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Psalms 55:11-15

Context

55:11 Disaster is within it;

violence 1  and deceit do not depart from its public square.

55:12 Indeed, 2  it is not an enemy who insults me,

or else I could bear it;

it is not one who hates me who arrogantly taunts me, 3 

or else I could hide from him.

55:13 But it is you, 4  a man like me, 5 

my close friend in whom I confided. 6 

55:14 We would share personal thoughts with each other; 7 

in God’s temple we would walk together among the crowd.

55:15 May death destroy them! 8 

May they go down alive into Sheol! 9 

For evil is in their dwelling place and in their midst.

1 tn Or “injury, harm.”

2 tn Or “for.”

3 tn Heb “[who] magnifies against me.” See Pss 35:26; 38:16.

4 sn It is you. The psalmist addresses the apparent ringleader of the opposition, an individual who was once his friend.

5 tn Heb “a man according to my value,” i.e., “a person such as I.”

6 tn Heb “my close friend, one known by me.”

7 tn Heb “who together we would make counsel sweet.” The imperfect verbal forms here and in the next line draw attention to the ongoing nature of the actions (the so-called customary use of the imperfect). Their relationship was characterized by such intimacy and friendship. See IBHS 502-3 §31.2b.

8 tc The meaning of the MT is unclear. The Kethib (consonantal text) reads יַשִּׁימָוֶת עָלֵימוֹ (yashimavetalemo, “May devastation [be] upon them!”). The proposed noun יַשִּׁימָוֶת occurs only here and perhaps in the place name Beth-Jeshimoth in Num 33:49. The Qere (marginal text) has יַשִּׁי מָוֶת עָלֵימוֹ (yashi mavetalemo). The verbal form יַשִּׁי is apparently an alternate form of יַשִּׁיא (yashi’), a Hiphil imperfect from נָשַׁא (nasha’, “deceive”). In this case one might read “death will come deceptively upon them.” This reading has the advantage of reading מָוֶת (mavet, “death”) which forms a natural parallel with “Sheol” in the next line. The present translation is based on the following reconstruction of the text: יְשִׁמֵּם מָוֶת (yeshimmem mavet). The verb assumed in the reconstruction is a Hiphil jussive third masculine singular from שָׁמַם (shamam, “be desolate”) with a third masculine plural pronominal suffix attached. This reconstruction assumes that (1) haplography has occurred in the traditional text (the original sequence of three mems [מ] was lost with only one mem remaining), resulting in the fusion of originally distinct forms in the Kethib, and (2) that עָלֵימוֹ (’alemo, “upon them”) is a later scribal addition attempting to make sense of a garbled and corrupt text. The preposition עַל (’al) does occur with the verb שָׁמַם (shamam), but in such cases the expression means “be appalled at/because of” (see Jer 49:20; 50:45). If one were to retain the prepositional phrase here, one would have to read the text as follows: יַשִּׁים מָוֶת עָלֵימוֹ (yashim mavetalemo, “Death will be appalled at them”). The idea seems odd, to say the least. Death is not collocated with this verb elsewhere.

9 sn Go down alive. This curse imagines a swift and sudden death for the psalmist’s enemies.



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