliverer. 30
and lied to him. 32
and they were unfaithful to his covenant.
78:38 Yet he is compassionate.
He forgives sin and does not destroy.
He often holds back his anger,
and does not stir up his fury. 34
and were like a wind that blows past and does not return. 36
78:40 How often they rebelled against him in the wilderness,
and insulted him 37 in the desert!
how he delivered them from the enemy, 42
and his acts of judgment 44 in the region of Zoan.
78:44 He turned their rivers into blood,
and they could not drink from their streams.
as well as frogs that overran their land. 46
78:46 He gave their crops to the grasshopper,
the fruit of their labor to the locust.
78:47 He destroyed their vines with hail,
and their sycamore-fig trees with driving rain.
and hurled lightning bolts down on their livestock. 48
He sent fury, rage, and trouble
as messengers who bring disaster. 50
he did not spare them from death;
he handed their lives over to destruction. 52
78:51 He struck down all the firstborn in Egypt,
the firstfruits of their reproductive power 53 in the tents of Ham.
78:52 Yet he brought out his people like sheep;
he led them through the wilderness like a flock.
78:53 He guided them safely along,
while the sea covered their enemies.
78:54 He brought them to the border of his holy land,
78:55 He drove the nations out from before them;
he assigned them their tribal allotments 56
and allowed the tribes of Israel to settle down. 57
they were as unreliable as a malfunctioning bow. 64
and made him jealous with their idols.
78:59 God heard and was angry;
he completely rejected Israel.
the tent where he lived among men.
78:62 He delivered his people over to the sword,
and was angry with his chosen nation. 70
he was like a warrior in a drunken rage. 78
78:66 He drove his enemies back;
he made them a permanent target for insults. 79
78:67 He rejected the tent of Joseph;
he did not choose the tribe of Ephraim.
78:68 He chose the tribe of Judah,
and Mount Zion, which he loves.
as secure as the earth, which he established permanently. 81
78:70 He chose David, his servant,
and took him from the sheepfolds.
and made him the shepherd of Jacob, his people,
and of Israel, his chosen nation. 83
he led them with skill. 86
2 tn Heb “the sons of Ephraim.” Ephraim probably stands here by synecdoche (part for whole) for the northern kingdom of Israel.
3 tn Heb “ones armed, shooters of bow.” It is possible that the term נוֹשְׁקֵי (noshÿqey, “ones armed [with]”) is an interpretive gloss for the rare רוֹמֵי (romey, “shooters of”; on the latter see BDB 941 s.v. I רָמָה). The phrase נוֹשְׁקֵי קֶשֶׁת (noshÿqey qeshet, “ones armed with a bow”) appears in 1 Chr 12:2; 2 Chr 17:17.
4 sn They retreated. This could refer to the northern tribes’ failure to conquer completely their allotted territory (see Judg 1), or it could refer generally to the typical consequence (military defeat) of their sin (see vv. 10-11).
5 tn Heb “the covenant of God.”
6 tn Heb “walk in.”
7 tn Heb “his deeds.”
9 tn Heb “and caused them to drink, like the depths, abundantly.”
10 tn Heb “rebelling [against] the Most High.”
11 tn Heb “and they tested God in their heart.” The “heart” is viewed here as the center of their volition.
12 tn Heb “they spoke against God, they said.”
13 tn Heb “to arrange a table [for food].”
14 tn Heb “look.”
15 tn Heb “therefore.”
16 tn Heb “and also anger went up.”
17 tn Heb “and they did not trust his deliverance.”
19 sn Because of the reference to “heaven” in the preceding verse, it is likely that mighty ones refers here to the angels of heaven. The LXX translates “angels” here, as do a number of modern translations (NEB, NIV, NRSV).
20 tn Heb “provision he sent to them to satisfaction.”
21 tn Heb “and like the sand of the seas winged birds.”
22 tn Heb “and they ate and were very satisfied.”
23 tn Heb “they were not separated from their desire.”
24 tn Heb “and did not believe in his amazing deeds.”
25 tn Heb “and he ended in vanity their days.”
26 tn Heb “and their years in terror.”
27 tn Or “killed them,” that is, killed large numbers of them.
28 tn Heb “they sought him.”
29 tn Heb “my high rocky summit.”
30 tn Heb “and [that] God Most High [was] their redeemer.”
31 tn Heb “with their mouth.”
32 tn Heb “and with their tongue they lied to him.”
33 tn Heb “and their heart was not firm with him.”
34 tn One could translate v. 38 in the past tense (“he was compassionate…forgave sin and did not destroy…held back his anger, and did not stir up his fury”), but the imperfect verbal forms are probably best understood as generalizing. Verse 38 steps back briefly from the narrational summary of Israel’s history and lays the theological basis for v. 39, which focuses on God’s mercy toward sinful Israel.
35 tn The prefixed verbal form with vav (ו) consecutive signals a return to the narrative.
36 tn Heb “and he remembered that they [were] flesh, a wind [that] goes and does not return.”
37 tn Or “caused him pain.”
38 tn Heb “and they returned and tested God.” The Hebrew verb שׁוּב (shuv, “to return”) is used here in an adverbial sense to indicate that an earlier action was repeated.
39 tn Or “wounded, hurt.” The verb occurs only here in the OT.
40 sn The basic sense of the word “holy” is “set apart from that which is commonplace, special, unique.” The Lord’s holiness is first and foremost his transcendent sovereignty as the ruler of the world. He is “set apart” from the world over which he rules. At the same time his holiness encompasses his moral authority, which derives from his royal position. As king he has the right to dictate to his subjects how they are to live; indeed his very own character sets the standard for proper behavior. This expression is a common title for the
41 tn Heb “his hand,” symbolizing his saving activity and strength, as the next line makes clear.
42 tn Heb “[the] day [in] which he ransomed them from [the] enemy.”
45 tn Heb “and he sent an insect swarm against them and it devoured them.”
46 tn Heb “and a swarm of frogs and it destroyed them.”
47 tn Heb “and he turned over to the hail their cattle.”
48 tn Heb “and their livestock to the flames.” “Flames” here refer to the lightning bolts that accompanied the storm.
49 tn Heb “he sent against them the rage of his anger.” The phrase “rage of his anger” employs an appositional genitive. Synonyms are joined in a construct relationship to emphasize the single idea. For a detailed discussion of the grammatical point with numerous examples, see Y. Avishur, “Pairs of Synonymous Words in the Construct State (and in Appositional Hendiadys) in Biblical Hebrew,” Semitics 2 (1971): 17-81.
50 tn Heb “fury and indignation and trouble, a sending of messengers of disaster.”
51 tn Heb “he leveled a path for his anger.” There were no obstacles to impede its progress; it moved swiftly and destructively.
52 tn Or perhaps “[the] plague.”
53 tn Heb “the beginning of strength.” If retained, the plural form אוֹנִים (’onim, “strength”) probably indicates degree (“great strength”), but many ancient witnesses read “their strength,” which presupposes an emendation to אֹנָם (’onam; singular form of the noun with third masculine plural pronominal suffix).
56 tn Heb “he caused to fall [to] them with a measuring line an inheritance.”
57 tn Heb “and caused the tribes of Israel to settle down in their tents.”
58 tn Or “tested and rebelled against.”
59 tn Heb “God, the Most High.”
60 tn Or “keep.”
62 tn Heb “they turned back.”
63 tn Or “acted treacherously like.”
64 tn Heb “they turned aside like a deceitful bow.”
65 tn Traditionally, “high places.”
66 tn Or “rejected.”
67 tn Heb “and he gave to captivity his strength.” The expression “his strength” refers metonymically to the ark of the covenant, which was housed in the tabernacle at Shiloh.
68 tn Heb “and his splendor into the hand of an enemy.” The expression “his splendor” also refers metonymically to the ark of the covenant.
70 tn Heb “his inheritance.”
73 tn Heb “were not praised,” that is, in wedding songs. The young men died in masses, leaving no husbands for the young women.
76 sn Because of the invading army and the ensuing panic, the priests’ widows had no time to carry out the normal mourning rites.
77 tn Heb “and the master awoke like one sleeping.” The
78 tn Heb “like a warrior overcome with wine.” The Hebrew verb רוּן (run, “overcome”) occurs only here in the OT. The phrase “overcome with wine” could picture a drunken warrior controlled by his emotions and passions (as in the present translation), or it could refer to a warrior who awakes from a drunken stupor.
79 tn Heb “a permanent reproach he made them.”
80 tc Heb “and he built like the exalting [ones] his sanctuary.” The phrase כְּמוֹ־רָמִים (kÿmo-ramim, “like the exalting [ones]”) is a poetic form of the comparative preposition followed by a participial form of the verb רוּם (rum, “be exalted”). The text should be emended to כִּמְרֹמִים (kimromim, “like the [heavenly] heights”). See Ps 148:1, where “heights” refers to the heavens above.
81 tn Heb “like the earth, [which] he established permanently.” The feminine singular suffix on the Hebrew verb יָסַד (yasad, “to establish”) refers to the grammatically feminine noun “earth.”
82 tn Heb “from after the ewes he brought him.”
83 tn Heb “to shepherd Jacob, his people, and Israel, his inheritance.”
85 tn Heb “and he shepherded them according to the integrity of his heart.”
86 tn Heb “and with the understanding of his hands he led them.”